nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒05‒14
35 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Fiscal Gaps and Financing of Southeast Asia’s Protected Areas: A Cross-Country Analysis By Gem Castillo
  2. Economic Impacts of a Carbon Tax in an Integrated ASEAN By Ditya Agung Nurdianto
  3. Sustainable Energy for All: Tracking Progress in Asia and the Pacific: A Summary Report By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  4. Impacts of Economic Integration on Living Standards and Poverty Reduction of Rural Households By Bui, Tuan; Dungey, Mardi; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
  5. Marketing Channel Choice of Cocoa Farmers in Madiun Regency, East Java, Indonesia By Rifin, Amzul; Suprehatin; Suryana, Rita Nurmalina; Akbar, Indra Dilana
  6. Aquaculture technology and community based mangrove rehabilitation in Indonesia By Yi, Dale; Reardon, Thomas; Stringer, Randy
  7. Helping Households to Adapt to Extreme Weather Events--Two Case Studies from the Philippines By Jaimie Kim B. Arias; Jefferson A. Arapoc; Hanny John P. Mediodia
  8. Does Microcredit Have an Impact on Children? Evidences from Vietnam By Dinh, Cuong; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
  9. Forest Resources Dependency of the Rural Community: A Case Study in Bokeo Province, Lao PDR By Bounmy Somsoulivong
  10. Partnership Regimes for the Production of Biofuels and Natural Rubber in Upland Palawan, Philippines By Marvin Joseph F. Montefrio
  11. Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Thailand: Trends, Impacts, and Reforms By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  12. TPP, IPR Protection, and Their Implications for Emerging Asian Economies By KIMURA Fukunari; CHEN Lurong; LLIUTEANU Maura Ada; YAMAMOTO Shimpei; AMBASHI Masahito
  13. Improving Flash Flood Warnings: A Study from Thailand By Kannika Thampanishvong
  14. On-Site Costs and Benefits of Soil Conservation in the Mountainous Regions of Northern Vietnam By Tran Dinh Thao
  15. One mandarin benefits the whole clan: hometown favoritism in an authoritarian regime By Quoc-Anh Do; Kieu-Trang Nguyen; Anh N. Tran Roiser; Anh N. Tran
  16. The Impact of Agricultural Land and Labor Productivity on Poverty: The Case of Rice Farming Households in Cambodia By Thath, Rido
  17. Migration, Agricultural Production and Diversification: A case study from Vietnam By Nguyen, Duc Loc; Grote, Ulrike
  18. Valuing the Benefits of Forest Conservation: A Study from Southern Thailand By Saowalak Roongtawanreongsri; Prakart Sawangchote; Sara Bumrungsri; Chaisri Suksaroj
  19. Adapting to Climate Change - A Study of Household Choices from Across Southeast Asia By Herminia A. Francisco; Canesio D. Predo; Areeya Manasboonphempool; Phong Tran; Bui Dung The; Linda M. Peñalba; Nghiem Phuong Tuyen; Tran Huu Tuan; Dulce D. Elazegui; Yueqin Shen; Zhen Zhu
  20. Emotional numbing and lessons learned after a violent conflict - Experimental evidence from Ambon, Indonesia By Werner, Katharina; Graf Lambsdorff, Johann
  21. Collective Action and Other-regarding Behavior in Thailand: An Assessment of Games versus Reality By Rawadee Jarungrattapong; Suparee Boonmanunt
  22. Local Power, Local Pollution? An Analysis from the Philippines By Elvira M. Orbetta
  23. Can Bioplastics Help Reduce Our Dependency on Petrochemicals: A Study from Thailand By Siriluk Chiarakorn; Chompoonuh K. Permpoonwiwat; Papondhanai Nanthachatchavankul
  24. Are Biofuels an Environment-friendly Choice for Transport? A Study from Vietnam By Loan T. Le
  25. Malaysia; 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia By International Monetary Fund
  26. Climate-induced Vulnerability in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia By Chhinh Nyda; Heng Naret; Chann Sopheak; Kong Sopheak; Cheb Hoeurn; Sen Rineth
  27. Eliminating the Fuel Subsidy in Indonesia: A Behavioral Approach By Rimawan Pradiptyo; Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo
  28. Policy Options for Cambodia's Ream National Park: A Stakeholder and Economic Analysis By Thanakvaro Thyl de Lopez
  29. Transaction Costs of a Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Program in San Miguel Bay, Philippines By Zenaida M. Sumalde; Suzette L. Pedroso
  30. Assessment of the Sustainable Livelihood Program - Employment Facilitation Process By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ramos, Tatum; Magtibay, Jasmine E.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Daval-Santos, Gerald; Adona, Ann Jillian
  31. Is Trade Liberalization Good For Developing Countries? - A Case Study From Laos By Phouphet Kyophilavong
  32. Semi-analytic path integral solution of SABR and Heston equations: pricing Vanilla and Asian options By Jan Kuklinski; Kevin Tyloo
  33. The Cook Islands: Stronger Investment Climate for Sustainable Growth By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  34. The Cost of Flooding in Jakarta By Pini Wijayanti; Tono; Hastuti; Danang Pramudita
  35. ASEAN Food Reserve and Trade: Review and Prospect By Mujahid, Irfan; Kornher, Lukas; Kalkuhl, Matthias

  1. By: Gem Castillo (Resource and Environmental Economics Foundation of the Philippines, c/o REECS, Suite 405, The Tower at Emerald Square, J.P. Rizal cor. P. Tuazon)
    Abstract: This cross-country study examined how park managers and decision makers in Southeast Asia responded in the face of pressures on PAs, and assessed the level of resource gaps based on a number of indicators. A sample of 402 PAs from Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed in the study. Of the 16 pressure and 15 response variables identified for the pressure-response analysis, the indicators of pressure were (1) number of inhabitants per 1,000 hectares (ha) (or per square kilometer) of PA; (2) population adjacent to the PA per 1,000 ha of the PA; (3) number of visitors per 1,000 ha; (4) length of trails per 1,000 ha; and (5) length of roads per 1,000 ha. The response indicators were (1) full-time staff per 1,000 ha; (2) number of enforcement staff per 1,000 ha; (3) expenditure for operations per hectare; and (4) patrol stations per 1,000 ha.
    Keywords: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Protected area and biodiversity, Financing or PA management, Policy analysis
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Ditya Agung Nurdianto (The Australian National University)
    Abstract: The establishment of an ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 has been on the agenda for quite some time. One issue that recently emerged is the climate change issue in which each member of ASEAN needs to respond. The main goal of this study is to analyze the benefits and losses of cooperation among ASEAN members in mitigating their carbon dioxide (CO2) emission, particularly by implementing a uniform carbon tax across ASEAN. To achieve this goal, this study develops a multi-country computable general equilibrium (CGE) for ASEAN, known as the Inter-Regional System of Analysis for ASEAN (IRSA-ASEAN) model. An ASEAN Social Accounting Matrix (ASEAN-SAM) consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam is constructed as the main database for this CGE. This study finds that the implementation of a carbon tax scenario is an effective means of reducing carbon emissions in the region. However, this environmental gain could come at a cost in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) contraction and reduction in social welfare, i.e. household income. Nevertheless, Indonesia and Vietnam can still gain from the implementation of a carbon tax depending on how revenues generated from the carbon tax are redistributed.
    Keywords: ASEAN, climate change, CGE, carbon tax
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative is the global effort rallying action towards a transformation in the energy sector by the year 2030. With targets to increase energy use, expand energy efficiency, and ensure energy access for all, SE4All’s priorities are tied closely to the challenges of developing Asia and the Pacific, which is confronting issues of energy sustainability, security, and widespread energy poverty. In the interest of combining efforts and resources to meet the challenge, the Asian Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific have partnered to act as the leading organizations for the SE4All Regional Hub for Asia and the Pacific. Together, they are supporting actions among developing countries in the region that will put them on track to transform their energy sectors, in line with SE4All. This report summarizes the initial activities of the Regional Hub, and contextualizes the challenges in Asia and the Pacific with the global efforts to reach the 2030 targets.
    Keywords: energy, energy access, energy efficiency, renewable energy, sustainable energy, sustainable development goals, asia, pacific, sdgs, se4all, undp, adb, energy targets, 2030 targets
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Bui, Tuan; Dungey, Mardi; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
    Abstract: Economic integration has been accelerated in Vietnam as in other East Asia countries with the aim to reduce poverty and inequality. However, challenges including widening income gap between urban and rural and between households have emerged. This article examines the effect of economic integration on poverty and inequality of rural households in Vietnam. Corrected for fixed effects and other potential bias we find that the effect of economic integration on household welfare is minimal and statistically insignificant. Our study suggests policy agendas will require a redistributive household and community level component in addition to macroeconomic growth to effectively reduce poverty.
    Keywords: Economic integration, poverty, inequality, Vietnam
    JEL: F1 I3
    Date: 2016–05–05
  5. By: Rifin, Amzul; Suprehatin; Suryana, Rita Nurmalina; Akbar, Indra Dilana
    Abstract: The cocoa value chain developments in Indonesia are still promising and challenging as there are continuing emerging market opportunities and grown largely by smallholder farmers. However, there is limited attention on cocoa value chain in term of smallholder farmers who potentially to be promoted with respect to their marketing channel choice. The objective of this study is to understand the types of beans preferred and the factors of buyers chosen by farmers. This study shows that farmers still prefer unfermented beans rather than fermented beans. Using multinomial logit analysis, the results indicate that age and farming experience influenced farmers in selling to sub-regency and regency traders compare to village traders. Meanwhile, number of trees and price is affecting the farmers to sell to regency level traders to village level traders. Understanding what farmers’ preferences when they sell cocoa beans and why farmers choose certain selling channels help to design a better policy to improve farmers’ livelihood and cocoa value chain development.
    Keywords: cocoa value chain, marketing channel choice, multinomial logit, Crop Production/Industries, International Development, Marketing, Q13,
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Yi, Dale; Reardon, Thomas; Stringer, Randy
    Abstract: In Indonesia, the vulnerability of coastal erosion is driving coastal villages to initiate community-driven efforts to rehabilitate mangrove forests that protect against erosion. Analyzing data from a survey of 75 coastal villages, this study identifies factors that are encouraging or constraining communities to initiate their own mangrove-planting programs. Results show that communities with higher levels of shrimp HYV adoption were more likely to plant mangroves, which implies that some technologies can increase the value of ecosystem services that mangroves provide. In addition, villages with aquaculture farmer cooperatives were 35% more likely to replant mangroves, and villages with the ability to impose sanctions were 36% more likely to plant mangroves. The capacity of local governing bodies to coordinate efforts through farmer cooperatives and enforce compliance with a credible threat of sanctions is critical in carrying out mangrove-planting programs at the village level.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Jaimie Kim B. Arias (Department of Economics, College of Economics and Management,University of the Philippines Los Baños); Jefferson A. Arapoc (Department of Economics, College of Economics and Management,University of the Philippines Los Baños); Hanny John P. Mediodia (College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas)
    Keywords: adaptation, climate change, Philippines
    Date: 2016–04
  8. By: Dinh, Cuong; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
    Abstract: Vietnam has been successful in economic growth and poverty reduction. One of important antipoverty program is micro-credit for the poor. Although there are a large number of studies on the impact of micro-credit programs on income and poverty reduction, there is little evidence on its impact of children. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of micro-credit on child labor and education in Vietnam using Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) 2006 and 2008. Overall, this study does not find significant impacts of micro-credit on education and labor of children.
    Keywords: Child education, child labor, microcredit.
    JEL: I3 I38
    Date: 2014–05–15
  9. By: Bounmy Somsoulivong (Soakpaluang Road, Ban Wattnak Noi, Noy no.9, Sisatanak district, Vientiane, Lao PDR.)
    Abstract: This study used the Rapid Rural Appraisal Technique (RRAT) to examine the socio-economic situation of the rural community in Bokeo Province, Laos.It assesses the contribution of theforest resources to the rural community household’s economy and addresses theproblems associated with this forest dependency. This study aims to estimate the quantity and monetary value of various timber and non-timber forest products (TFPs & NTFPs), and the products cultivated and harvested from forestlands (CFLPs) on an annual basis. It also measured the rural household’s income derived from these products and those intended for annual household consumption needs. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and measure the rural community’s forest dependency in the 12 villages of the Nam Nhou and Nam Choam areas, Bokeo province, Laos. Three kinds of nature of forest dependency were discussed in this study: (1) dependency for subsistence (2) dependency for inputs into the household production system and (3) dependency for income and employment.
    Keywords: stated preference survey
    Date: 2016–04
  10. By: Marvin Joseph F. Montefrio (State University of New York)
    Abstract: In this research, I endeavor to understand the economic and environmental perceptions of upland farmers in the context of biofuels and natural rubber production regimes in Palawan. I also endeavor to understand how these economic and environmental perceptions explain the behavioral intents of upland farmers, especially regarding intensification of production and cooperation in such partnership regimes. Research findings are drawn from seven months of field research in Metro Manila and Palawan, which included surveys, in-depth interviews, participant observations and acquisition of secondary materials. Quantitative data were statistically analyzed and modeled using non-parametric logistic regression models.On the other hand, qualitative data were analyzed by coding transcripts and field notes and identifying emergent themes. Theoretically, this research endeavors to contribute to the scholarship on contract farming and the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework.
    Keywords: Philippines, Natural rubber, Biofuel
    Date: 2016–04
  11. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Heavily dependent on imported energy sources, significant subsidies on fossil fuels present a heavy burden on public finances in Thailand. This study measures the size of fossil fuel subsidies such as tax breaks for diesel and natural gas, market price support for natural gas for vehicles, and free electricity for low income consumers as well as the potential economic, energy, and environmental impacts of reducing them. With adequate reallocation of subsidy savings, the short-term adverse impacts of subsidy reform are shown to turn positive in the long term as households and industry respond to changing market realities by adjusting energy demand, supply, and production capacity. The study offers policy advice for sustainable energy use to help guide Thailand’s reform strategies.
    Keywords: thailand, fossil fuel, energy, fossil fuel subsidies, greenhouse gas emissions, diesel, natural gas, energy use, economic impacts, social programs, developing asia
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: KIMURA Fukunari (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); CHEN Lurong (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); LLIUTEANU Maura Ada (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); YAMAMOTO Shimpei (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); AMBASHI Masahito (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA))
    Abstract: Protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) is essential to economic growth, innovation, and competitiveness. As the global economy is increasingly organised within global value chains, disciplining and enforcing IPR in a coherent international framework have become a critical issue in the trade system of the 21st century. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) flags America's achievement in setting a new standard on international IPR enforcement under the mega free trade agreement framework that involves countries from Asia-Pacific; yet such standards run the risk of becoming the new norm at the international level. The establishment of TPP tends to accelerate the pace of emerging Asian economies in IPR enforcement.
    Date: 2016–04
  13. By: Kannika Thampanishvong (Thailand Development Research Institute)
    Keywords: Flood, warnings, Thailand
    Date: 2016–04
  14. By: Tran Dinh Thao (Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, Hanoi Agricultural University)
    Keywords: On-Site Cost,On-Site Benefits,Soil Conservation,Vietnam
    Date: 2016–04
  15. By: Quoc-Anh Do; Kieu-Trang Nguyen; Anh N. Tran Roiser; Anh N. Tran
    Abstract: We study patronage politics in authoritarian Vietnam, using an exhaustive panel of 603 ranking officials from 2000 to 2010 to estimate their promotions’ impact on infrastructure in their hometowns of patrilineal ancestry. Native officials’ promotions lead to a broad range of hometown infrastructure improvement. Hometown favoritism is pervasive across all ranks, even among officials without budget authority, except among elected legislators. Favors are narrowly targeted towards small communes that have no political power, and are strengthened with bad local governance and strong local family values. The evidence suggests a likely motive of social preferences for hometown.
    Keywords: Favoritism; patronage; authoritarian regime; political connection; hometown; infrastructure; disruptive politics
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2016–02
  16. By: Thath, Rido
    Abstract: Using the data from the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES) 2009, the study examined the impact of agricultural labor and land productivity on poverty among Cambodian rice farming households. The results showed that improving productivity of land and, especially, that of labor reduced poverty in two of Cambodia’s rice producing regions, the Tonle Sap and the Plain. There was no evidence of such impact in two other regions, the Mountain and the Cost. When the productivity of the less productive farming households were raised up to the mean level of productivity, only labor productivity was found to have an impact on poverty reduction in the Tonle Sap and the Plain, indicating that improving agricultural labor productivity is the key to poverty reduction. In Cambodia, improving rice productivity in the Tonle Sap and the Plain region is the most poverty reducing.
    Keywords: Land productivity, labor productivity, Cambodia, rice production, rural poverty
    JEL: I32 Q12
    Date: 2016–04–22
  17. By: Nguyen, Duc Loc; Grote, Ulrike
    Abstract: The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) hypothesizes that migration is a strategy to reduce risks and financial liquidity constraints of rural households. This paper tests this hypothesis for the case of Vietnam. The impacts of migration on agricultural production and diversification are estimated in fixed effects regression models based on a panel data set of about 2,000 households in Vietnam. The findings suggest that rural households who receive remittances from their migrants reduce the share of their income from rice, increase their land productivity and become more specialized in labor allocation. However, migration also decreases labor productivity and crop diversification of rural households. Overall, the NELM hypothesis is only supported in cases migrant households receive remittances.
    Keywords: Migration, Remittances, Agricultural Productivity, Diversification, Vietnam, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital, J62, D13, O13, Q12,
    Date: 2015–12
  18. By: Saowalak Roongtawanreongsri (Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University); Prakart Sawangchote (Prince of Songkla University); Sara Bumrungsri (Prince of Songkla University); Chaisri Suksaroj (Prince of Songkla University)
    Keywords: Value, forest conservation, Thailand
    Date: 2016–04
  19. By: Herminia A. Francisco (EEPSEA); Canesio D. Predo (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Areeya Manasboonphempool (Kasetsart University); Phong Tran (Hue University); Bui Dung The (Hue University); Linda M. Peñalba (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Nghiem Phuong Tuyen (Vietnam National University); Tran Huu Tuan (Hue University); Dulce D. Elazegui (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Yueqin Shen (Zhejiang Agriculture & Forestry University); Zhen Zhu (Zhejiang Agriculture & Forestry University)
    Keywords: climate change, household, Southeast Asia
    Date: 2016–04
  20. By: Werner, Katharina; Graf Lambsdorff, Johann
    Abstract: Violent conflict is sometimes believed to provoke discrimination, but sometimes also seen to reduce pro-sociality in general. While discrimination may reinforce conflict, a lack of pro-sociality hinders peace reconciliation, social capital formation and development. We test which of these viewpoints finds support and how activation of memories of the conflict affects people's pro-social behavior. Lab-in-the-field experiments were run among Muslim and Christian students in post-conflict Ambon, Indonesia, and combined with data from a post-experimental questionnaire. With the help of dictator, ultimatum and trust games, we investigate the impact of activation of memories of the conflict on different types of pro-sociality. We do not find evidence for discrimination against out-group members. Instead, pro-sociality is significantly reduced if subjects are reminded of the conflict. This effect is particularly strong if subjects had been highly exposed to violence and thus particularly dismal memories were activated. Our findings run counter to the viewpoint that conflict, group identities and discrimination reinforce each other and lead to a downward spiral. They are supportive of emotional numbing. Subjects behave pro-socially, potentially due to the lessons learned from the conflict, unless memories of the conflict are activated. For peace reconciliation, it is thus important to avoid activation of such memories.
    Keywords: Conflict resolution,Religion,Ethnicity,Discrimination,Experiment,Conflict exposure
    JEL: C93 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Rawadee Jarungrattapong (Thailand Development Research Institute); Suparee Boonmanunt (Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University)
    Keywords: collection action, behavior, assessment, Thailand
    Date: 2016–04
  22. By: Elvira M. Orbetta (Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies (REECS))
    Keywords: pollution, Philippines
    Date: 2016–04
  23. By: Siriluk Chiarakorn (King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi); Chompoonuh K. Permpoonwiwat (King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi); Papondhanai Nanthachatchavankul (King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi)
    Keywords: Bioplastic, Petrochemicals, Thailand
    Date: 2016–04
  24. By: Loan T. Le (Faculty of Economics, Nong Lam University)
    Keywords: Biofuels, Transport, Vietnam
    Date: 2016–04
  25. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Adjusting to shocks. The Malaysian economy has faced a sequence of shocks since mid-2014, including declines in commodity prices, spillovers from China, volatility of capital flows, and domestic political controversy. The economy’s adjustment is aided by its diversified production and export bases, deep financial markets, strong regulatory framework, strong external position, flexible exchange rates, and responsive fiscal policy and reforms. Outlook. The outlook for 2016 is shrouded in uncertainties, owing to a confluence of factors that include the global and regional trade slowdowns; China spillovers; the normalization path of U.S. interest rates; and the uneven strength of activity in Malaysia’s other major trading partners. Nevertheless, growth should remain healthy at 4.4 percent.
  26. By: Chhinh Nyda (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Heng Naret (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Chann Sopheak (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Kong Sopheak (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Cheb Hoeurn (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Sen Rineth (Royal University of Phnom Penh)
    Keywords: climate change, Cambodia
    Date: 2016–04
  27. By: Rimawan Pradiptyo (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Keywords: Fuel Subsidy, Indonesia, Behavioral Approach
    Date: 2016–03
  28. By: Thanakvaro Thyl de Lopez (Cambodian Research Centre for Development)
    Keywords: National Park, Economic analysis, Cambodia
    Date: 2016–04
  29. By: Zenaida M. Sumalde (College of Economics and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños); Suzette L. Pedroso (College of Economics and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños)
    Abstract: This study generally aims to estimate and analyze the TC associated with the implementation of a multi-level and multi-stakeholder program such as a CBCRM program. TC are indirect costs incurred in reaching and enforcing agreements. Tools for analysis used in this study included the estimation of direct project costs (DPC) and TC at each phase of the San Miguel Bay Coastal Resource Management Program (SMB-CRMP) and their distribution among the different stakeholders; determination of transaction costs share (TSC) and analysis of factors affecting TC. Similarly, effect of TC on performance of people’s organizations (POs) was analyzed. This study was conducted in the San Miguel Bay coastal area which is one of the pilot sites of the FSP. Thirty-eight POs in various barangays from seven municipalities with jurisdiction over San Miguel Bay were the focus of the study. The POs were classified as successful or less successful based on the success index developed from the criteria and indicators (C&I) that were adopted, modified and field-validated for applicability. Transaction costs incurred by the POs, local government units (LGUs) and the other stakeholders at the different phases (i.e., institutionalization, capability building and implementation) of the SMB-CRM were accounted for.
    Keywords: Transaction Cost,Community-Based Coastal Resource Management,Philippines
    Date: 2016–04
  30. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ramos, Tatum; Magtibay, Jasmine E.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Daval-Santos, Gerald; Adona, Ann Jillian
    Abstract: The Sustainable Livelihood Program - Employment Facilitation Track (SLP-EF Track) is a scheme that facilitates the employment of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) beneficiaries. The SLP-EF track has much potential to bring the 4Ps beneficiaries closer to reaching the poverty threshold because getting employed would provide additional income to the beneficiaries on top of the incentives provided to them by the 4Ps. For this to be realized, however, the SLP-EF track would have to be effective in targeting beneficiaries and in identifying employment partners for 4Ps. There is also a need for the Department of Social Welfare and Development to reassess its role in employment facilitation and to effectively link the 4Ps to other labor employment programs of government.
    Keywords: Philippines, poverty, Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), employment, livelihood program
    Date: 2016
  31. By: Phouphet Kyophilavong (National University of Laos)
    Keywords: Trade liberalization, developing countries, Laos
    Date: 2016–04
  32. By: Jan Kuklinski; Kevin Tyloo
    Abstract: We discuss a semi-analytical method for solving SABR-type equations based on path integrals. In this approach, one set of variables is integrated analytically while the second set is integrated numerically via Monte-Carlo. This method, known in the literature as Conditional Monte-Carlo, leads to compact expressions functional on three correlated stochastic variables. The methodology is practical and efficient when solving Vanilla pricing in the SABR, Heston and Bates models with time depending parameters. Further, it can also be practically applied to pricing Asian options in the $\beta=0$ SABR model and to other $\beta=0$ type models.
    Date: 2016–05
  33. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Pacific Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Pacific Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Cook Islands is among the best performing Pacific island economies, with many structures in place that support private sector investment, including an internationally competitive tax regime, an open trade regime, and good standards of education and health care. Future prospects are positive due to the growing tourism sector, and potential resource revenues from seabed minerals prospecting activities are another favorable development. The Government of the Cook Islands is committed to pursuing sustainable development through private-sector-led growth. Yet, the Cook Islands faces significant challenges in realizing its full potential, including a sluggish business entry process that discourages foreign investment, inadequate infrastructure that threatens to degrade the natural environment, complex land ownership and inadequate land use planning processes, and a weak collateral framework. This private sector assessment identifies priority policy areas and recommends the most important, strategic steps that the government should focus on to improve the business environment. This report was produced by the Pacific Private Sector Development Initiative, a regional technical assistance facility cofinanced by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Government of Australia, and the New Zealand Government.
    Keywords: Cook Islands; pacific; private sector assessment; PSA; private sector; PSDI; ADB; state-owned enterprises; business law reform; financing growth; economic growth; financial services; public–private partnerships; women's economic empowerment; economic analysis; financial markets; land reform; labor and employment; competition policy; infrastructure; Michael Mullins
    Date: 2015–10
  34. By: Pini Wijayanti (Department of Environmental Economics and Resources,Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University); Tono (Department of Environmental Economics and Resources, Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University); Hastuti (Department of Environmental Economics and Resources, Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University); Danang Pramudita (Department of Environmental Economics and Resources, Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University)
    Keywords: Flood, Indonesia, cost analysis
    Date: 2016–04
  35. By: Mujahid, Irfan; Kornher, Lukas; Kalkuhl, Matthias
    Abstract: Public food reserves come back into the policy agenda as a result of huge doubts on the reliability of international trade in the current new era of price instability. In addition to national food reserve, ASEAN countries are among the pioneer in establishing food reserve cooperation at the regional level. This study reviews ASEAN food reserve and trade in the cost and benefit framework. Although food reserve has contributed to the economic successes in the region, the operational cost for such policy is high. We show that regional cooperation through risk sharing can significantly reduce the fiscal costs of holding stocks. Moreover, ASEAN countries and their partners can consider to enlarge the cooperation by involving more countries.
    Keywords: Price stabilization, Storage, Regional cooperation, ASEAN, APTERR, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, F13, F15, Q17, Q18,
    Date: 2015

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