nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒07‒09
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Assessing Indonesia’s Long Run Growth: The Role of Total Factor Productivity and Human Capital By Armida Alisjahbana; Viktor Pirmana
  2. Enhancing Community-Driven Development through Convergence: A Case Study of Household-and Community-Based Initiatives in Philippine Villages By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  3. Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Asia: Trends, Impacts, and Reforms: Integrative Report By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  4. Growth scenarios for sub-Saharan countries in the framework of economic complexity By Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
  5. Patients’ contributions as a quid pro quo for community’s supports? Evidence from Vietnamese co-location clusters By Quan-Hoang Vuong; Ha Nguyen
  6. Manajemen Zakat di Indonesia dan Brunei Darussalam By Jaelani, Aan
  7. The Impact of Finance on the Performance of Thai Manufacturing Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Amornkitvikai, Yot; Harvie, Charles
  8. Income and Education as the determinants of Anti-Corruption Attitudes: Evidence from Indonesia By Anita K Zonebia; Arief Anshory Yusuf; Heriyaldi
  9. Energy efficiency gains from trade in intermediate inputs: Firm-level evidence from Indonesia By Holger Breinlich; Anson Soderbery; Greg C. Wright
  10. Do changes in shariah screening methodology make islamic indices substitutes or complements? an application of MGARCH-DCC and markov switching analysis. By Mantai, Mohammed Mahmoud; Masih, Mansur
  11. Estimation of Spillover Effects from Large Scale Adoption of Transgenic (Bt) Corn in the Philippines By Brown, Zachary; Connor, Lawson; Rejesus, Rod; Jose, Yorobe
  12. That's my turf: An experimental analysis of territorial use rights for fisheries in Indonesia By Gallier, Carlo; Langbein, Jörg; Vance, Colin
  13. Results of the Assessment of the Utilization and Impacts of the Motor Vehicle User's Charge in the Philippines By Detros, Keith C.; Navarro, Adoracion M.; Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May G.
  14. Working Conditions and Factory Survival: Evidence from Better Factories Cambodia By Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev
  15. Facilitating ASEAN Trade in Goods By Lili Yan Ing; Olivier Cadot
  16. Impact Assessment of the National Greening Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources: Scoping or Process Evaluation Phase (Economic Component) By Tiongco, Marites M.; Vista, Arvin; Cororaton, Caesar B.; Inocencio, Arlene B.; Manalang, Anna Bella S.
  17. Bottom-Up Budgeting Process Assessment: Zamboanga del Norte By Parel, Danileen Kristel C.; Detros, Keith C.; De Guzman, Reinier T.
  18. Camarines Sur Assessment of the Bottom-Up Budgeting Process for FY 2016 By Pastrana, Cleofe S.; Lagarto, Marites B.
  19. Laws, Costs, Norms, and Learning: Improving Working Conditions in Developing Countries By Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev; Robertson, Raymond
  20. Assessment of the Bottom-Up Budgeting Process for FY 2016 By Manasan, Rosario G.
  21. Achieving Skill Mobility in the ASEAN Economic Community: Challenges, Opportunities, and Policy Implications By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  22. The development of the liquefied natural gas spot market: origin and implications By Yves Jégourel
  23. Remit for what? The Impact of Information Asymmetries in Transnational Households. By Giuseppe De Arcangelis; Majlinda Joxhe; Dean Yang

  1. By: Armida Alisjahbana (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Viktor Pirmana (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: This paper revisits Indonesia’s long run growth trajectory with particular emphasis on the contribution of human capital accumulation and Total Factor Productivity for the period 2000-2035. The study utilizes the growth accounting framework that estimates contribution of growth in capital stock, human capital, and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) for the period after Indonesia’s crisis of 1997- 1998. This study extends an earlier study by Alisjahbana (2009) in methodology, and emphasis in the role of human capital to long term growth trajectory. The period of analysis is concentrated from the year 2000 onwards with the following periodization: 2000-2004 (economic stabilization period); 2005-2009 (President SBY First Administration); 2010-2014 (President SBY Second Administration) and the overall period from 2000-2014. Based on the earlier study, it is expected that the pattern of sources of growth post crisis will be enhanced, in which TFP growth and the role of human capital have become more prominent. Results of the sources of economic growth during the 2000-2014 periods are used to project Indonesia’s long run growth trajectory until 2035. The study utilizes the most recent relevant data sets such as Indonesia’s population projection 2010- 2035. The study also benefits from the most current government long-term policy direction in human resources development as well as human capital accumulation.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Total Factor Productivity, Human Capital, Indonesia 2035
    JEL: O11 O47 O53
    Date: 2016–06
  2. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The study sought to examine the Philippine government’s convergence initiative, and how it relates to community-driven development (CDD) that can impact rural communities in the Philippines. Through case studies, the study looked at the interactions among the three major development assistance programs implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), namely, KALAHI-CIDSS National CDD Program, Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program, and Sustainable Livelihood Program. The study also assessed the coordination between DSWD programs and development interventions of other national government sector agencies. The above two approaches were identified in the study as household-focused and community-focused convergence strategies.
    Keywords: community; Philippines; community-driven development program; KALAHI-CIDSS; KC-NCDDP; KALAHI-CIDSS-National Community-Driven Development Program; convergence; pantawid pamilya; sustainable livelihood program; SLP; bottom-up budgeting; BUB; CDD scale-up; empowerment; participatory planning; poverty reduction program
    Date: 2016–01
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Unsustainable budgetary cost of selling oil, gas, and coal at low prices has propelled energy subsidy reform in developing Asian economies. This report measures the size of associated subsidies on these fossil fuels including direct transfers, tax exemptions, subsidized credit, and losses of state enterprises in India, Indonesia, and Thailand. An analysis of complex interactions between economic, social, energy, and environmental issues shows that the initial rise in energy prices due to a reduction or removal of the subsidies will nudge households and businesses to shift to alternative fuels, make investment in clean energy attractive, increase energy supply, reduce energy shortages, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. Using the money freed up from subsidies to compensate poor households and to increase government budgets will offset the negative effects of the initial price rise, promote sustainable energy use, and help allay the fears of reform.
    Keywords: India; Indonesia; Thailand; energy; fossil fuel subsidies; greenhouse gas emissions; energy use; economic impacts; social programs and developing Asia
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: Cristelli, Matthieu; Tacchella, Andrea; Zaccaria, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano
    Abstract: We present a comparative analysis of the medium-long term perspectives of development for sub-Saharan countries in the framework of economic complexity. This analysis is made in comparison with the development of Asian tigers. Economic complexity is a data-driven framework which aims at providing a more scientific basis for the economic theory and it has a specific focus on understanding the determinants of growth by means of two new economic dimensions: the country fitness and the product complexity. We argue that the fitness of countries is a quantitative assessment of those intangible assets, which drive the growth. The comparison of this measure for intangibles with monetary figures provides effective insights on the growth potential of countries and defines the fitness-income plane. The analysis of the dynamics in this plane reveals that most sub-Saharans get stuck in a pre-industrial regime which can be thought as a generalized poverty trap where both income and fitness dimensions are considered. Only Senegal, Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar and Uganda show a behavior compatible with the early steps of a long term stable and sustained growth, which resembles the one of Vietnam and Malaysia at the beginning of the nineties. As expected, South Africa is the most mature economy of the southern part of Africa. However, its trajectory highlights the concrete risk of an incomplete development of its productive system in terms of diversification, which might concretely jeopardize South Africa’s chance to reach the level of wealth of fully developed countries and put the country at risk of getting stuck in the so-called middle-income trap.
    Keywords: economic complexity, economic traps, growth, fitness
    JEL: F4 O1 O4
    Date: 2014–11
  5. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong; Ha Nguyen
    Abstract: This paper studies the emerging societal phenomenon of voluntarily co-located patients communities, by examining a data set containing 336 responses from four such co-location clusters in Hanoi, Vietnam. The analysis successfully models the data employing the baseline category logits framework. The results obtained from the analysis show that patients co-living in these clusters contribute their resources (financial and in-kind) in hope of community's supports during their medical treatments. They also contribute voluntary services and share information/experiences with the community, with different beliefs on expected outcome with respect to their possible benefits provided by their communities. Patients value the business community's supports––a reflection of better awareness of corporate social responsibilities––higher, and are more skeptical toward expected benefits from the public health system. The results represent one of first attempts in understanding this special type of somewhat isolated circles of desperate patients who have been excluded from Vietnam's fast-growing emerging market economy.
    Keywords: Health behavior; co-located patients community
    JEL: I12 I19
    Date: 2016–06–22
  6. By: Jaelani, Aan
    Abstract: This book describes a comparative zakat management, especially going to explain about the government's fiscal policy part of Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam on development programs and poverty reduction with charity instruments in both countries. For the sake of economy, zakat distributed for the mustahik poverty alleviation. Even the results of this research will test the theory of "income distribution" in the form of direct cash assistance in the form of money, materials, or other objects that are consumptive, and compared with the economic aid in the form of zakat that is productive. In addition, this book has an important meaning to analyse the effectiveness of the management of zakat by the government through regulation and the establishment of zakat management institutions.
    Keywords: zakah management, mustahik, poverty alleviation, income distribution,
    JEL: A13 D31 D63 D64 E62 H0 H27 H30 N3 P43 Z12
    Date: 2015–08–17
  7. By: Amornkitvikai, Yot (Asian Development Bank Institute); Harvie, Charles (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This study sheds light on small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financing and its performance in Thailand. It elaborates on the key sources of finance existing for Thai manufacturing SMEs and their importance for SME performance as measured by technical efficiency, export performance, and technological innovation. This study also examines the key factors enhancing SME access to external finance. Our results confirm that retained earnings are crucial to increase SME technical efficiency, but loans from unlicensed moneylenders deteriorate their export performance. For external finance, government-owned specialized financial institutions (SFIs) play a leading role in enhancing SME technical efficiency and export performance, but the results from the survey reveal that few Thai manufacturing SMEs actively seek external finance from these institutions. Foreign commercial banks also help enhance SME technical efficiency. The results show that larger SMEs have superior performance as measured by export performance and technological innovation performance. The results also reveal that financial institutions in Thailand still rely on collateral-based lending and SME financial transparency through audited financial statements to reduce asymmetric information and adverse selection costs.
    Keywords: Thailand; manufacturing; SME; specialized financial institution; exports; export performance; technical efficiency; technology; innovation; market access; human resources; credit; financing; banks; business loans; collateral; interest rate
    JEL: D22 D24 G20 L25 L60
    Date: 2016–06–23
  8. By: Anita K Zonebia (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Arief Anshory Yusuf (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Heriyaldi (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: Level of economic development has been found to be among the strongest determinants of corruption level in cross-country studies. Those studies use income per capita as a measure of level of development and found that higher level of corruption is associated with lower level of income. We argue that, at any given income level, education is also a very important determinant of the level of corruption and failing to include education may bias or over-estimate the importance of income. We estimated an empirical model of individual’s attitude toward anti-corruption using a large sample of 9,020 individuals that represent Indonesian population and find that the effect of income (proxied by expenditure) is either weakened or eliminated when we control for the level of education. The effect of education is also found to exhibit a non-linear pattern which implies that investing in education will have increasing returns in the form of anti-corruption attitude. This finding supports the view that increasing access to education is an effective measure of reducing corruption norms particularly in developing countries.
    Keywords: Corruption, Anti-corruption, development, Indonesia
    JEL: D73
    Date: 2015–04
  9. By: Holger Breinlich; Anson Soderbery; Greg C. Wright
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether importing intermediate goods improves firm-level environmental performance in a developing country, using data from the Indonesian manufacturing sector. We build a simple theoretical model showing that trade integration of input markets entails energy efficiency improvements within importers relative to nonimporters. To empirically isolate the impact of firm participation in foreign intermediate input markets we use ‘nearest neighbour’ propensity score matching and difference-indifference techniques. Covering the period 1991-2005, we find evidence that becoming an importer of foreign intermediates boosts energy efficiency, implying beneficial effects for the environment.
    Keywords: Services Trade, Trade Liberalization, Import Competition
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Mantai, Mohammed Mahmoud; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Many studies have examined the portfolio diversification opportunity of the Shariah compliant indices returns and markets including Malaysia. For the case of Malaysia, most of the recent studies have found lesser possibilities of diversification due to the trading partnerships and regional market contingencies. However, in this study, we apply MGARCH-DCC and use the MS-AR technique, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, to investigate the impact of the newly introduced Shariah screening methodology taking the Malaysian shariah FTEM index as a case study together with other 5 Islamic indices to assess the extent of portfolio diversification particularly after the new change as well as to identify the periods of stable and high volatilities. The findings of this study are consistent with the recent findings of (Najeeb (2015); Rahim and Masih (2016)) with regards to portfolio diversification despite recent changes in the Shariah screening methodology. Nonetheless, with regards to the regime change and the probability duration of FTEM, we found that the shift from the stable to volatile regime normally takes place after 9 weeks with the probability of staying in each regime 66 and 75 weeks respectively. Therefore, the new screening methodology has yet to shift Islamic indices from being a substitute to a complement. Finally, the findings of this paper may provide some insights to both Islamic equity investors and policy makers of the Islamic finance industry.
    Keywords: Shariah, Screening Methodology, Islamic Indices, MGARCH-DCC, Markov Switching
    JEL: C22 C58 G11
    Date: 2016–06–21
  11. By: Brown, Zachary; Connor, Lawson; Rejesus, Rod; Jose, Yorobe
    Abstract: This paper proposes the application of an econometric methodology developed in the environmental and urban economics literatures for studying spatial congestion and agglomeration to the context of agricultural pest control and technology adoption. The methodology allows the identification of spillover effects, either from bioeconomic feedbacks or social interactions, in discrete choice econometric models. We apply this framework to study area-level adoption and potential feedbacks from individuals’ decisions to adopt pesticidal transgenic corn, using a panel dataset from the Philippines. In a conceptual model, we show that a bioeconomic feedback through pest suppression will manifest as congestion effect. Identification in the econometric model is achieved by combining fixed effect conditional logit estimation with instrumental variable (IV) methods. Applying this econometric approach, we find evidence for a congestion spillover associated with the adoption of transgenic corn in the Philippines.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Gallier, Carlo; Langbein, Jörg; Vance, Colin
    Abstract: We conduct a framed field experiment in Indonesian fishing communities with an eye towards evaluating the potential of Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries (TURFs) for preserving coral reef fisheries. Conducted in three culturally distinctive sites, the study assembles groups of five fishers who participate in a common-pool resource game. We implement the game with randomly assigned treatments in all sites to explore whether the extraction decision varies according to three recommended non-binding extraction levels originating from (1) a democratic process, (2) a group leader or (3) an external source that recommends a socially optimal extraction level. In one of the sites - that having the highest levels of ethnic and religious diversity - we find that democratic decision-making as well as information originating from outside the community promotes the cooperative behavior that underpins TURFs, a result that is robust to regressions controlling for individual and community attributes. The absence of treatment effects in the remaining two sites highlights that a set of formal rules may have different consequences in different communities, depending on underlying values and norms.
    Keywords: Framed field experiment,Commons dilemmas,Coral reefs,Self-governance
    JEL: C93 H43 L31 Q32
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Detros, Keith C.; Navarro, Adoracion M.; Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May G.
    Abstract: Road funds like the Motor Vehicle User's Charge (MVUC) Fund in the Philippines are a kind of earmarked funds. Though without shortcomings, earmarking funds through the MVUC continues to be relevant as it is able to ensure a stable flow of resources for public road expenditures. The study identifies the shortcomings and areas for improvement. In assessing the different stages of the MVUC process, the study finds that transparency and efficiency in collection have to be improved through automation and accurate recording. It also finds that project identification and investment programming need to adhere to the recommended procedures in the operating manual. As there are indications of fund underutilization, the study recommends accelerating the utilization of funds through advanced project development and investment programming. After examining five MVUC-funded projects, the authors find that an impact monitoring system is present in only one case that is recently finished, and the sparse data available are not enough to quantitatively establish impacts. Nevertheless, findings from field visits and interviews with beneficiaries reveal that there are positive benefits from the MVUC mechanism. An examination of successful cases in other countries also reveals good practices that are worth looking into, such as ensuring that the road fund administrator is strictly an administrator rather than project implementer, advanced preparation of long-term vision and medium- to short-term road investment programs, and variations of the reimbursement-basis payment system that is supported by strong audit systems.
    Keywords: Philippines, public finance, road fund, earmarking
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Robertson, Raymond (Texas A&M University); Brown, Drusilla (Tufts University); Dehejia, Rajeev (New York University)
    Abstract: A large and growing literature has identified several conditions, including exporting, that contribute to plant survival. A prevailing sentiment suggests that anti-sweatshop activity against plants in developing countries adds the risk of making survival more difficult by imposing external constraints that may interfere with optimizing behavior. Using a relatively new plant-level panel dataset from Cambodia, this paper applies survival analysis to estimate the relationship between changes in working conditions and plant closure. The results find little, if any, evidence that improving working conditions increases the probability of closure. In fact, some evidence suggests that improvements in standards relating to compensation are positively correlated with the probability of plant survival.
    Keywords: working conditions, apparel, sweatshops, plant survival, closure
    JEL: J8 J5 J3
    Date: 2016–06
  15. By: Lili Yan Ing (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), University of Indonesia); Olivier Cadot (University of Lausanne)
    Abstract: Trade facilitation should be viewed as a strategic issue rather than a technical one. While ASEAN has been successful in the phasing out of intra-regional tariffs, ASEAN's trade facilitation is not just about reducing cross-border transaction costs but also focusing on (i) rules of origin (RoOs), (ii) NTM (non-tariff measure) transparency, and (iii) NTM streamlining. The RoOs in the ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement (ATIGA) have a relatively simple structure of which about 40 percent consists of RVC-40 or CTH. In spite of their apparent simplicity, ATIGA's RoOs seem to have substantial trade-inhibiting effects, with recent research putting their ad valorem equivalent at about 3.40 percent. In the case of NTMs, the costs imposed by NTMs on businesses are of three sorts: enforcement, sourcing, and process adaptation. The most important thing lies in the transparency of NTMs which rests on two pillars: accurate data, and open dissemination and dynamic disciplines. The underlying notion is that NTM streamlining should not be viewed as a trade-negotiation issue because NTMs are not pure trade policy instruments. Thus, what we propose is to take it back to the country level and promote the creation of an economic council with a mandate to review and improve key business-relevant regulations.
    Keywords: trade facilitation, rules of origin, non-tariff measures, trade in goods, ASEAN
    JEL: F10 F14 F15
    Date: 2016–06
  16. By: Tiongco, Marites M.; Vista, Arvin; Cororaton, Caesar B.; Inocencio, Arlene B.; Manalang, Anna Bella S.
    Abstract: To avert the continued deterioration of Philippine forests and its negative consequences on the environment, the Aquino administration executed the National Greening Program (NGP) as the reforestation initiative of the government from 2011 to 2016. This study focuses on the scoping and process evaluation of the NGP using household survey, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions data gathered from the randomly chosen sites in the provinces of Zambales, Negros Occidental, and Dinagat Islands. Key results showed that the NGP household recipients experienced some marginal increase in average real income, though it was not statistically significant. The same is true when comparing NGP household recipients versus non-NGP household recipients. Propensity score matching results revealed that the effects of NGP on the local people have evidently induced bigger household size, higher number of working household members, and positive perception on NGP activities. In summary, there is no "one-size fits all" NGP strategy that would increase the likelihood of success. Recommended modification in the next program on Natural Forest and Landscape Restoration Program can focus on adjustments in allocated budget for forest development per hectare, revisions of incentives appropriate in a given reforestation site, and increased support to forest protection of existing forests, among many other suggested actions.
    Keywords: Philippines, National Greening Program (NGP), reforestation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), forest development, impact assessment, propensity score matching
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Parel, Danileen Kristel C.; Detros, Keith C.; De Guzman, Reinier T.
    Abstract: Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is a mechanism implemented to institutionalize and incentivize grassroots participation, as represented by civil society organizations, in the planning and budgeting of their respective cities or municipalities. This paper assesses how the various participatory steps were conducted and how the selected subprojects from the previous budgeting round was being implemented. Specifically, this paper focuses on three local government units in Zamboanga del Norte, with various levels of development and participation in government programs. The assessment was conducted by observing the BUB activities of the study sites, conducting interviews and focus group discussions, and validating findings against secondary data. Findings on the general usefulness of the BUB, its current guidelines, and interaction with corollary government programs were highlighted, along with recommendations.
    Keywords: Philippines, poverty reduction, local governance, grassroots, bottom-up budgeting (BUB), participatory budgeting, civil society organizations (CSOs), Zamboanga del Norte
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Pastrana, Cleofe S.; Lagarto, Marites B.
    Abstract: Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is a mechanism implemented to institutionalize and incentivize grassroots participation, as represented by civil society organizations, in the planning and budgeting of their respective cities or municipalities. This paper assesses how the various participatory steps were conducted and how the selected subprojects from the previous budgeting round was being implemented. Specifically, this paper focuses on three local government units in Camarines Sur, with various levels of development and participation in government programs. The assessment was conducted by observing the BUB activities of the study sites, conducting interviews and focus group discussions, and validating findings against secondary data. Findings on the general usefulness of the BUB, its current guidelines, and interaction with corollary government programs were highlighted, along with recommendations.
    Keywords: Philippines, poverty reduction, local governance, grassroots, bottom-up budgeting (BUB), Camarines Sur, participatory budgeting, civil society organizations (CSOs)
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Brown, Drusilla (Tufts University); Dehejia, Rajeev (New York University); Robertson, Raymond (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: Working conditions in developing countries, such as those associated with the 2013 Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh, remain stubbornly low despite strict laws regulating hours, pay practices and occupational safety and health. Recent theoretic and empirical work suggests that norms and learning may play a significant role in determining conditions. We exploit the natural experiment of Cambodia's 15-year experience with the Better Factories Cambodia program to identify variation that reveals the relative contributions of laws, costs, norms, and learning in improving working conditions in Cambodia. The results suggest that policies that follow from the learning hypothesis may be the most effective at improving working conditions in the long run.
    Keywords: working conditions, norms, personnel economics
    JEL: F53 F66 J8
    Date: 2016–06
  20. By: Manasan, Rosario G.
    Abstract: Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is a government program that is envisioned to institutionalize and incentivize grassroots participation in local planning and budgeting in all cities and municipalities. This study aims (i) to examine how the key steps in the planning and prioritization of projects that will be funded under the BUB for the fiscal year (FY) 2016 planning cycle are implemented in terms of extent of participation of civil society organizations (CSO), local government unit (LGU)-CSO engagement, and the integration of BUB processes in the mainstream local planning processes; and (ii) to report on the pace of implementation of FY 2013 and FY 2014 BUB subprojects and to identify the bottlenecks affecting the same. Based on the BUB experience in the 12 case study sites, this study argues that CSO participation in the BUB may be characterized on the basis of how the LGUs actually operationalized the key features of the BUB. The study then juxtaposed the extent of CSO participation in the BUB in the 12 study sites. It measured the share of CSO-identified or proposed projects in the total project cost of all BUB subprojects against the actual conduct of the CSO assembly and Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) workshop in these LGUs to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of the various aspects that comprise CSO participation in the BUB. On the other hand, the evaluation of the pace of implementation of the subprojects prioritized and included in the LPRAPs of the 12 study sites for FY 2013 and FY 2014 shows mixed results. While the implementation of FY 2014 BUB subprojects is faster than the implementation of FY 2013 BUB subprojects in terms of project completion, procurement, and provision of national government agency feedback to LGUs, some deterioration in the downloading of project funds is evident between these two years.
    Keywords: Philippines, bottom-up budgeting (BUB), participatory budgeting, civil society organizations (CSOs), accountability, LGU-CSO engagement, local governance, basic sector organizations
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Despite clear aspirations by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to create an effective and transparent framework to facilitate movements among skilled professionals within the ASEAN by December 2015, progress has been slow and uneven. This report examines the challenges ASEAN member states face in achieving the goal of greater mobility for the highly skilled, including hurdles in recognizing professional qualifications, opening up access to certain jobs, and a limited willingness by professionals to move due to perceived cultural, language, and socioeconomic differences. The cost of these barriers is staggering and could reduce the region’s competitiveness in the global market. This report launches a multiyear effort by the Asian Development Bank and the Migration Policy Institute to better understand the issues and develop strategies to gradually overcome the problems. It offers a range of policy recommendations that have been discussed among experts in a high-level expert meeting, taking into account best practices locally and across the region.
    Keywords: ASEAN, labor market, skilled professional, jobs, global economy, economic development, SME
    Date: 2016–01
  22. By: Yves Jégourel
    Abstract: Due to the existing geographical distance between the main consumption and production regions and the resulting significant logistical costs, the liquefied natural gas (LNG) market has historically been structured around long-term supply contracts indexed to oil prices. With the recent development of shale gas and sluggish European growth, excess LNG supply now fosters the development of spot markets, particularly in Asia, by nature more flexible and disconnected from oil prices. In this light, it is not impossible that the LNG industry becomes financialized on a relatively long-term basis.
    Keywords: commodity , contrats, energy, oil prices, spot markets, spot, natural gas
    Date: 2016–01
  23. By: Giuseppe De Arcangelis (Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali ed Economiche, Sapienza-Università di Roma); Majlinda Joxhe (CREA Center for Research in Economic Analysis University of Luxembourg); Dean Yang (Department of Economics and Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to check whether information asymmetry may affect the allocation of a given budget between in-kind consumption-type goods and in-kind investment-type choices. In order to test the model, we use the results of a lab-in-the-field experiment where migrants engage in a dictator game and are asked to earmark a given budget between consumption and investment goods to be delivered to the most closely connected household (MCCH). Three different scenarios of information sharing with the MCCH on the choices made by the migrant are considered – private information, full information sharing and information sharing with a social excuse for investment goods. Empirical results confirm that under private information investment goods are preferred, whereas under full information sharing we observe a significant bias towards consumption goods (about 70 euros more out of a total budget value of 1000 euros, i.e. 7%). This behavior under different information sharing scenarios may be interpreted as evidence of self-interest motives to remit rather than pure altruism.
    Keywords: In-kind allocation, giving, dictator game, merit goods, virtuous goods, remittance motives, Philippines.
    JEL: F24 O15 D19 C92 D01
    Date: 2016–05

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