nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒10‒16
29 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Linkage between Rural Voters and Politicians: Effects on Rice Policies in the Philippines and Thailand By Arnold H. Fang
  2. Non-standard forms of employment in some Asian countries : a study of wages and working conditions of temporary workers By Nguyen, Huu-Chi.; Nguyen-Huu, Thanh Tam.; Le, Thi-Thuy-Linh.
  3. The Effect of Corporate Reputation on Commitment, Trust, and Loyalty and Its Impact on Customer Behavior of Garuda Indonesia Airline Passengers in Banda Aceh, Indonesia By MIRZA TABRANI; MUSLIM ABDUL DJALIL
  4. Legal improvement on Public-Private Partnership for sustainable development of basic infrastructures in CLMV countries By Bajrawan NUCHPRAYOOL
  5. Assessing the gender pay gap in Asia's garment sector By Huynh, Phu.
  6. Statistics on Ethnic Diversity in the Land of Papua, Indonesia By Aris Ananta, Dwi Retno Wilujeng, Wahyu Utami, and Nur Budi Handayani
  7. Indonesia’s Efforts Towards Malaysia’s Culture Claim By Panji Raga; Nurdiniah Andesita Hamzah
  8. The Future of Ecosystem Services in Asia and the Pacific By Ida Kubiszewski, Sharolyn J. Anderson, Robert Costanza and Paul C. Sutton
  9. Effects of Logistics Capabilities on Efficiency of Automotive Parts Industry in Thailand By Phat Pisitkasem
  10. The Influence of Dividend Payments, Profitability, Liquidity and Firm Size for Cash Holdings – Case of Indonesian Manufacturing Companies By Heru Fahlevi; Muhammad Arfan; Hafidah Hafidah
  12. An Assessment of Thermal Comfort Preference in Open Lay Out Building in Warm-Humid Aceh, Indonesia By Zulfian Zulfian; Haris Fahreza
  13. ASEAN Community 2015 managing integration for better jobs and shared prosperity in Myanmar By Nyo, Myat Khet.
  14. Earnings differentials between formal and informal employment in Thailand By Dasgupta, Sukti.; Bhula-or, Ruttiya.; Fakthong, Tiraphap.
  15. The Impact of Market Orientation, Brand Image and Internal Marketing on Brand Orientation and Strengthening Br By MUHAMMAD ADAM; MIRZA TABRANI
  16. Cross-Border Data Exchanges : The Rise of Platform Economy in Asia By Jean-Pascal Bassino; Aurélien Faravelon; Stéphane Grumbach
  17. Performance and Inequality in Health: A Comparison of Child and Maternal Health across Asia By Bénédicte H. Apouey; Jacques Silber
  18. Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey, and Australia (MIKTA): Middle, Regional, and Constructive Powers Providing Global Governance By Jorge A. Schiavon and Diego Domínguez
  19. Uniformity and games decomposition By Joseph Abdou; Nikolaos Pnevmatikos; Marco Scarsini
  20. Personal Factors Affecting to the Saving Behavior of People in Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand By Mukda Kowhakul
  21. Factors Affecting Success of Knowledge Management in Thai Agribusiness Organizations By PIYAPORN CHUCHEEP
  22. Global supply chains : insights into the Thai seafood sector By Errighi, Lorenza.; Mamic, Ivanka.; Krogh-Poulsen, Birgitte.
  23. Using Foreign Factors to Enhance Domestic Export Performance: A Focus on Southeast Asia By Javier Lopez Gonzalez
  24. The Effectiveness of Personal Financial Planning of Rubber Farmers in Thailand: Case Study of Suratthani Province By Arus Kongrungchok
  25. Effects of Government Consumption shocks in China, Japan, and Korea By Minju Jeong
  27. Violence against Rich Ethnic Minorities: A Theory of Instrumental Scapegoating By Yann Bramoullé; Pauline Morault
  28. Implications of Asia’s Changing Rice Economy for the Development of Rice Value Chains in West Africa By Adjao, Ramziath T.; Staatz, John M.
  29. Global supply chains in the food industry : insights from the Asia- Pacific region By Frenkel, Stephen.; Mamic, Ivanka.; Greene, Laura.

  1. By: Arnold H. Fang
    Abstract: This article explains how linkages between politicians and rural voters affected the design of agricultural policies, using rice in two countries as examples. In the Philippines, colonial history bolstered an oligarchy of landed elite politicians, whose power was restored after the dictatorship of Marcos ended in 1986. Their practice of patronage brought corruption that led to dwindling rice productivity and increasing import dependence while displacing the political necessity to offer price support to farmers. In Thailand, sociopolitical development was more centralized, with new electoral rules introduced in 1997 to weaken locally confined patronage arrangements. Mass parties competing on a policy platform were favoured instead, resulting in increasing, but eventually, excessive subsidies for rice farmers. Although voter–politician linkages resulted in different rice policies in the two countries, recent instability in the world rice market showed that strategies with greater sustainability considerations are needed in addressing domestic income disparities and global food insecurity.
    Keywords: food security, political institutions, patronage, Thailand, Philippines
    Date: 2016–10–11
  2. By: Nguyen, Huu-Chi.; Nguyen-Huu, Thanh Tam.; Le, Thi-Thuy-Linh.
    Abstract: This study aims at examining the effects of temporary jobs on employment conditions in selected Asian countries, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Pakistan, based on their national Labour Force Survey data. In general, temporary work accounted for an important proportion of wage employment in these Asian countries, with great variation across nations.
    Keywords: precarious employment, temporary employment, informal employment, wage differential, working conditions, occupational health, Asia, emploi précaire, emploi temporaire, emploi informel, disparité des salaires, conditions de travail, santé au travail, Asie, empleo precario, empleo temporal, empleo informal, diferencia del salario, condiciones de trabajo, salud en el trabajo, Asia
    Date: 2016
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of corporate reputation on commitment, trust and loyalty and its impact on customer behavior of Garuda Indonesian Airline’s passengers in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The respondents are the Garuda passengers which are selected by using non-probability sampling procedures. SEM analytical model is employed with Amos as its statistical software. The results showed that corporate reputation has a positive effect on commitment, trust, and loyalty; and commitment, trust and loyalty have a positive affect on customer behavior; commitment, trust, and loyalty mediate the relationship between the company's reputation and customer behavior. The originality of this study is the combined using of three intervening variables of commitment, trust, and loyalty to investigate the relationship between corporate reputation and consumer behavior in the context of airline industry as a conceptual research as far as the researcher’s concerned. This would contribute to the development of consumer behavior knowledge. The limitations of this research are that it does not capture a deep picture of the consumer behavior in the designated airline industry in Indonesia and varied education of pasengers which may have led to a biased response of questionnaire’s items.
    Keywords: Corporate Reputation, Commitment, Trust, Loyalty, Customer Behavior
    JEL: M00
  4. By: Bajrawan NUCHPRAYOOL (Graduate School of Law, National Institute of Development Administration)
    Abstract: According to Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity, the cooperation among the member countries leads ASEAN to Highly Competitive Economic Region. Therefore, development of basic infrastructures is one of the key factors for closing the gap and connecting the member countries together. In order to enhance people's quality of life, governments of member countries have a mission to improve basic infrastructures. Especially, the governments in CLMV region (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam), wherein the population of the member countries is almost 170 million people and economic growth rate is 6-8%. Nowadays, investment policies are focusing more on the foreign investors to develop the basic infrastructure, which has resulted in a significant increase in the number of foreign investors in the period of the economic crisis in Asia.The results revealed that to promote a policy significantly, private entities must be encouraged to invest in the government projects. Furthermore, promoting Public-Private Partnership can spur economic growth, resulting in a strong commitment between public and private sectors that will lead to the development in the country. However, the investment laws in the government projects and granting processes are different and constantly amended. Especially, investment patterns and requirements for each member state are vague and there is a lack of the laws for controlling investments of private entities. These problems as stated, thus, affect investors’ confidence and incoming of investment funds from local and foreign investors.
    Keywords: Public Service, Infrastructure, Private Investment, Foreign Investment Law, Public-Private Partnership (PPP), ASEAN community, CLMV countries
    JEL: K23 K40 K00
  5. By: Huynh, Phu.
    Abstract: This paper presents the gender pay gap in the garment, textile and footwear industry in nine developing Asian economies – Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. It finds that women earn less than men in eight of the nine countries, with the imbalance particularly sizeable in India and Pakistan. Some of the pay gap can be attributed to differences in factors such as age and education, but discrimination also appears to be a contributing determinant. Women are also more likely to be at the lower end of the wage ladder. Applying standard Mincerian wage regressions and the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method, the paper presents empirical evidence on gender wage gaps and wage premiums in the industry, and discusses measures that can help reduce gender disparities and discrimination in the sector.
    Keywords: wages, wage differential, low wages, gender, discrimination, working conditions, clothing industry, shoe industry, trend, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Viet Nam, Asia, salaire, disparité des salaires, bas salaire, genre, discrimination, conditions de travail, industrie du vêtement, industrie de la chaussure, tendance, Bangladesh, Cambodge, Inde, Indonésie, Lao RDP, Pakistan, Philippines, Thaïlande, Viet Nam, Asie, salario, diferencia del salario, salario bajo, género, discriminación, condiciones de trabajo, industria del vestido, industria del calzado, tendencia, Bangladesh, Camboya, India, Indonesia, Lao RDP, Pakistán, Filipinas, Tailandia, Viet Nam, Asia
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Aris Ananta, Dwi Retno Wilujeng, Wahyu Utami, and Nur Budi Handayani
    Abstract: This paper aims to quantitatively uncover ethnic diversity in multi-ethnic Land of Papua, an Indonesian region with a large inflow of migration and rising ethno-based movement, consisting of the Provinces of Papua and West Papua. It produces statistics on ethnic diversity in the Land of Papua, utilizing the tabulation provided by Statistics-Indonesia based on the raw, 100 per cent, data set of the 2010 population census. It uses three measurements of ethnic diversity. First is ethnic fractionalization index, showing the degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Second is ethnic polarization index, examining the existence of few relatively large ethnic groups of almost the same sizes. Third is a comparison of percentages between migrant and Papuan groups. It finds that the Land of Papua is ethnically very heterogeneous, but not polarized. West Papua is more heterogeneous, but Papua is more polarized. However, seen from a dichotomy between migrants and Papuans, West Papua is very polarized. In-migration may have increased the probability of having ethnic conflicts in the region but does not change the probability of the intensity of the conflicts. Therefore, ethnic conflicts should be anticipated whenever making programmes that involve in-migrants or entice people to migrate into the Land of Papua.
    Keywords: Papua, migrant ethnic group, local ethnic group, ethnic fractionalization, ethnic polarization
    Date: 2016–10–10
  7. By: Panji Raga (Universitas Islam Indonesia); Nurdiniah Andesita Hamzah (Universitas Islam Indonesia)
    Abstract: This research is aimed to explain the efforts of Indonesia’s government to maintain national culture towards Malaysia’s culture claim through qualitative method. The disputes between Malaysia and Indonesia have been happened for many years ago. Culture’s issues become one of the important case that caused the disputes. The misunderstanding about culture owned has triggered a conflict. Therefore, to prevent a military conflict, those countries’ governments has been done many efforts. In this abstract, the writers would like to emphasize the efforts that has been done by the Indonesian government point of view. There are a lot of efforts that have been done by the government of Indonesia. First, active in attending international forum, making related regulations concern to protect local culture and the last efforts is register Indonesia’s culture in international organization such as UNESCO. Those efforts would be important to keep the relations between that countries. By implementing those efforts, the writers believe that the settlement of that disputes would be through in a piece way.
    Keywords: Knowing the efforts of Indonesian government to maintain its culture.
    JEL: A13 A13
  8. By: Ida Kubiszewski, Sharolyn J. Anderson, Robert Costanza and Paul C. Sutton
    Abstract: We estimated the current value of ecosystem services for terrestrial ecosystems in 47 countries in the Asia and the Pacific region. Currently, these provide $US14 trillion/yr. in benefits, most of which are non-marketed and do not show up in GDP. We also estimated the changes in terrestrial ecosystem services value for scenarios to the year 2050, built around the four Great Transition Initiative archetypes: (1) Market Forces (MF); (2) Fortress World (FW); (3) Policy Reform (PR); and (4) Great Transition (GT). Results show that under the MF and FW scenarios the ecosystem services value in the region continues to decline from $14 trillion/yr in 2011 to $11 and $9 trillion/yr in 2050, respectively. In the PR scenario, the value is maintained around $14 Trillion/yr in 2050 and in the GT scenario it is significantly restored to $17 Trillion/yr. We also show more detailed maps and results for 8 selected countries in the region (Bhutan, China, India, Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam) and compare our results with a previous national study of Bhutan. Our results indicate that adopting a set of policies like those assumed in the GT scenario would greatly enhance human wellbeing and sustainability in the region.
    Keywords: ecosystems services, scenario planning, sustainable development, well-being, ecosystem service mapping
    Date: 2016–10–10
  9. By: Phat Pisitkasem (Rangsit University)
    Abstract: This research aims to study the effects of logistics capabilities in terms of customer services, flexibility, and technology on the efficiency of automotive parts industry in Thailand and its efficiency in terms of costs, time, and reliability. 408 questionnaires were sent to selected automotive parts companies in Thailand listed in “Thai Automotive Industry Directory 2014†agribusiness organizations in Thailand. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted for data analysis including percentages, averages, standard deviations, and multiple regressions.Of 408 responders, most organizations have the registered capitals of less than 50 million Baht, Thai nationality, average number of employees of 173.4, and average operation period of 18.95 years. Most responders are assistant managers, male, bachelor degree, and average age of 30.15 years old with 10.12 years of experiences. Hypothesis tests indicate that customer service capability has an effect on cost and reliability efficiencies, flexibility capability have an effect on time efficiency, and information technology capability has an effect on cost, time and reliability efficiencies.
    Keywords: Logistics Capabilities, Efficiency, Automotive Parts Industry
    JEL: M10
  10. By: Heru Fahlevi (Syiah Kuala University); Muhammad Arfan (Syiah Kuala University); Hafidah Hafidah (Syiah Kuala University)
    Abstract: This study is aimed at examining the influence of dividend payments, profitability, liquidity, and firm size for cash holdings in manufacturing companies. The population of this study was manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange between 2010 and 2014. The population of this study was manufacturing companies that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange which published financial statements by December 31st and paying dividend payments respectively during the observation period (2010-2014). This study used census method and collected cross-sections data. Thus, 32 companies were selected or 160 observation data were analysed. The data was collected from published financial statements. The analysis method used in this study was multiple linear regression. This study found that dividend payments, profitability, liquidity, and firm size both collectively and individually have an effect on cash holdings in the manufacturing companies. Therefore, the results are consistent with previous research findings, although it was carry out in a single industry and in a developing country.
    Keywords: Dividend Payments, Profitability, Liquidity, Firm Size, Cash Holdings
    JEL: G21
  11. By: MUSLIM ABDUL DJALIL (UNIVERSITY OF SYIAH KUALA); MIRZA TABRANI (UNIVERSITY OF SYIAH KUALA); Jalaluddin (Faculty of Economics and Business, Univ of Syiah Kuala)
    Abstract: The objectives of this research are to measure the partial and simultaneous influence of : the Earning Per Share (EPS) on Equity Valuation, Book Value on Equity Valuation, and Systematic Risk on Equity Valuation. With a quantitative model employed, the data collected in this research are hence based on secondary sources of which are derived from audited financial statements published by the capital market reference centre at the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The research used random sampling method in selecting the researched sample. From the population of all manufacturing companies of 2011-2014 that consistently listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange, it was selected 96 mixed manufacturing companies as the research sample. This research used multiple linear regression equation to test the researched hypotheses and employed SPSS statistical software for data processing. The outcome of research indicated that Earning Per Share (EPS) partially has a significant positive influence on Equity Valuation; Book Value partially has a significant negative influence on Equity Valuation; Systematic Risk partially does not have a significant influence on the Equity Valuation; and Earning Per Share (EPS), Book Value, and Systematic Risk have a simultaneous influence on Equity Valuation. The using combined three variables of EPS, Book Value, and Systematic Risk influencing on Equity Valuation in the context of a combined type of manufacturing companies as a theoretical research framework with data sample from a listed manufacturing companies’ audited financial statements as far as the researcher’s concerned is the novelty of this research. The major limitations of the research that it does not reflect deeply the performance of the industry and unable to capture the individual managerial perceptions involved in the industry
    Keywords: Earning Per Share (EPS), Book Value, Systematic Risk, and Equity Valuation, Manufacturing Company
    JEL: G10
  12. By: Zulfian Zulfian (Faculty of Engineering, Syiah Kuala University); Haris Fahreza (Bogor Agricultural University)
    Abstract: This study aims at assessing the acceptable thermal comfort for the local people in the warm-humid Aceh. The measurement was conducted based on ISO 7730 which is compared with adaptive thermal comfort method. In this research Aceh Tsunami Museum building, located in Banda Aceh Indonesia was assessed as a case study. The museum has an open lay out ground floor located in the city center of Banda Aceh. Being built in the crowded area such museum design has been utilised by the local people to have pleasant and fresh air; and shades. This study was conducted onsite using mechanical equipment and involving 138 respondents. The result shows that the comfort temperature calculated by mechanical equipment based on ISO 7730 is 23.14°C. This is in contrast with the result of the questionnaires that showed people in an open building design sense the air temperature up to 32°C as slightly cool. This condition is influenced by the mean air speed of 2.34 m/s and the mean relative humidity of 66.25% (RH). This finding agrees that obtaining the comfort air temperature especially in warm humid area merely from the prediction of comfort index in ISO 7730 is inaccurate since the respondents actually could adapt with the higher air temperature
    Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Tsunami Museum Building, ISO 7730
    JEL: Q54
  13. By: Nyo, Myat Khet.
    Abstract: The paper explores the potential impact of regional economic integration on Myanmar, a country that has suffered from more than 20 years of Western sanctions. The country’s accession into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) offered economic and trading opportunities, while the regional body arguably catalysed a regime change. Now, realization of the ASEAN Economic Community is challenging Myanmar. Having a low-skilled and poorly educated workforce with inadequate infrastructure, Myanmar must strive harder than other ASEAN Member States to narrow the regional inequality gaps. Improving skills among the labour force and in prioritized sectors of the economy, as well as strengthening the formal education system, will be critical if Myanmar is to compete. Improving infrastructure, such as electricity, roads and information communication technology, is equally salient. These measures must be coupled with effective institutions for social security and insurance, labour relations and business social responsibility. Narrowing inequality is a long-term project with an urgent start for Myanmar – the latecomer to growth.
    Keywords: labour market, interindustry shift, employment, decent work, productivity, economic integration, regional cooperation, Myanmar, marché du travail, mutation interindustrielle, emploi, travail décent, productivité, intégration économique, coopération régionale, Myanmar, mercado de trabajo, desplazamiento industrial, empleo, trabajo decente, productividad, integración económica, cooperación regional, Myanmar
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Dasgupta, Sukti.; Bhula-or, Ruttiya.; Fakthong, Tiraphap.
    Abstract: The paper estimates the earnings gap between formal and informal employment in Thailand, using a sample of workers that includes both wage and self- employed workers. It finds that while the major part of the earnings differential is attributed to observed characteristics, there is a significant unexplained component. The paper then applies a quantile regression method to an earnings function to understand the factors that explain differences in earnings for different quartiles. Controlling for other factors, it finds that informally employed workers systematically present lower earnings at all earnings levels, and the difference increases with level of earnings. Furthermore, the estimated marginal effect of gender on earnings is negative and remains more or less constant across the different quartiles, while returns to education are positive and increase with income quartiles. The premium of working in services or manufacturing is higher at the lower end of the income distribution and the non- farm self-employed worker is likely to earn more than others. The findings of this study have implications for policies for productive transformation in the country, along with a focus on education and gender equality.
    Keywords: employment, informal employment, self employed, wage differential, Thailand, emploi, emploi informel, travailleur indépendant, disparité des salaires, Thaïlande, empleo, empleo informal, trabajador independiente, diferencia del salario, Tailandia
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: Brand performance related concepts, such as brand strength and brand equity have been proven out to provide several positive outcomes for a firm. This research study aims to estimate the impact of market orientation, internal marketing and brand image on brand orientation and strengthening brand performance. The study tests whether market orientation, internal marketing and brand image affects brand orientation and in turn whether brand orientation affects brand performance in coffee industry of Aceh - Indonesia. A standardized questionnaire was distributed among different people pertinent to coffee industry (distributors, whole sellers, retailers, sales force and employees etc). A total of 200 questionnaires were used by random sampling technique. A model with hypotheses of the relationships between the constructs was built. The results of the structural equation model suggest that market orientation and internal marketing, has positive effect on brand orientation, while brand image has a non-significant effect. Moreover, the study concludes that brand orientation has a substantial impact on strengthening brand performance. Results of this study can help organizations to improve their company performance through more awareness of the determinants of brand performance.
    Keywords: market orientation, internal marketing, Brand Image, brand orientation, brand performance
    JEL: M31 M39 M38
  16. By: Jean-Pascal Bassino (ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Aurélien Faravelon (DICE - Data on the Internet at the Core of the Economy - Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées); Stéphane Grumbach (DICE - Data on the Internet at the Core of the Economy - Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées)
    Abstract: Transnational flows of goods, capital, and labor are accurately monitored, and are included by governmental agencies in their economic metrics as critical information used by policy makers. Although transnational flows of data can be intuitively identified as equally important, they have been so far largely ignored by economists and are poorly monitored by public authorities. In this paper, we study the extent to which local and foreign intermediation platforms in Asia have developed their activities in Asia, and their contribution to cross-border data exchanges. We rely on preliminary measure of transnational as well as global data exchanges in Asia. We identify various patterns; China is mostly relying on national platforms, while Japan is highly dependent from platforms based in the United States, Korea and Taiwan are experiencing some sort of balance between national and foreign platforms.
    Keywords: Data flows, intermediation platforms, Asian economy
    Date: 2015–12–14
  17. By: Bénédicte H. Apouey (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), PSE - Paris School of Economics); Jacques Silber (Bar-Ilan University [Israël])
    Abstract: A country’s performance in health attainment refers to both its achievement (level) and its improvement (evolution) in the health domain. Studies on performance generally measure health attainment using the average health level of the population, and quantify health improvement employing the change in attainment over time. However this approach is flawed because the change in attainment does not satisfy good properties, on the one hand, and because health attainment should not only account for the average health level, but also for disparities in health in the population, on the other hand. We propose a solution to the first limitation by following the lead of Kakwani (1993), who uses achievement and improvement measures which are based on attainment measures and which satisfy important properties. For the second limitation, we extend the work of Kakwani and propose new definitions of attainment that account for the average health level but also for health inequalities in the population. Specifically, we focus on overall and social health inequalities and on the health of the poor. By including these new attainment variables into Kakwani’s indices, we generate new classes of achievement and improvement indices. Using data on 11 low and middle-income Asian countries in the twenty-first century, we highlight that child and maternal health have generally improved in recent decades, due to both an increase in the average health level and a decrease in inequalities.
    Keywords: achievement indices,improvement indices,health inequalities,Asia,child health,maternal health
    Date: 2016–09
  18. By: Jorge A. Schiavon and Diego Domínguez
    Abstract: This paper argues that MIKTA (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey, and Australia) are middle, regional, and constructive powers that can serve as providers of global governance in the international system. In order to support this idea, the paper first reviews the literature on these concepts, arguing that they can be complementary. Then, it explains why the MIKTA countries can be defined as middle, regional and constructive powers. To do so, it describes what MIKTA is, as well the common characteristics, objectives, and strategies that the countries that compose this mechanism share. Finally, it argues that in order for MIKTA countries to serve as middle, regional, and constructive powers, they need to consolidate the support of all relevant State and non-State actors in their countries, allowing MIKTA to become a relevant mechanism to promote and generate public goods in the international system, specially global governance.
    Keywords: MIKTA, middle power, regional power, constructive power, global governance
    Date: 2016–10–11
  19. By: Joseph Abdou (PSE - Paris School of Economics, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nikolaos Pnevmatikos (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marco Scarsini (Engineering and System Design Pillar - Singapore University of Technology and Design)
    Abstract: We introduce the classes of uniform and non interactive games. We study appropriate projection operators over the space of games, in order to propose a novel canonical direct sum decomposition of an arbitrary game into three components, which we refer to as the uniform with zero constant, the non interactive total sum zero and the constant components. Under a natural inner product, we show that the components are orthogonal and we provide explicit expressions for the closet uniform and non interactive games to a given game. We characterize the set of its approximate equilibria in terms of the uniformly mixed and dominant strategies equilibria profiles of its closest uniform and non interactive games respectively.
    Abstract: On introduit les classes des jeux uniformes et non interactives. On étudie les opérateurs appropriés de projection afin de proposer une nouvelle décomposition de l'espace des jeux en somme directe des trois sous-espaces orthogonaux relativement à un produit scalaire naturel. Ainsi, chaque jeu arbitraire se décompose en trois composantes, la composante uniforme avec constante zéro, la composante non interactive avec somme totale zéro et la composante constante. On fournit alors les expressions explicites des jeux uniformes et non interactifs qui sont les plus proches à un jeu donné. Aussi, on caractérise l'ensemble des équilibres approximatifs en termes d'équilibre uniformément mixte et d'équilibre en stratégies dominantes des jeux les plus proches uniforme et non interactif.
    Keywords: decomposition of games,projection operator,dominant strategy equilibrium,uniformly mixed strategy,décomposition des jeux,opérateur de projection,équilibre en stratégies dominantes,stratégie uniformément mixte
    Date: 2014–11
  20. By: Mukda Kowhakul (Rangsit Umiversity)
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to investigate the personal factors which affect and have a relationship to the saving behavior of selected people. The study was a research survey that used questionnaires to collect data from 400 samples of people with income. The descriptive statistics relate to the following: frequency, percentage, and inferential statistics – particularly use of the Chi-Square to analyze the data. In the study, the samples which responded to the questionnaire shared the following characteristics: There were females, age between 18-28 years old, single status, having the master degree of education; most of them are employees in private companies which have a lower or equal amount of 20,000 baht income, and have expenditures of 10,001-15,000 baht. In the matter of savings behavior, it was found that the majority of the samples in question have some type of savings in account with commercial banking (both saving and fixed accounts); they have proportionate savings and income per month, in a setting of available money remaining with a value of more than 5,000 baht. The main reason for saving was precaution, and the time of saving was 1-5 years wherein they have made the decision themselves. From the hypothesis testing, the inferential statistics revealed that demographic factors in the case of career, education and income have significance in a relationship with the saving behavior in every dimension, excepting age, status and expenditure have no relationship with the saving behavior in the proportion of saving and saving decision-maker, also the gender has no relationship in every dimension except the amount of saving at level 0.05.
    Keywords: Personal Factors, Saving, Saving Behavior, Bangkok Metropolitan Region.
    JEL: M19
    Abstract: This research aims to study organizational characteristics and factors that have effects on the success of knowledge management in Thai agribusiness organisations. Questionnaires were used as a data collection instrument and 400 questionnaires were sent to selected agribusiness organizations in Thailand. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted for data analysis. The highest number of responders was the organizations with the registered capitals of more than 50 million Baht, operation period of more than 15 years, Thai nationality, and the number of employees of 101-500 persons. Preliminary results from questionnaires indicated that overall opinion on factors affecting the success of knowledge management was at the “High†important level, and the first highest scores on organizational, personal, and knowledge management process factors were technology, motivation, and knowledge application, respectively.Hypothesis tests indicate that differences in organizational characteristics (i.e., registered capitals, operation period, nationality, and the number of employees) affect the success of knowledge management in Thai agribusiness organization differently at a significance level of 0.05. Moreover, organizational, personal and knowledge management process factors have linear relationships with overall success of knowledge management.
    Keywords: Success Factors, Knowledge Management, Agribusiness Organizations
    JEL: M10
  22. By: Errighi, Lorenza.; Mamic, Ivanka.; Krogh-Poulsen, Birgitte.
    Abstract: In recent decades, the Thai seafood sector has expanded on a global scale by using foreign labour and inputs, while exporting processed and semi- processed seafood products to the largest economies including the United States, the EU and Japan. Growing international market shares and economic development have been achieved through the attraction of foreign capital, the achievement of good sanitary standards and investment in appropriate infrastructure in the sector. Therefore, the Thai seafood sector is an example of economic upgrading through participation in global supply chains (GSCs). However, while the sector is a key contributor to growth and employment for Thailand, social upgrading has been limited to levels and processes in the supply chain where there is a direct interaction with international buyers and more exposure to consumers. Severe decent work deficits have been documented in fishing and pre-processing activities, including the use of forced and child labour. Such deficits can be attributed to weak governance, which has been mostly related to deficiencies in public enforcement in the sector. By illustrating key economic trends, decent work challenges and public and private governance in the Thai seafood GSCs, the case study presented in this paper is an example of how social upgrading is not always tied to economic upgrading, if governance gaps persist. It is also an illustration of how governments may seek to improve legislation and enforcement in GSCs.
    Keywords: food industry, fishery worker, decent work, value chains, good practices, Thailand, industrie alimentaire, travailleur de la pêche, travail décent, chaînes de valeur, bonnes pratiques, Thaïlande, industria de la alimentación, trabajador de la pesca, trabajo decente, cadenas de valor, buenas prácticas, Tailandia
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Javier Lopez Gonzalez
    Abstract: A country or firm's position in the value chain will largely depend on its comparative advantage, and therefore the mix of skills and resource endowments it brings to international production. For some, this might initially involve specialising in the labour intensive segments while others may specialise in the high-tech elements. In either case what matters is whether participation leads to growing economic activity. This paper discusses how countries can use foreign value added to enhance their domestic export performance. It shows that foreign sourcing is a complement to, rather than substitute for, the creation of domestic value added and employment in exports highlighting how, with GVCs, export competitiveness is inextricably linked to importing. The paper discusses how ASEAN countries can leverage different policies in order to make the most out of GVCs.
    Keywords: globalisation, trade, South East Asia, global value chains, exports
    JEL: F12 F13 F14 F15 F63 F66 F68
    Date: 2016–10–11
  24. By: Arus Kongrungchok (Suratthani Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to investigate factors that have left to personal financial weakness of Thai rubber farmers who have currently had defective financial position. Questionnaires (Cronbach's alpha = 0.914) were used for collecting data from 391 Thai rubber farmers in Suratthani province while 17 volunteered interviewees were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. Statistical techniques were employed to analyze the questionnaires while interview transcripts were analyzed through content analysis technique by using a phenomenological research approach. As a result of this study discovered that Thai rubber farmers have not concentrated on budget allocation of incomes to expenses in a same period while a private accounting has not been prepared to recognize cash inflow, cash outflow and cash balance, these situations have always left to ineffective personal financial planning in terms of a lack of savings for spending on emergency incidents; revenues’ cessation from discontinuous rubber harvests; a lack of clear life target in the future; a lack of systemic investment; and an inappropriate planning of debt management. Furthermore, the results revealed that the budget allocation of revenues to expenditures, the preparation of private accounting, the savings for spending on emergency incidents, the systemic investment, the clarity of life target planning in the future, the revenues’ cessation from discontinuous rubber harvests, and the systemically debt management have positively had the direct relationships to and influenced the effectiveness of personal financial planning of Thai rubber farmers at significant level of 0.01. The results of this study should be sent to Thai government and related parties with solving the fundamental poverty of Thai farmers especially Thai rubber farmers and could be then applied to other farmers if it has been possible. By the way, the knowledge and training (the workshop) should basically be given to those farmers by Thai government in terms of the basic personal financial knowledge as well.
    Keywords: Effectiveness; Personal Finance; Financial Planning; Thai Rubber Farmers.
  25. By: Minju Jeong (Seoul National University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of government consumption shocks on various key macro variables for China, Korea and Japan, by using a structural VAR model. The main empirical findings are as follows. First, government spending multipliers of all three countries are far larger than 1 in recent years. The government spending multiplier is larger in China than in Korea and Japan. The effectiveness of fiscal expansion has not been changed in China, but substantially changed in Korea (after Asian financial crisis) and Japan. Second, the effects on exchange rate and trade balance are different across countries. Interestingly, real exchange rate depreciates and trade balance improve more under more flexible exchange rate regime. Some empirical findings are consistent with the standard theory but others are not.
    Keywords: Structural VAR, government consumption shocks, Fiscal Multiplier, Real Exchange Rate, Current Account, China, Japan, Korea
    JEL: C32 E62 F41
  26. By: Syafruddin Chan (Economic and Business Faculty, Syiah Kuala University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of services passenger ferry boat in Indonesia. Things related to be analyzed associated with indicators and sub variable of the Service Quality offered by the company to the passengers. The population of this study were those passengers that took Ferry to reach Banda Aceh from Sabang and vice versa. The questionnaire was distributed to 156 respondents who participated in this study. The finding of this study was the performance of the services provided by the Ferries have been good enough. Cartesian graph used to analyze the findings of this study described the item in quadrant 4 were the indicators to be intervened by Ferry manager serving Banda Aceh - Sabang routes. There are 6 indicators contained in quadrant 4 to be intervened by the manager Ferry, because all those 6 of these items were a source of customer frustration. So it desperately needs to be improved. The sixth item or indicators most urgent to be improved in order to increase the quality of service were passengers to be notified if there is a delay, staff have sufficient knowledge to answer passenger questions, the staff provide you with information related to the services, they should understand the passenger needs when you ask a question, roviding on time Ferry services and dependability in handling services (item number 2,4,5,7,10,11). By looking at other Cartesian graphs, we also know that the sub variables No. 1 and No. 3, the Security and Reliability are the sub-variables that need to be intervened also by Ferry service managementof Banda Aceh - Sabang route. This was because the two sub-variables were in quadrant number 4, which is the source of customer dissatisfaction
    Keywords: Passenger Ferry Services, Banda Aceh, Sabang, Service Quality, Assurance, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness, Tangibles, Comfort, Connection, Convenience. Customer Dissatisfaction
  27. By: Yann Bramoullé (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Pauline Morault (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Abstract: In many parts of the developing world, ethnic minorities play a central role in the economy. Examples include Chinese throughout Southeast Asia, Indians in East Africa and Lebanese in West Africa. These rich minorities are often subject to popular violence and extortion, and are treated ambiguously by local politicians. We develop a formal framework to analyze the interactions between a rent-seeking political elite, an economically dominant ethnic minority and a poor majority. We find that the local elite can always make use of the presence of the rich minority to maintain its hold on power. When the threat of violence is high, the government may change its economic policies strategically to sacrifice the minority to popular resentment. We analyze the conditions under which such instrumental scapegoating emerges, and the forms it takes. We then introduce some social integration between both elites capturing, for instance, mixed marriages and shared education. Social integration reduces violence and yields qualitative changes in economic policies. Overall, our results help explain documented patterns of violence and segregation.
    Keywords: elites,popular violence,ethnic minority,scapegoat
    Date: 2016–08
  28. By: Adjao, Ramziath T.; Staatz, John M.
    Abstract: Rice is at the center of food policy debates in West Africa.1 Driven by its convenience in preparation and consumption and higher consumer incomes, per capita consumption grew from just under 15 kg/year in 1970 to 40 kg/year in 2011 while population tripled during the same period.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–04
  29. By: Frenkel, Stephen.; Mamic, Ivanka.; Greene, Laura.
    Abstract: Increasingly, local food markets supplied by small farmers are being replaced by global supply chains (GSCs) dominated by lead retailers, most of them based in developed countries. Workers employed by suppliers often work in low-paid, insecure, and only semi-skilled jobs. To stimulate improvements in participant firm productivity, thereby promoting decent work, it is important to understand the salient features and dynamics of food GSCs, including how these are governed. This research has focused on food GSCs, particularly with regard to the Asia-Pacific region, and has found these supply chains to be extended, heterogeneous, and sensitive to consumer safety concerns. While participation in GSCs offers the potential for social and economic upgrading, in practice there is little evidence of this occurring. Case studies of four lead retailers highlight a preoccupation with mitigating reputational risk arising from food quality failures and, to a lesser extent, risks arising from suppliers’ sub- standard labour and environmental practices. Risks are mitigated through lead retailer enforcement of process standards regarding food quality and private regulation of first-tier suppliers, often based on third-party certification and auditing for labour and environmental standards. The report concludes by considering the implications of these and related findings for the ILO Decent Work Agenda. The focus is on public interventions designed to facilitate improved standards, and participation by stakeholders in the design and regulation of such interventions.
    Keywords: value chains, production management, food industry, employment, workers rights, working conditions, Asia, Pacific, chaînes de valeur, gestion de la production, industrie alimentaire, emploi, droits des travailleurs, conditions de travail, Asie, Pacifique, cadenas de valor, administración de la producción, industria de la alimentación, empleo, derechos de los trabajadores, condiciones de trabajo, Asia, Pacífico
    Date: 2016

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