nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
34 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. East Asian Economies and Financial Globalization In the Post-Crisis World By Joshua Aizenman; Hiro Ito
  2. Cambodia: Addressing the Skills Gap: Employment Diagnostic Study By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  3. Higher Education Policies in Promoting ASEAN Community in Thailand By Ratana Daungkaew; Koolchalee Chongcharoen
  4. Southeast Asia and the Economics of Global Climate Stabilization By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  5. The Economics of Soil Erosion and the Choice of Land Use Systems by Upland Farmers in Central Vietnam By Bui Dung The
  6. Whom do people trust after a violent conflict? Experimental evidence from Maluku, Indonesia By Werner, Katharina
  7. Financing Channel and Monetary Policy: Evidence from Islamic Banking in Indonesia By Zulkhibri, Muhamed; Sukmana, Raditya
  8. Fourth ASEAN Chief Justices' Roundtable on Environment: Role of the Judiciary in Environmental Protection. The Proceedings By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  9. Regional Financial Integration in East Asia against the Backdrop of Recent European Experiences By Ulrich Volz
  10. Cross-Country Econometric Study on the Impact of Fiscal Incentives on Foreign Direct Investment By Revilla, Ma. Laarni D.
  11. Public-Private Partnerships in Information and Communication Technology for Education By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  12. Innovations in Knowledge and Learning for Competitive Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  13. Investing in Natural Capital for a Sustainable Future in the Greater Mekong Subregion By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  14. Effectiveness of promoting energy efficiency in Thailand -- the case of air conditioners By Kojima, Michikazu; Watanabe, Mariko
  15. Relationship between culture and tourism potential of interpretative signs: Case study URT Thailand (edit) By Kessini Tripoungpun
  16. Fiscal Gap and Financing Protected Areas in the Philippines By Alexander D. Anda, Jr.; Marlon M. Atienza
  17. Why do Countries Enter into Preferential Agreements on Trade in Services? Assessing the Potential for Negotiated Regulatory Convergence in Asian Services Markets By Daniel Rais
  18. Opportunities in education: are factors outside individual responsibility really persistent? Evidence from Indonesia, 1997-2007 By Rajius Idzalika; Maria C. Lo Bue
  19. The Health Impact of Haze: A Valuation Study from Malaysia By Jamal Othman; Mazrura Sahani; Mastura Mahmud; Md. Khadzir Sheikh Ahmad
  20. Challenges and Opportunities for Skills Development in Asia: Changing Supply, Demand and Mismatches By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  21. A nonparametric welfare analysis on water quality improvement of the floating people on Inlay Lake via a randomized conjoint field experiment By Su Thet Hninn; Keisuke Kawata; Shinji Kaneko; Yuichiro Yoshida
  22. Solar Australia By Paunić, Alida
  23. Review and Assessment of the Students Grants-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (SGP-PA) and Expanded SGP-PA By Silfverberg, Denise Valerie; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
  24. Increasing the Resilience of Asian Supply Chains to Natural Disasters: The Role of the Financial Sector By THORBECKE William
  25. Towards Responsive Regulations and Regulatory Coherence in ASEAN and East Asia: The Case of Australia By CARROLL Peter; BOUNDS Gregory
  26. Do smoking bans always hurt the gaming industry? Differentiated impacts on the market value of casino firms in Macao (China) By Zhang, Jing Hua; Tam, Kwo Ping; Zhou, Nan
  27. Can Islamic Philanthropy Increase Financial Inclusion? By Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Zaenal, Muhammad Hasbi; Taufiq, Umar
  28. The Vietnamese Iron and Steel Industry in Transition to a Market Economy -Attainments and Challenges- By Nozomu Kawabata
  29. Measuring Tax Administration Effectiveness and its Impact on Tax Revenue By Arindam Das-Gupta; Gemma B. Estrada; Donghyun Park
  30. Proceedings of the Regional Knowledge Forum On Post-Disaster Recovery By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  31. Tourists’ needs towards Environmentally-friendly Management of Hotel Business in Surat Thani Province By Yoksamon Jeaheng; Chuleewan Praneetham
  32. Are Asian services markets optimal regulatory convergence areas? By Daniel Rais
  33. Skill Distributions, Effective Endowment and Trade By Xiaoping Chen
  34. The “true” private school effect across countries using PISA-2012 Mathematics By Chris Sakellariou

  1. By: Joshua Aizenman; Hiro Ito
    Abstract: This paper assesses the East Asian Economies’ openness to cross-border capital flows and exchange rate arrangements in the past decades, with the main focus on emerging market economies. Using Mundell’s trilemma indexes, we note that the convergence of the three policy goals in East Asia toward a “middle ground” pre-dates the convergence of these indices in other regions. Another more recent development involves the high level of international reserve (IR) holdings–a feature that is known as the most distinct characteristic of Asian EMEs. Financial globalization made asset prices and interest rates in Asian EMEs more vulnerable to global movements of capital, and to the monetary policy of the center country, the United-States. The U.S. presence in trade ties with Asian economies has been declining over the last two decades, whereas China’s has been on a rising trend. Yet, the share of trade among Asian economies with the dollar zone economies has been quite stable. China has been recently making efforts to “internationalize” its currency, the yuan (RMB). Hence, if China succeeds in its internationalization efforts and creates the RMB zone, the dynamics between the U.S. and Asia will most likely change. Recently, Chinese authorities have become more interventionist because of the slowdown of the economy and financial markets. For now, the Asian region’s international finance continues to be dollar-centric.
    JEL: F31 F36 F41 O24
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Cambodia’s growth in the last 20 years has been remarkable and the lives of its people have improved substantially. But low-cost labor advantages on a narrow economic base have driven this growth. The country now needs to move beyond the four sectors that have dominated its economy: garment manufacturing, tourism, construction, and agriculture. Better education outcomes and higher-level skills are crucial for economic diversification and structural transformation and to sustain its inclusive growth. Labor force participation is high and unemployment relatively low, but the large majority of jobs are informal and more than a half of the employed have just a primary education or less. Addressing the problems of skills mismatch and future skills demand is therefore a priority. This joint report from the Asian Development Bank and the International Labour Organization examines constraints and opportunities for increasing productive employment in Cambodia. It can help the country exploit the opportunities its youthful labor force offers, but this window is closing fast.
    Keywords: cambodia labor, skills development, training, labor force participation, economic diversification, education outcomes, cambodia jobs, education outcomes, inclusive growth, skills mismatch, productive employment
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Ratana Daungkaew (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University); Koolchalee Chongcharoen (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University)
    Abstract: This study aims to explore any relevant information related to higher education policies in Thailand in promoting ASEAN Community. The study was guided by three broad questions: (1) What is the background of current higher education policies in Thailand; (2) What are the key domestic higher education policies currently in place that could be relevant to the AC; and (3) What could be some foreseeable challenges to the implementation of higher education policies promoting the AC? A qualitative approach was employed using document analyses and in-depth interviews with relevant government officials. The findings provide readers with a broad background on higher education in Thailand and the country’s formulation of higher education policies for supporting the AC, as well as an overview of the latest National Education Reform (2009-2018) that emphasizes Thailand’s potential to play a more active role as an higher education hub that develops human resources with the knowledge and skills sought by ASEAN countries. In addition, the study looks at current factors in the existing Thai higher education system that could potentially act as barriers in the implementation of policies promoting the AC, such as the English-language proficiency of Thai graduates; lack of manpower in technical and vocational fields; teacher preparation and quality assessment; and quality of higher education.
    Keywords: Higher education policy; ASEAN community, Thailand
  4. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Southeast Asia is vulnerable to climate change, yet is also on a carbon intensive development trajectory.
    Keywords: southeast asia, sea, climate change, carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse gas emissions,emissions mitigation, climate stabilization, energy efficiency, witch model, world induced technical change hybrid
    Date: 2015–12
  5. By: Bui Dung The (Hue University)
    Abstract: Soil erosion is a significant problem in the uplands of the Central Coast of Vietnam. It affects the livelihood of farmers and could hinder the long-term economic development efforts in the uplands. Yet, trapped in poverty, upland farmers, especially the ethnic minority, are still using erosive land use systems to meet their immediate needs. This study demonstrates how the level of soil erosion varies across the typical land use systems. The fruit tree based agroforestry system is least erosive and most financially profitable. Measured by the annualized income loss, the on-site costs of soil erosion under upland ricebased and eucalyptus-based systems are VND 1,022 and 1,019 thousand/ha per year, respectively. That under the sugarcane system is VND 635 thousand/ ha per year, as compared (in all cases) to the fruit tree-based agroforestry system. The choice of land use system is influenced by farmers’ attributes, land plot characteristics, and policy-related variables. Promoting the switch to agroforestry systems and the adoption of soil conservation measures is essential in reducing soil erosion and sustaining development in the uplands. It is, however, a very challenging task.
    Keywords: Economics of Soil Erosion,Choice of Land Use Systems,Vietnam
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Werner, Katharina
    Abstract: A long-standing - although not uncontested - view is that violent conflicts reduce average levels of trust. Other theoretical and empirical work emphasizes discriminatory effects, namely that conflicts may enhance ingroup trust and erode out-group trust. The present study combines a trust game and a questionnaire to investigate the impact of direct and indirect conflict exposure on trust between Muslim and Christian students in postconflict Maluku, Indonesia. Reduced average levels of trust are found for subjects who were indirectly exposed to the conflict. Discriminatory effects are related to direct exposure: Directly exposed subjects trust in-group members much more than out-group members. The rationale may be the following: Directly exposed subjects made negative experiences with outgroup members, but also experienced solidarity within their group during the conflict. Indirectly exposed subjects, on the other hand, heard about negative experiences of others without being sufficiently involved to have made such distinct experiences with in-group and out-group members. Unable to distinguish friend from foe, they reduce trust toward everyone.
    Keywords: trust,conflict,direct exposure,indirect exposure,religion,discrimination
    JEL: C93 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Zulkhibri, Muhamed (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI)); Sukmana, Raditya (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI))
    Abstract: Using Indonesia Islamic banks data from 2003 to 2014, this paper employs panel regression methodology by investigating the responses of Islamic banks to changes in financing rate and monetary policy may differ, depending on their characteristics. The results suggest that the financing rate has negative impact on Islamic bank financing, while bank-specific characteristics have positive influence on Islamic bank financing. The degree of size and capital have greater impact than liquidity on Islamic bank financing. On the other hand, changes in monetary policy is insignificant on bank financing, which implies that the transmission of monetary policy through the Islamic segment of the banking sector is weak. Furthermore, the weak impact of monetary policy on bank financing can be explained by the dramatic expansion of Islamic banks during this sample period, which contributed to substantial increase in deposit growth and high liquidity position.
    Keywords: Islamic Banks; Financing Rate; Financing Channels; Monetary Policy; Panel Regression
    JEL: E44 E52
    Date: 2016–03–01
  8. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the General Counsel, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the General Counsel, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: From 12 to 14 December 2014, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) chief justices and their designees convened in Ha Noi, Viet Nam, for their fourth roundtable on environment, with the theme “Role of the Judiciary in Environmental Protection.” Eminent speakers and participants shared their insights on the judiciary’s role in protecting the environment, particularly in addressing the region’s environmental challenges. The ASEAN judiciaries reviewed their progress made in implementing A Common Vision on Environment for ASEAN Judiciaries (or the “Jakarta Common Vision”) and further deliberated on the Proposed Hanoi Action Plan to Implement the Jakarta Common Vision. Toward the end of the roundtable, the participants agreed in principle on the plan. The plan officially took effect on 10 February 2015. Brunei Darussalam and Singapore support efforts to protect the environment and recognize the relevance of the work of the ASEAN Chief Justices’ Roundtable on Environment, and noted that the plan does not require a binding commitment.
    Keywords: environmental jurisprudence; courts; southeast asia; asian development bank; rule of law; jakarta common vision; hanoi action plan to implement the jakarta common vision; asean judicial working group on environment; asian judges network on environment; environmental damage assessment; regional cooperation; adb; environmental sustainability; good governance
    Date: 2015–11
  9. By: Ulrich Volz (Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK)
    Abstract: This paper discusses recent trends in regional financial integration in East Asia and current efforts of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries to foster regional financial integration against the backdrop of three decades of experience with financial integration in Europe. It reviews the two major crisis episodes of the recent European financial history to illustrate the risks associated with comprehensive capital account liberalisation and financial integration without commensurate supervisory structures. The paper highlights the importance of targeted macroprudential policies and the development of an adequate region-wide regulatory and supervisory framework to reduce the risks associated with regional ñ and hence international ñ financial integration.
    Keywords: Regional financial integration, East Asia, financial stability
    JEL: E44 F36
  10. By: Revilla, Ma. Laarni D.
    Abstract: The increasing level of competition for foreign direct investment (FDI) in the 1990s triggered many countries to offer various fiscal incentives. Specifically, many Asian countries persistently keep their tax rates competitive. To empirically investigate the relationship between the two variables, this paper examines the impact of fiscal incentives on FDI using panel data from 1996 to 2012 for five ASEAN countries. The analysis utilized five-panel data regression models, of which two are fixed-effects models and the remaining three are random-effects models. The results show that tax rate is negatively related to FDI. Another finding reveals the importance of infrastructure in increasing FDI. However, there is no significant link between governance indicators and FDI. To prevent a "race-to-the-bottom" effect on tax rates, the study recommends closer coordination between ASEAN countries in determining the optimal size and scope of these tax rates and other investment incentives. Additionally, focus on other country-specific factors affecting FDI flows, such as infrastructure, income, and population, is encouraged.
    Keywords: Philippines, fiscal incentives, ASEAN, foreign direct investment (FDI), tax policy, tax competition
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: A study of how PPPs have been employed by ADB developing member countries in Asia and the Pacific identified seven initiatives that adopted the underlying principles of PPP in developing and delivering ICT for education services. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have generated a lot of interest from governments around the world for leveraging private sector involvement in developing and sustaining public infrastructure and services. Initially, PPPs were favored by transport, energy, and other large infrastructure-intensive sectors. More recently, the concept has been expanded to include social sectors such as education.
    Keywords: education, public-private partnerships and education, communications technology and education, PPP and education, PPP and ICT, ICT and education
    Date: 2015–11
  12. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Higher education institutions in Asia and the Pacific are modeled on industrial age thinking that promotes routinized capacities and lacks the ability to innovate and create new knowledge enterprises. The transition to a knowledge economy is affecting the purpose, content, pedagogy, and methodologies of higher education. Nontraditional stakeholders such as professional bodies, industry experts, think tanks, research institutes, and field experts/practitioners are now involved not only in planning but in providing higher education services. The traditional model of “knowledge versus skills” is no longer relevant. Higher education programs must consider lived experiences, contextual knowledge, and indigenous knowledge.
    Keywords: education, information resources, electronic information resource, open educational resources, oer, free educational resources, education and oer, education and open educational resources, jouko sarvi, hitendra pillay
    Date: 2015–12
  13. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report aims to demonstrate the compelling need to increase investments in natural capital in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and identifies actions now being taken regionally and nationally to manage natural capital. It also proposes a guiding framework for promoting investments and actions by GMS countries to secure natural capital and thus ensure sustainable and inclusive growth in the subregion.
    Keywords: lao pdr, vietnam, myanmar, cambodia, thailand, economics valuation, ecosystem services, climate change, vulnerability, investments, food, energy, water security, gms, natural capital, inclusive growth
    Date: 2015–11
  14. By: Kojima, Michikazu; Watanabe, Mariko
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the magnitude of energy efficiency improvement, which has been promoted through energy efficiency labeling and the Minimum Energy Performance Standard, and to compare this against the increase in the number of products and the average increase in cooling capacity. Air conditioners (ACs) are one of the major contributors to energy consumption in a household. To assess the magnitude of this factor, we developed a formula to decompose total energy consumption from ACs into the number of ACs, their average cooling capacity, and energy efficiency. In the case of ACs in Thailand, energy efficiency improvement has offset the increase in the average AC cooling capacity. However, energy consumption from ACs increases with the number of ACs.
    Keywords: Energy, Household, Energy Efficiency, Standard and Labeling, Thailand
    JEL: D19 Q49 Z00
    Date: 2016–03
  15. By: Kessini Tripoungpun (Surratthani Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The major growth in the tourism industry of Thailand’s southern provinces can be prioritized as Phuket, Kabri, and Surat Thani, respectively (Department of Tourism, 2013). Surat Thani is deemed as one of Thailand’s most desired destinations by tourists, however, the province still lacks the effective tourism management. This paper will investigate the potential of the tourism interpretive signs along the new main road from Suratthani Airport to Donsak Ferry Pier.The results from the first survey have found that some of the interpretive signs are unclear, lack the standard form, contain format uncertainty and improper size and location, as well as the absence of Surat Thani’s identity. Efficient interpretative signs should include the following 6 main points: 1) relevance to the intended audience; 2) having themes; 3) providing novel experiences and avoiding repetition; 4) having clear and organized structures; 5) facilitating visitor involvement and choice; and 6) respecting the audience. In order to analyze all of the tourism signs, the two traveling directions are chosen, namely, from Suratthani Airport to Talad Kaset 2 and from Talad Kaset 2 to Donsak Ferry Pier.The result of this paper will employ both suitable location signs and interpretative signs found in Surat Thani. Both Thai and foreign travelers and tourists will clearly understand each sign which will lead to their destinations. Finally, the study is aimed that excursionists will become tourists when they come across clearly displayed potential interpretative signs.
    Keywords: interpretative signs, potential, tourism, Surat thani
  16. By: Alexander D. Anda, Jr. (Resources, Environment & Economics Center for Studies); Marlon M. Atienza (Resources, Environment & Economics Center for Studies)
    Abstract: This study is part of the cross-country analysis of the fiscal and resource gap of protected areas in the South East Asian region. It focused on the protected areas in the Philippines that are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Using mail and field interviews of the Protected Area Superintendent (PASu) or senior DENR officials, the study looked into the extent of internal and external threats to protected areas (PA) in 16 regions of the country as represented by the population of settlements outside PAs, inhabitants within PAs, number of visitors, and length of roads and trails. The management responses to these threats, indicated by the number of staff filled up by the DENR and the budget allocated by the national government, were also examined. As small areas received more budget and staff per hectare than big areas, we grouped the PA respondents into four clusters or sizes: small, medium, large, and very large. The average and highest values for staff per 1000 ha and expense per hectare were obtained per cluster. If we are to bring the belowaverage PAs to cluster average, and the above-average PAs to the highest cluster value, we computed that, in 2009, the DENR had a shortfall of 411 staff and USD2.34 million in expenses for the 79 benchmarked PAs. However, increasing staff and budget is saddled by contemporary problems like restriction in hiring of new staff, depletion of current DENR staff, and insufficient fees or revenue collections. To remedy this predicament, it is recommended that the DENR pursue the enactment of PA mandates or enabling laws for each PA to include the organization and staffing pattern that it will use as well as for DENR or PAs to pursue the following, among others: a) contract out management or to co-manage the PA with interested local government units; b) pursue a continuing capacity building program for PASu, PA staff, and PA Management Board (PAMB) members; c) establish a transparent and adequate collection system and other management systems; d) upgrade the general entrance fee and other charges set in 1995 using the cost recovery and ‘willingness-to-pay’ principles; and e) allocate budget to individual PAs instead of lump sum appropriation to the regional office.
    Keywords: Fiscal gap, financing protected area, Philippines
    Date: 2016–04
  17. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: More than a third of the World Trade Organization (WTO)-notified services trade agreements (STAs) in effect over January 2008 - August 2015 have involved at least one (South or Southeast) Asian trading partner. Drawing on Baier and Bergstrand's (2004) determinants of preferential trade agreements and using the World Bank's database on the restrictiveness of domestic services regimes (Borchert 2012), we examine the potential for negotiated regulatory convergence in Asian services markets. Our results suggest that countries within Asia with high levels of pre-existing bilateral merchandise trade and wide differences in services regulatory frameworks are more likely candidates for STA formation. Such results lend support to the hypothesis that the heightened servicification of production generates a demand for the lowered service input costs resulting from negotiated market opening.
    Date: 2016–02–02
  18. By: Rajius Idzalika (University of Goettingen, Germany); Maria C. Lo Bue (University of Verona, Italy)
    Abstract: Education is a strong predictor for economic performance. Therefore, educational inequality particularly in opportunity could make significant contribution to earning disparities. Following Ferreira and Gignoux (2014) parametric method, we construct aggregate indices of inequality of educational opportunities for fourteen Indonesian provinces in the years 1997, 2000 and 2007. Our particular and original contribution is to define individual indices of the power of circumstances which measure the strength of the influence that the accumulation of factors outside individual responsibility has in the short and in the long run on individual educational achievements and on earnings. We found that-along the period considered- there has been a declining trend in inequality of educational opportunities but not in all the provinces. Our findings also suggest that parental educational background is the most significant factor for school survival and that the effect that circumstances exert on future individual educational achievements and on early earnings perspectives tend to persist over time, but only to a very small extent. Moreover, our causal model which relates educational budget policy to equality of opportunity shows a negative impact of educational budget for the youngest cohorts, questioning therefore the effectiveness of the allocation of resources to primary and intermediate schools.
    Keywords: Education, Intergenerational Mobility, Inequality of Opportunity, Indonesia
    JEL: D39 D63 I29 O53
    Date: 2016–03
  19. By: Jamal Othman (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Economics,Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Mazrura Sahani (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Mastura Mahmud (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Md. Khadzir Sheikh Ahmad (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)
    Keywords: Health, Malaysia, Valuation, Haze
    Date: 2016–04
  20. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report discusses six key global trends on skills supply and demand in Asia. These are (i) the doubling of the labor pool, (ii) expansion of education access, (iii) economic and industrial transformation, (iv) technological advancement, (v) globalization and regional integration, and (vi) demographic shifts. The report highlights the need for Asia’s education systems to transform. It proposes four pillars on policies to address skills mismatch including (i) developing comprehensive national strategies and planning, (ii) reorienting and rebalancing education systems, (iii) prioritizing reforms in technical vocational education and training relevance and quality, and (iv) advancing international cooperation.
    Keywords: tvet, asian economic growth, skills mismatch, demand for skills, technical education, vocational education, education systems, formal education, trends, skills development, education development, tvet reforms, job markets, labor markets
    Date: 2015–11
  21. By: Su Thet Hninn (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University); Keisuke Kawata (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University); Shinji Kaneko (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University); Yuichiro Yoshida (Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University)
    Abstract: This study evaluates the potential surplus gain of a water improvement policy and the causal effects of its components on choice probabilities for the floating people on Inlay Lake, Myanmar, based on a randomized conjoint field experiment. In our experimental design, respondents rank three options: two alternative policies and one status quo. We then present a method that enables us to estimate the minimum willingness-to-pay for a policy in the form of compensating variations under a set of weak assumptions using this conjoint data. Results show inter alia that the provision of toilet facilities and a collective wastewater treatment, and joint implementation of the policy by the government and local NGOs have a positive effects on the choice probabilities. Results also show that the surplus gain from a water-quality improvement policy is at least as large as 22.9% of the average annual per-capita income of those on the lake.
    Keywords: eutrophication, randomized conjoint experiment, nonparametric welfare analysis, envirodevonomics
    JEL: Q53 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2016–05
  22. By: Paunić, Alida
    Abstract: Current large energy consumer potential of Asian and Pacific region as well as rise in GDP, population indicates further potential for energy needs. Part of solution at least in China is energy import. While electricity production so far is done in China and Australia with coal that causes high CO2 emissions proposed project Solar Australia suggests renewable production from Concentrated Solar. Negative impact of CO2 is hindered with competitive technology of solar from China, innovative technical solution in transmission process and incorporating environmental and social benefits and costs into calculation in order to provide a solution to high emissions in Asia Pacific Region.
    Keywords: energy, solar, renewable
    JEL: Q2 Q20 Q21
    Date: 2016–05–09
  23. By: Silfverberg, Denise Valerie; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
    Abstract: Making higher education more accessible for the poor serves the equity objective. Until today, the main policy tool to achieve this objective is funding public higher institutions. This has been shown to have no significant correlation on the enrollment of the poor by earlier studies. This paper assesses a new initiative of the Philippine government called the Students Grants-in-Aid Program for Poverty Alleviation (SGP-PA) implemented starting 2012. While there are other grants-in-aid programs, SGP-PA has two important unique features, namely, (a) it is well-targeted to identified Pantawid Pamilya households and (b) it provides a grant amount that is sufficient to cover all normal education expenses including living allowance. The assessment is done by comparing the academic performance of grantees to that of their peers. The results show that their poorer socioeconomic background appears to be reflected only in their poorer grades in the first year. By their second year, they are already performing at par in Math and even better than their peers in Science and English. The study also highlights the importance of entrance exam scores in the academic performance of both grantees and their peers. Finally, the study also documents the challenges that the program is facing and provides recommendations on how to address these challenges.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education, grants-in-aid (GIAs), affirmative action
    Date: 2016
  24. By: THORBECKE William (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry)
    Abstract: The financial sector is a part of the vital infrastructure of the economy. It can play an important role in mitigating the economic dislocation caused by natural disasters. Resilient financial institutions can ease anxiety and maintain confidence following a disaster. Robust insurance markets provide funds for reconstruction and are an efficient way to prepare for catastrophes. Deep and efficient bond markets allow governments to finance expenditures for emergency relief at lower cost. This paper considers steps that member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations can take to develop the financial sector in these ways and thus be better prepared for the earthquakes, typhoons, tidal waves, and other catastrophes that buffet the region.
    JEL: F23
    Date: 2016–02
  25. By: CARROLL Peter (University of Tasmania and Australian National University); BOUNDS Gregory (Office of Best Practice Regulation, Queensland Competition AuthorityAuthor-Name: DEIGHTON-SMITH Rex; Jaguar Consulting Pty Ltd)
    Abstract: This paper aims to review the coherence of the regulatory management system in Australia and explore how the system was applied in two contrasting case studies of regulatory change. The paper explores the broad success of the National Competition Policy legislative review and the relatively disappointing outcome of the Seamless National Economy Agenda.
    Keywords: Regulatory Reform Regulatory Management; the National Competition Policy; the Seamless National Economy Agenda
    JEL: D73 D78 F15 F23 F42 F55 G18 H11 H77 Z18
    Date: 2016–03
  26. By: Zhang, Jing Hua; Tam, Kwo Ping; Zhou, Nan
    Abstract: The gaming economy has expanded rapidly in East Asia during the past decade. Despite the public health hazards of Second Hand Smoking (SHS), smoking bans in casinos remain controversial due to concerns over potential economic losses for casino firms. Applying an event study method, the authors examine the abnormal returns of casino stocks in response to three unexpected announcements of smoking bans in casinos from 2011 to 2015 in Macao. The analysis reveals that the announcements were associated with differentiated abnormal returns of casino stocks. The stocks of the traditional casinos in Macao suffered significant cumulative abnormal losses of 1% to 6%, while the Las Vegas themed casinos in Macao enjoyed significant cumulative abnormal excess returns of 1.4% to 4.8%. Furthermore, the authors find that the low air quality in gaming venues and high dependence on gaming revenues are associated with abnormal losses, while positive management initiatives are significant correlated with positive abnormal returns. This study provides a full picture of the impacts of smoking bans on casinos and will thus be a useful policy reference for the Macao government, as well as for the rapidly growing gaming industry in Asia and other developing economies.
    Keywords: smoking bans,economic impacts,casinos,abnormal return of stocks,Macao
    JEL: L83 K32 Z33
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Ismail, Abdul Ghafar (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI)); Zaenal, Muhammad Hasbi (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia); Taufiq, Umar (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI))
    Abstract: Financial inclusion has become an integral part of many development institutions and multilateral development banks (MDBs) in an effort to promote inclusive growth. Many countries introduce their financial inclusion policy and strategy. The study that reports on the financial insclusion are not many. Furthermore, the study that specifically aims to address the financial inclusion for Islamic financial system is very limited. This study is limited to banking services. From the institutional perspective, it only looks at the partial aspects of Islamic finance. Whereas the definition of Islamic finance should institutionally cover the philanthropy. This study is aimed to explain theoretically on how the philanthropy instruments can increase the financial inclusion. Our study show that: first, philanthropy instruments increase the range of financial services available to underserve markets. Second, the more philanthropy instruments, they increase the number poor to have an account with Islamic financial institutions and at the same time the poor also get access to financings from the Islamic financial instututions.
    Keywords: financial institutions; financial inclusion; philanthropy; financial services
    Date: 2016–01–10
  28. By: Nozomu Kawabata
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the attainments and challenges of the iron and steel industry in Viet Nam. The demand for steel in Viet Nam is increasing, with a focus on construction steel. While low-level industrialization is a restraining factor for the industry, the high steel intensity of the economic structure is a promotional factor. Steel production is increasing in line with domestic demand. Private and foreign-affiliated enterprises are the main players in the expansion of steel production. Market selection based on survival of the fittest is working well. In general, the transition to a market economy is showing considerable results in Viet Nam. However, the industry still faces some challenges. While the low operating ratio due to excess capacity is a by-product of market-oriented reform rather than governmental intervention, the poor performance and governmental support of state-owned enterprises show an insufficiency of reform.
    Date: 2016–05
  29. By: Arindam Das-Gupta (Goa Institute of Management, Goa, India); Gemma B. Estrada (Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines); Donghyun Park (Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines)
    Abstract: We propose a method for constructing a tax administration measure of effectiveness or TAME, and describe its desirable properties. We then empirically construct a TAME using data from external audits of VAT administrations of Indian state governments. We then use the TAME to quantitatively assess the impact of tax administration effectiveness on tax revenues. The impact is found to be both statistically significant and large. We then identify causes of tax administration effectiveness in the poorly performing states. We then suggest guidelines for constructing our TAMEs for other jurisdictions and time periods.
    Keywords: tax administration, tax revenues, value-added tax
    JEL: H21 H25
    Date: 2016–01
  30. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has adopted an integrated disaster risk management (IDRM) approach which aims at strengthening disaster resilience in its developing member countries. The approach is also applied in ADB’s support for post-disaster response, early recovery and reconstruction and includes disaster response actions strengthening resilience to future hazard events. Facilitating sharing of knowledge, such as through this Regional Knowledge Forum on Post-Disaster Recovery, plays an important role in the IDRM approach. This forum was organized with support from ADB’s Integrated Disaster Risk Management Fund supported by the Government of Canada.
    Keywords: disaster risk management, idrm, post-disaster recovery, build back better, disaster resilience, adb, disaster recovery, disaster reconstruction, good governance, inclusiveness, post-disaster response
    Date: 2015–11
  31. By: Yoksamon Jeaheng (Suratthani Rajabhat University); Chuleewan Praneetham (Suratthani Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to explore tourist needs towards environmentally friendly management of hotel business in Surat Thani province, Thailand. The sample size was 384 tourists, who travelled to Muang district, Surat Thani province. A questionnaire was designed as a data collecting tool in order to collect information with accidental sampling. Statistical tools employed for data analysis were frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results of the sampling’s demographic data revealed that most respondents were female. Age’s range was between 26-35 years old, and most had education at Bachelor level. The respondents’ purpose of staying was for enjoyment and relaxation as the rest-seekers, duration of stay was 2-3 days and most of the respondents travelled for the first time. Moreover, they would be back to stay in the same hotel which costs about 500-1,000 Thai Baht. The finding found that most of tourists choose to stay in hotels which concern about environmentally-friendly management with 68.5%. Tourists’ needs towards environmentally-friendly management of hotel business focused on 4 different dimensions, namely management dimension, human resources management dimension, place and environmental management dimension, and communication and public relation dimension. The results found that a written-policy was the most importance of management dimension, knowledge of employees in responding guests’ questions related to environmental saving was the most importance of human resources management dimension. For place and environmental management dimension, the natural design would be initiated as the decoration of hotels. For communication and public relation dimension, the tourists could receive some hotel’s information via social network which was the most popular communication channel. However, hotel owners should improve their environmental quality.
    Keywords: tourist, environmentally-friendly management, hotel business
    JEL: Q56
  32. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: One of the striking features of trade diplomacy in recent years has been the seemingly unstoppable march of preferential trade liberalization and rule-making (Kawai and Wignajara, 2010). Of the 83 preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in force prior to the year 2000, 73 (88%) featured provisions dealing exclusively with trade in goods. By August 2013, 105 of the additional 176 PTAs in force (60%) also included provisions on services trade. The above trends signal the heightened importance of services trade in general, the growing need felt by countries to place such trade on a firmer institutional and rule-making footing and the attractiveness of doing so on an expedited basis through preferential negotiating platforms (Sauvé and Shingal, 2011).
    Date: 2014–05–27
  33. By: Xiaoping Chen (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, 14 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637332.)
    Abstract: This paper revisits the role of skill distributions in trade using a variant of the Heckscher-Ohlin model with multidimensional skill endowment and specialized production organized in teams. The equilibrium is characterized by the effective endowment", the part of endowment that is actually utilized in production, which depends on the team matches and the task specialization within teams. It is shown that: (1) The endowment correlation between skill dimensions for each agent and the skill dispersion across agents, additional to the aggregate endowment, both matter for the pattern of trade; (2) There are new gains from trade, attributed to potential adjustments of the effective endowment upon trade integration; (3) Different endowment distributions can also generate different wage inequality levels across countries; An empirically found job polarization pattern can be generated in all developed countries in the global economy; (4) Additionally, it reveals a new channel through which the institutions may have effects on trade, by shaping the skill distributions. In particular, the potential effects of different educational policies and some labor market institutions on the skill distributions and trade are discussed.
    Keywords: skill distribution, multidimensional endowment, team production, effective endowment, gains from trade, job polarization, wage inequality
    JEL: F11 F16 J31
    Date: 2016–03
  34. By: Chris Sakellariou (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, 14 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637332.)
    Abstract: It is known that in most countries, students of private schools perform better in international assessments compared to students in the public school system. However, when one controls for observable socioeconomic background characteristics at the individual and school level, public school students perform equally well. Furthermore, sorting to private vs. public schools based on unobservable characteristics takes place, which biases econometric estimates. I account for selection on unobservables using an approach based on the idea that the amount of selection on the observed explanatory variables in a model provides a guide to the amount of selection on the unobservables (Altonjie et al. 2005; Oster 2013). I use PISA-2012 data for Mathematics to derive bias-corrected estimates of the “true” private-dependent and independent school effect for 40 countries. With few exceptions, public schools outperform private schools (especially independent schools). Accounting for both peer effects and selection is necessary when evaluating school effectiveness.
    Keywords: School choice, private school advantage, selection
    JEL: C52 I24 L33
    Date: 2016–04

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