nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒07‒02
27 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Does Indonesian National Health Insurance serve a potential for improving health equity in favour of workers in informal economy? By Kartika, Dwintha Maya
  2. Do Exports lead Economic Output in Five Asian Countries? A Cointegration and Granger Causality Analysis By Jiayi Huang; Miguel Ramirez
  3. Do resource depletion experiences affect social cooperative preferences? Analysis using field experimental data on fishers in the Philippines and Indonesia By Kenta Tanaka; Keisaku Higashida; Arvin Vista; Anton Setyo Nugroho; Budi Muhamad Ruslan
  4. Is feed-in-tariff policy effective for increasing deployment of renewable energy in Indonesia? By Dewi Yuliani
  5. The Development of Fiscal Social Accounting Matrix for Indonesia By Hidayat Amir; Ferry Irawan; Djoni Hartono; Anda Nugroho
  6. What drives banks’ willingness to lend to SMEs? An ARDL approach By Lokman, Azarahiah; Masih, Mansur
  7. Fast profits in a fasting month? A markov regime switching approach in search of ramadan effect on stock markets By Hasbullah, Faruq; Masih, Mansur
  8. Towards active community participation in implementing Climate Change Adaptation Policy (CCAP) in Cambodia By Nop, Sothun
  9. The relation between university GPA and family background: Evidence from a university in Vietnam By Dao, Ngoc Tien; Doan, Quang Hung; Nguyen, Son Tung
  10. Transnational Private Regulations for Sustainable Palm Oil in Indonesia By Daniel Rais
  11. Forecasting inbound tourists in Cambodia By Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
  12. Testing the Nexus of Income, Agriculture, and Nutrition in Indonesia By Pangaribowo, Evita
  13. Sustainable Green Market Consumption in Thailand: Teenagers’ Perception and Attitudes By Jiumpanyarach, Waripas
  14. What Motivates Indonesian Smallholders’ to Adopt Non-Conventional Farming Systems? An Application of Best-Worst Scaling Methods By Wahida; Umberger, Wendy; Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy
  15. Risk management of the Vietnamese banking system: A market research survey By Matousek, Roman; Nguyen, Thao Ngoc; Stewart, Chris
  16. Adoption potential of two wheel tractor drill technology in the lowland rice growing areas of Cambodia – An economic analysis By Singh, Rajinder P.; Desbiolles, Jack; Vang, Seng; Bunna, Som; Men, Roat; Sovandina, Chea; Sophal, Chuong; Martin, Bob; Coombes, Neil
  17. Does tenure security allow more efficiency-enhancing land transactions? Evidence from Vietnam over a ten-year period By Klaus, Deininger; Hoang, Tram; Jin, Songqing
  18. Output Decomposition in the Presence of Input Quality Effects: A Stochastic Frontier Approach By Yasmina Rim Limam, Stephen M. Miller and Giampaolo Garzarelli
  19. Understanding Indonesian Smallholder Dairy Farmers’ Decision to Adopt Multiple Farm-Level Innovations By Akzar, Rida; Permani, Risti; Wahida; Umberger, Wendy
  20. Informal versus Formal: A Panel Data Analysis of Earnings Gaps in Madagascar By Nordman, Christophe Jalil; Rakotomanana, Faly; Roubaud, François
  21. A critical appraisal of studies analyzing co-movement of international stock markets with a focus on East-Asian indices By Jan F. Kiviet; Zhenxi Chen
  22. The Study of the Factors and Consequences of the Restrictions on the Movement of the Capital By Bozhechkova, A.V.; Goryunov, E.L.; Trunin, Pavel
  23. The state, the market, and development By Joseph E. Stiglitz
  24. For a more effective and competitive ASEAN dispute settlement mechanism By Daniel Rais
  25. Comment prendre des engagements SMART en faveur de la nutrition: Rapport sur la nutrition mondiale note d’orientation By Fanzo, Jessica; Hawkes, Corinna; Rosettie, Katherine
  26. Relatório sobre a nutrição mundial 2016: Da promesa ao impacto: Erradicando a malnutrição até 2030: Sumário By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  27. Accession clause of TPP : Is it really open? By Hamanaka, Shintaro

  1. By: Kartika, Dwintha Maya
    Abstract: This study examines whether Indonesian national health insurance system promotes health equity in favour of informal economy workers. It first lays out the theoretical justification on the need of social protection, particularly health protection for informal workers. The paper argues that the absence of health protection for vulnerable informal workers in Indonesia has reinforced health inequity between formal and informal workers, thus provides a justification on extending health protection to this segment. It then boils down its analysis on existing BPJS Health scheme, a government-run national health insurance, and to what extent this scheme serves the needs of informal workers in Indonesia. The finding suggests that several factors (contributory premium, access to healthcare services and politicisation of national healthcare) are responsible for adversely incorporating informal workers; hence fail to promote health equity in favour of vulnerable workers in informal economy.
    Keywords: National Health Insurance; Informal Economy; Universal Health Coverage; Indonesia; Informal workers; Health financing; Social Security; Social Protection; WHO; ILO; BPJS;
    JEL: E26 I1 I13 I14 I15 I18 J46 O17 O29 Y40
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Jiayi Huang; Miguel Ramirez (Department of Economics, Trinity College)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between exports and economic output for five major Asian economies using annual data in an expanded data set and employing unit root and cointegration analysis. It employs a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) that treats all variables in the modified production function as potentially endogenous and then determines via weak exogeneity tests whether some of the key variables can be treated as exogenous (omitted from the system). Johansen cointegration tests find a positive long-run relationship between exports and economic output for the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Cointegration tests find a negative long-run relationship between exports and economic output for India. The Block Granger causality tests and impulse response functions for the Philippines and Singapore find stronger causality from exports to economic output rather than the reverse. Granger causality tests in level form also find significant causality from exports to economic output. No causality exists between exports and economic output in the case of India. Exports seem to promote economic growth in three of the four countries that have cointegrated data, which supports the exports-led growth hypothesis found in some of the extant literature. The paper does not find cointegration for China because the variables are integrated of different orders from I(0) to I(2).
    Keywords: Block Granger Causality Test, Export-led Growth Hypothesis, Johansen Cointegration Test, Modified Production Function, Pantula Procedure, Phillips-Perron Test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Zivot-Andrews single-break unit root test.
    JEL: C22 F14 O53
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: Kenta Tanaka (Faculty of Economics, Musashi University); Keisaku Higashida (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University); Arvin Vista (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Philippines Los Baños); Anton Setyo Nugroho (Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Republic of Indonesia); Budi Muhamad Ruslan (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Republic of Indonesia)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of fishery resource depletion experiences on the social cooperative preferences of fishermen. We adopt (i) the value orientation test to measure cooperativeness and (ii) experiences that are subjectively perceived. Additionally, we focus on the perceived causes of resource depletion experienced by fishermen. Similar to previous studies, we find clear correlations between experiences and preferences. Moreover, we find that the impact of resource depletion experiences depends on whether fishermen perceive artificial factors or changes in the natural environment to be its causes. Particularly, resource depletion experiences caused by artificial factors are likely to make fishermen more cooperative, while those caused by changes in the natural environment are likely to make fishermen less cooperative.
    Keywords: Cooperativeness, Experiences, Fishery resource depletion, Value orientation test
    JEL: C93 Q22 Q56
    Date: 2016–06
  4. By: Dewi Yuliani
    Abstract: To accelerate the deployment of renewable energy technologies and to secure the electricity supply, the Government of Indonesia has issued several feed-in-tariff regulations for various renewable energy sources, which were previously predominated by pilot projects using government funding. The feed-in tariff is a policy instrument that has been successfully applied in many other countries to support renewable electricity, and it is known for its simplicity in implementation. This study undertakes exploratory research to evaluate how the policy works in Indonesia, not only as stated in official reports, but also in the field. The study's results show that while the policy triggers investment interest in renewable power plants, there are many obstacles encountered at the deployment stage due to imperfections in the feed-in-tariff policy package and some non-cost factors. In addition, several unanticipated side effects were identified at the local level as a consequence of the upturn in investment interest. The study indicates that the transition to cleaner energy is much more challenging for developing countries such as Indonesia.
    Keywords: feed-in-tariff policy, renewable energy, deployment
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Hidayat Amir; Ferry Irawan; Djoni Hartono; Anda Nugroho (Fiscal Policy Agency (BKF))
    Abstract: The Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), is a matrix to represent the transaction in a socio-economic system. It provides a comprehensive description of an economy with emphasis on social and distributive aspects. It describes the economic flows: income generation by production activities, income distribution, and the redistribution between economic agents. The SAM framework provides a useful tool for various policy analysis such as income distribution analysis and incidence studies. BPS-Statistics Indonesia develops SAM as a complementary of Input-Output Table in every five year. However, the standard SAM only offers a limited set of fiscal instruments. Fiscal policy instruments are important tools in policy analysis for government institutions, namely Fiscal Policy Agency (Badan Kebijakan Fiskal/BKF). BKF is a unit within the Indonesian Ministry of Finance that has the responsibility in the fiscal policy formulation. The purpose of this study is to develop the Fiscal SAM (FiSAM) for the year of 2008. The FiSAM features a more detail fiscal instrument of SAM framework. It captures the government’s indirect tax revenue and government’s transfer. The government’s indirect tax is disaggregated into more detail categories: value added taxes (VAT), sales taxes for luxury items, excises, import tax, property tax, stamp duty, and others (including local taxes). While the government’s transfer is disaggregated into: subsidy for poor students, food subsidy for the poor, conditional cash transfer, and other government’s transfer. With these extensions, the FiSAM has more capability to capture a wide range analysis of fiscal policies more precisely. The FiSAM may also serves as data for further development of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models.
    Keywords: Fiscal, Social Accounting Matrix, BKF, Indonesia
    JEL: H20 E16
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Lokman, Azarahiah; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: SMEs have been recognized as an important engine for driving economic growth and job creation both in developed and developing countries. However, there is concern that financial constraint is impeding growth in these SMEs. Bank is a major source of SME financing in most countries. In Malaysia, banks provide 90% of total financing to SMEs (SME Annual Report, 2014/15). Focusing on three aspects; the macroeconomic environment, demand for large enterprise loans and property prices, this study aims to find out the effect of these factors on banks’ willingness to lend to SMEs and which of these three is most influential. Using ARDL approach applied to Malaysian quarterly data for the period from 2003Q2 to 2015Q4, the study finds macroeconomic environment significantly influences banks’ willingness to lend to SMEs. Thus, policy makers have a tall order of creating and maintaining a healthy macroeconomic environment in an attempt to improve banks’ willingness to lend to SMEs. The finding that property prices also play a role in influencing banks’ willingness to lend to SMEs appears to suggest banks’ dependency on property as collateral for SME financing. Thus, policy makers should continue to develop and improve SME financing schemes that encourages banks’ participation in financing SMEs with potential but lacks collateral.
    Keywords: SME lending, SME financing, bank lending, ARDL
    JEL: C22 C58 G21
    Date: 2016–06–19
  7. By: Hasbullah, Faruq; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Ramadan is deemed to be the holiest month which is observed by 1.6 billion Muslims across the world. We investigate the stock returns during Ramadan for 5 biggest stock markets in Muslim majority countries (Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Turkey, Indonesia and Kuwait) by taking weekly data over the period of 5 years. By applying the Markov Regime Switching technique we found out that there is not enough evidence to conclude that Ramadan effect plays a significant part in providing investors with higher return during the one-month period. However, we found out that all the stock exchanges move in the same direction during the Ramadan 2012 and Ramadan 2015 which perhaps may be attributed to the Eurozone Crisis and oil price drops. These show that external factors may play a far bigger role in determining the returns from the stock market than a seasonality effect.
    Keywords: Ramadan effect, stock markets, markov regime switching
    JEL: C22 C58 G12
    Date: 2016–06–20
  8. By: Nop, Sothun
    Abstract: This paper explores main opportunities and key challenges for community participation in implementing climate change adaptation policy (CCAP) in Cambodia. It also determines potential priorities that can help promote community to actively involve in CCAP implementation. This study reveals that communities remain passively participate in implementing CCAP because key challenges seems to outweigh the opportunities. To promote community to actively join in the process of CCAP implementation, relevant policy legislations that established to fully empower local communities to effectively manage their livelihood resources need to be strictly enforced. Also, the exclusive livelihoods improvement programs and infrastructure projects, which help sustain incomes of vulnerable communities, upgrade their capacity, and promote their security, should be increased.
    Keywords: community participation, implementation, climate change adaptation policy
    JEL: O21 Z00
    Date: 2015–03–25
  9. By: Dao, Ngoc Tien; Doan, Quang Hung; Nguyen, Son Tung
    Abstract: Based on three data sets of information on students of a university in Vietnam, we estimate the factors affecting GPA by using the two-stage least squares (2SLS) method. The results of estimation highlight that parents’ occupation as farmers and living location in rural areas have an adverse impact on the GPA of students at university (University GPA). Causally, the government does not control or monitor the hours of part-time work of students earning a living cost and tuition fee, which rise dynamically in city located the university. Furthermore, we also find a positive relation between national university entrance point and the university GPA.
    Keywords: Vietnam, University GPA, Family background, Inclusive education
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I24 I28
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 7/2014
    Date: 2014–08–13
  11. By: Tanaka, Kiyoyasu
    Abstract: Forecasting tourism demand is crucial for management decisions in the tourism sector. Estimating a vector autoregressive (VAR) model for monthly visitor arrivals disaggregated by three entry points in Cambodia for the years 2006–2015, I forecast the number of arrivals for years 2016 and 2017. The results show that the VAR model fits well with the data on visitor arrivals for each entry point. Ex post forecasting shows that the forecasts closely match the observed data for visitor arrivals, thereby supporting the forecasting accuracy of the VAR model. Visitor arrivals to Siem Reap and Phnom Penh airports are forecast to increase steadily in future periods, with varying fluctuations across months and origin countries of foreign tourists.
    Keywords: Tourism, Econometric model, Tourism demand, Visitor arrivals, Forecasting, VAR, Cambodia
    JEL: C53 L83 Z32
    Date: 2016–06
  12. By: Pangaribowo, Evita
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2016–02
  13. By: Jiumpanyarach, Waripas
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2016–02
  14. By: Wahida; Umberger, Wendy; Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–02
  15. By: Matousek, Roman (University of Kent); Nguyen, Thao Ngoc (Nottingham Trent University); Stewart, Chris (Kingston University London)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine risk management of the Vietnamese banking system. This is the first such study of the Vietnamese banking system. To be able to carry out a comparative analysis and provide policy recommendations for risk management, we carry out an original survey of Vietnamese commercial banks using a questionnaire. 42% of the interviewees are General/Deputy General Directors and 58% are Heads/Deputies of a risk management department. The Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and other tests are employed to examine the relationship between risk management and bank efficiency. The survey results indicate that there is a difference between banks in terms of risk area identification, risk intensification methods prioritised, risk monitoring methods, efficiency improvement suggestions, awareness of other banks’ risk management systems and credit risk analysis.
    Keywords: Banking; Risk Management; Efficiency; Vietnam
    JEL: C12 C14 G21 L25
    Date: 2016–06–20
  16. By: Singh, Rajinder P.; Desbiolles, Jack; Vang, Seng; Bunna, Som; Men, Roat; Sovandina, Chea; Sophal, Chuong; Martin, Bob; Coombes, Neil
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2016–02
  17. By: Klaus, Deininger; Hoang, Tram; Jin, Songqing
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2016–07
  18. By: Yasmina Rim Limam, Stephen M. Miller and Giampaolo Garzarelli
    Abstract: How do physical capital accumulation and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) individually add to economic growth? We approach this question from the perspective of the quality of both labor and physical capital, namely human capital and the age of physical capital. We build a unique dataset by explicitly calculating the age of physical capital for each country and each year of our time frame and estimate a stochastic frontier production function incorporating input quality in five groups of countries (Africa, East Asia, Latin America, South Asia, and West). Physical capital accumulation generally proves much more important than either the improved quality of factors or TFP growth in explaining output growth. The age of capital decreases growth in all groups except in Africa, while human capital increases growth in all groups except in East Asia.
    Keywords: Age of Physical Capital, Output Growth, Stochastic Frontier, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: F43 O47
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Akzar, Rida; Permani, Risti; Wahida; Umberger, Wendy
    Keywords: Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2016–02
  20. By: Nordman, Christophe Jalil (IRD, DIAL, Paris-Dauphine); Rakotomanana, Faly (National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT)); Roubaud, François (IRD, DIAL, Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: Little is known about the informal sector's income structure vis-à-vis the formal sector, despite its predominant economic weight in developing countries. While most of the papers on this topic are drawn from (emerging) Latin American, Asian or some African countries, Madagascar represents an interesting case. So far, very few studies in general, even less so in Sub-Saharan Africa, used panel data to provide evidence of the informal sector heterogeneity. Taking advantage of the 1-2-3 Surveys in Madagascar, a four-wave panel dataset (2000-2004), we assess the magnitude of various formal/informal sector earnings gaps. Is there an informal sector job earnings penalty? Do some informal sector jobs provide pecuniary premiums and which ones? Do possible gaps vary along the earnings distribution? Ignoring distributional issues is indeed a strong limitation, given the compound question of how informality affects earnings inequality. We address heterogeneity issues at three different levels: the worker, the employment status (wage employment vs. self-employment) and the earnings distribution. Standard earnings equations are estimated at the mean and at various conditional quantiles of the earnings distribution. The results suggest that the sign and magnitude of the formal-informal sector earnings gaps highly depend on the workers' employment status and on their relative position in the earnings distribution. In the case of a poor and fragile country like Madagascar, these findings provide new and robust empirical backups for the existence of a mix between the traditional exclusion vs. exit hypotheses of the informal sector.
    Keywords: informal sector, earnings gap, transition matrix, panel data, Madagascar
    JEL: J21 J23 J24 J31 O17
    Date: 2016–05
  21. By: Jan F. Kiviet (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, 14 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637332.); Zhenxi Chen (Faculty of Economics, Business and Social Sciences, Christian-Albrechts University, Olshausen- strasse 40, 24118 Kiel, Germany)
    Abstract: Literature is reviewed on the analysis of co-movement between the price indices of stocks or their realized revenues at various markets. Four major categories of frequently recurring methodological shortcomings are registered. These are: (i) omitted regressor problems, (ii) neglecting to verify agreement of estimation outcomes with adopted model assumptions, (iii) employing particular statistical tests in inappropriate situations and, occasionally, (iv) lack of identiÖcation. We focus on studies regarding the interlinkages between emerging and more developed stock markets, in particular those in East-Asia and Wall Street. The devastating e§ects of the detected methodological defects are explained analytically and also illustrated by simulations and empirical examples.
    Keywords: diagnostic tests, interlinkage of stock markets, maintained hypotheses, model speciÖcation, test methodology
    JEL: C18 C52 C58 G15
    Date: 2016–02
  22. By: Bozhechkova, A.V. (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Goryunov, E.L. (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Trunin, Pavel (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In this paper we study key factors that determine implementation of capital controls and their consequences. We describe theoretical framework that takes into account capital flow restrictions, survey evolution of views regarding such restrictions and summarize the most common objectives of capital controls, including support of independent monetary policy under fixed exchange rates, maintaining financial stability etc. We also analyze existing international experience on capital controls including inflow and outflow controls in both advanced and emerging economies (Brazil, Malaysia, Iceland, Cyprus etc.). We consider several particular measures and study factors that explain their different macroeconomic outcomes. Finally, we discuss empirical works analyzing effectiveness of capital flows restrictions.
    Keywords: capital controls, capital control consequences, Brazil, Malaysia, Iceland, Cyprus
    Date: 2016–03–21
  23. By: Joseph E. Stiglitz
    Abstract: The state has played a major role in the most important developmental successes. This paper discusses the advances in our understanding of the role of the state in the developmental process over the past thirty years, and the contribution to those advances played by changes in economics, changes in the world, and key experiences (in particular the successes in East Asia and the failures in the countries pursuing Washington Consensus policies).
    Keywords: Industrial policy, Manufacturing
    Date: 2016
  24. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 6/2014
    Date: 2014–07–01
  25. By: Fanzo, Jessica; Hawkes, Corinna; Rosettie, Katherine
    Abstract: Le Rapport sur la nutrition mondiale, un mécanisme de redevabilité indépendant pour les avancées et les actions en matière de nutrition, invite tous les acteurs à prendre des engagements SMART en faveur de la nutrition – c’est-à-dire des engagements qui sont spécifiques, mesurables, atteignables, réalistes et limités dans le temps. Plus précisément, nous invitons les gouvernements à prendre des engagements SMART afin d’atteindre les cibles nationales de nutrition et de mettre en place des systèmes de suivi qui leur permettront, à eux comme à d’autres, d’évaluer les progrès en ce sens. Nous demandons aussi à tous les acteurs – gouvernements, agences internationales, agences bilatérales, organisations de la société civile et entreprises – de réviser ou d’étendre leurs engagements SMART et ambitieux dans le cadre du processus du Sommet N4G de Rio, prévu en 2016. Les acteurs dans d’autres secteurs devraient aussi préciser selon les principes SMART en quoi les engagements dans leurs propres secteurs peuvent aider à faire progresser la nutrition.
    Keywords: nutrition; malnutrition; nutrition policies; anemia; stunting; obesity; overweight; wasting disease; diabetes; children; micronutrients; health; climate change; private sector; agricultural development; agricultural policies; economic development; food systems; sustainability; poverty; breast feeding; indicators; HIV/AIDS; capacity building; public expenditure; children; sustainable development goals; wasting; burden of disease; undernourishment; undernutrition; noncommunicable diseases (NCD); child growth; Latin America; Africa south of Sahara; Oceania; South East Asia; South Asia; South America; Middle East; North Africa; Africa; Asia
    Date: 2016
  26. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Abstract: Poucos desafios enfrentados hoje pela comunidade global se comparam, em escala, à malnutrição - distúrbio que afeta diretamente uma em cada três pessoas. A malnutrição em si manifesta-se de diversas maneiras: como crescimento e desenvolvimento infantil deficientes; como indivíduos que são apenas pele e osso ou que são propensos a infecções; como aqueles que sustentam peso demais, ou cujo sangue contém açúcar, sal, gordura ou colesterol em demasia; ou como aqueles com deficiências de vitaminas ou minerais importantes. A malnutrição e a alimentação são, de longe, os maiores fatores de risco que contribuem para a carga mundial de morbidade: todos os países enfrentam sério desafio na área de saúde pública em decorrência da malnutrição. As conseqüências econômicas representam prejuízos de 11% do produto interno bruto (PIB) a cada ano na África e na Ásia, enquanto a prevenção da malnutrição fornece um retorno sobre investimento de US$ 16 para cada dólar gasto. Os países de todo o mundo se comprometeram a cumprir metas de nutrição. Contudo, apesar de ter havido algum progresso nos últimos anos, o planeta não está em vias de alcançar essas metas. Este terceiro levantamento sobre a situação da nutrição mundial indica caminhos para reverter essa tendência e pôr fim a todas as formas de malnutrição até 2030.
    Keywords: nutrition; malnutrition; nutrition policies; anemia; stunting; obesity; overweight; wasting disease; diabetes; children; micronutrients; health; climate change; private sector; agricultural development; agricultural policies; economic development; food systems; sustainability; poverty; breast feeding; indicators; HIV/AIDS; capacity building; public expenditure; children; sustainable development goals; wasting; burden of disease; undernourishment; undernutrition; noncommunicable diseases (NCD); child growth; Latin America; Africa south of Sahara; Oceania; South East Asia; South Asia; South America; Middle East; North Africa; Africa; Asia
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Hamanaka, Shintaro
    Abstract: One of the most important policy questions relating to the future impact of the Trans-Pacific Partnership on the global and regional economy is whether other countries in the region, particularly China, will join the partnership. While several commentators have made some observations regarding the future prospects of TPP expansion, little scholarly analysis has been conducted. To go beyond the speculation of a certain country's accession to TPP, we first attempt to generalize the issue before moving on to a specific question. We conduct a comparative analysis of a large number of regional trade agreements for a better understanding of the parameters of RTAs that are critical for membership expansion. This general framework enables us to conduct a systematic examination of specific membership expansion cases, such as China's membership in TPP. The paper also proposes a necessary "accession practice" that truly facilitates new members' participation.
    Keywords: International economic integration, International trade, International agreements, Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP), Membership, Accession, Majority voting, Veto
    JEL: F15 F53 F55
    Date: 2016–06

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