nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
35 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Food quality awareness : cases from shrimp producers in Thailand and vegetable producers in Vietnam By Suzuki, Aya; Vu, Hoang Nam
  2. Unraveling a secret : Vietnam's outstanding performance on the PISA test By Parandekar,Suhas D.; Sedmik,Elisabeth
  3. Agricultural diversification and Land use patterns in Southeast Asia By Mwangi, Edina Metili; Yu, Bingxin
  4. Does U.S. News Impact Asian Emerging Markets? Evidence from Nonparametric Causality-in-Quantiles Test By Mehmet Balcilar; Esin Cakan; Rangan Gupta
  5. Food demand in Vietnam: structural changes and projections to 2030 By Hoang, Hoa; Meyers, William H.
  6. The Effects of Vietnamese Export Policies on the World Market Integration of Domestic Rice Markets By Luckmann, Jonas; Ihle, Rico; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Grethe, Harald
  7. Major Challenges Facing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Asia and Solutions for Mitigating Them By Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad
  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Introduction of the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil Standards: A Case Study in Jambi Province, Indonesia By Ernah
  9. Median Response to Shocks: A Model for VaR Spillovers in East Asia By Fabrizio Cipollini; Giampiero Gallo; Andrea Ugolini
  10. Theory of Economic Development (Pyramids of Development) By Ahmed, Ovais; Mashkoor, Aasim
  11. Impact of VietGAP Vegetable Production on the Health of Farmers in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam By Tran Huynh Bao Chau; Le Thi Quynh Anh
  12. Benefits and Costs of Controlling Emissions from Fossil-fired Power Plants: Region IV, Philippines By Elvira M. Orbetta; Carlito M. Rufo Jr; Anabeth L. Indab
  13. An Estimation of the Production Function of Fisheries in Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia By Kong Sopheak
  14. Examining Gender Inequalities in Land Rights Indicators in Asia By Kieran, Caitlin; Sproule, Kathryn; Doss, Cheryl; Quisumbing, Agnes; Kim, Sung
  15. Urban shopping patterns in Indonesia and their implications for small farmers By Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy; Umberger, Wendy J.; Wahida
  16. Payment for Environmental Services in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review of Policy Implementation By Nguyen Thi Y Ly; Pham Thanh Nam
  17. Does education increase political participation? Evidence from Indonesia By Parinduri, Rasyad
  18. Harmful transparency in teams By Bag, Kanti Parimal; Pepito, Nona
  19. Social identity and solidarity in ethnically diverse societies: Experimental evidence from Vietnam By Roggemann, Hanne; Hadnes, Myriam; Landmann, Andreas
  20. Task ordering in incentives under externalities By Agastya, Murali; Bag, Parimal Kanti; Pepito, Nona
  21. Altruism, Cooperation and Trust: Other-regarding Behavior and Collective Actions in Thailand By Rawadee Jarungrattapong; Suparee Boonmanunt
  22. Changing Livelihoods in Rural Cambodia: Evidence from panel household data in Stung Treng By Sharma, Rasadhika; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Grote, Ulrike; Nguyen, Trung Thanh
  23. Can Understanding Indonesian Farmers’ Preferences for Crop Attributes Encourage their Adoption of High Value Crops? By Suprehatin, By; Umberger, Wendy J.; Yi, Dale; Stringer, Randy; Minot, Nicholas
  24. Attitudes toward Flooding Risks in Vietnam: Implications for Insurance By Truong Cong Thanh Nghi
  25. The Influence of Individual Risk Behavior on Fertilizer Use Decision in Vietnam By Khor, Ling; Ufer, Susanne; Nielsen, Thea; Zeller, Manfred
  26. Quantitative Analysis of Household Vulnerability to Climate Change in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia By Chhinh Nyda; Cheb Hoeurn; Poch Bunnak
  27. Economic Analysis of Flood Adaptation Options in the Sta. Cruz River Watershed, Laguna, Philippines By Jaimie Kim Bayani Arias; Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr.; Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza; Rowena A. Dorado; Bessie M. Burgos
  28. The Economic Value of the June 2013 Haze Impacts on Peninsular Malaysia By Mohd Shahwahid H. O.
  29. Building Co-Creative Partnerships with Asia –A New Development Cooperation Strategy for Japan– By Izumi OHNO
  30. Impact of VietGAP Vegetable Production on the Health of Farmers in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam By Tran Huynh Bao Chau
  31. Rags Among Archaelogical Riches: Sustainable Development in the Angkor World Heritage Site By Thanakvaro Thyl de Lopez
  32. Do Financial Constraints Affect Production Efficiency in Drought Prone Areas? A Case from Indonesian Rice Growers By Khanal, Aditya; Koirala, Krishna; Regmi, Madhav
  33. A Reexamination of the Agricultural Adjustment Problem in Japan By Takahashi, Daisuke; Honma, Masoyoshi
  34. Towards Reframing the Spirit of ASEAN Environmentalism: Insights from Japan’s COHHO Experience and Studies By TANAKA Masaru; HATAKEYAMA Shigeatsu
  35. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Dike Heightening in the Mekong Delta By Tong Yen Dan

  1. By: Suzuki, Aya; Vu, Hoang Nam
    Abstract: The high number of import rejections of food commodities suggests that producers in exporting countries are not complying with established standards. To understand why this is the case, we explore the behavior of producers and consumers in developing countries. First, we examine the successful transformation of production practices adopted by shrimp producers in Thailand. In support of the dramatic change in practices, we observe an important role played by the public sector in providing a means to visualize chemical residues and to control processes upstream of the supply chain via a registration system and a traceability system called Movement Document. Furthermore, very active information sharing by the private sector contributes to the dissemination of useful technical and market information among producers. We also examine the knowledge and perceptions of consumers with respect to food safety in Vietnam. We find that consumers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City behave differently toward the third-party certification VietGAP, probably owing to differences in the history of market mechanisms between the two cities.
    Keywords: Food industry, Quality control, Production management, Consumers, Agriculture, Food Standards Compliance, Traceability, Aquaculture, Social Network, Good Agricultural Practice
    JEL: D12 L15 O13 O19
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Parandekar,Suhas D.; Sedmik,Elisabeth
    Abstract: This paper seeks to find an empirical explanation of Vietnam's outstanding performance on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2012. Only a few developing countries participate in the assessment. Those who do, with the unique exception of Vietnam, are typically clustered at the lower end of the range of the Programme for International student Assessment scores. The paper compares Vietnam's performance with that of a set of seven developing countries from the 2012 assessment's data set, using a cut-off per capita GDP (in 2010 purchasing power parity dollars) of $10,000. The seven developing countries'average performance lags Vietnam's by more than 100 points. The"Vietnam effect"is difficult to unscramble, but the paper is able to explain about half of the gap between Vietnam and the seven countries. The analysis reveals that Vietnamese students may be approaching their studies with higher diligence and discipline, their parents may have higher expectations, and the parents may be following up with teachers regarding those expectations. The teachers themselves may be working in a more disciplined environment, with tabs being kept on their own performance as teachers. Vietnam may also be benefiting from investments in pre-school education and in school infrastructure that are disproportionately higher when compared with Vietnam's per capita income level.
    Keywords: Education For All,Effective Schools and Teachers,Secondary Education,Tertiary Education,Primary Education
    Date: 2016–04–12
  3. By: Mwangi, Edina Metili; Yu, Bingxin
    Abstract: Countries in Asia have undergone a process of transformation in the past four decades as both real incomes and the share of populations living in urban areas have increased. Evidence shows accompanying shifts in food consumption as well as production across the region, but how much each country has shifted domestic production and which farmers in particular are shifting is unclear. There has been a noticeable shift in consumption patterns away from staples (mainly rice), toward high-value commodities such as fruits, vegetables, and meat. In response, we see growing diversification in agricultural production with a steady decrease in the share of harvested area growing rice and an accompanying increase in the share of harvested area growing horticulture. In this paper we use household survey data from Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar to explore the extent of crop diversification at the household level, analyze differences between farmers who primarily grow rice and those who choose to diversify, and explore the factors that encourage them to do so.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Mehmet Balcilar (Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey; University of Pretoria, South Africa; IPAG Business School, Paris, France); Esin Cakan (Department of Economics, University of New Haven, 300 Boston Post Road, West Haven, CT 06516, USA); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to employ the recently proposed nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test to analyse whether US news on inflation and unemployment causes returns and volatility of seven emerging Asian stock markets (India, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand), based on daily data over the period of November 1st, 1994 to June 24th, 2014. The causality-in-quantile approach allows us to test for not only causality-in-mean (1st moment), but also causality that may exist in the tails of the joint distribution of the variables. In addition, we are also able to investigate causality-in-variance (volatility spillovers) when causality in the conditional-mean may not exist, yet higher order interdependencies might emerge. We motivate our analysis by employing tests for nonlinearity. These tests detect nonlinearity, as well as the existence of structural breaks in the relationship between stock returns and the US news variables, implying that the Granger causality tests based on a linear framework, which in any event showed no evidence of predictability, is likely to suffer from misspecification. Therefore, relying on the robust k-th order nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test, we find that there is evidence that US news affect returns and/or volatility of six out of the seven stock markets, with these effects clustered around the tails of the conditional distribution of returns and volatility. Our results imply that inflation and unemployment surprises in the US affects the Asian stock markets when they are either in bear or bull modes. In general, our results highlight the importance of modeling nonlinearity and studying entire conditional distributions of stock returns and volatility to draw correct inferences.
    Keywords: Nonparametric Quantile Causality, emerging Asian markets, macroeconomic news, surprises
    JEL: C22 C53 G1
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Hoang, Hoa; Meyers, William H.
    Abstract: Rank three demand systems have been recognized to be best-suited for long-term demand projections due to their Engel flexibility. Using a fitted QUAIDS model, food demand in Vietnam is projected under scenarios that account for alternative growth rates in food expenditures, food prices and urbanization. Results indicate that at higher levels of expenditure growth, budget share of rice declines while budget shares of high-valued foods such as meat and drinks increase. Demand for rice is projected to decline in 2020 and further in 2030 both on a per capita basis and in total while demand for other foods increases. The projections also show that the effect of urbanization is more remarkable for rice while it is modest for non-rice food groups. Results of this study highlight the importance of considering the effect of income distribution and urbanization in long-term food demand projections.
    Keywords: QUAIDS, Vietnam, Southeast Asia, Diet transition, Rice consumption, Household demand, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, D12, R20, O12, C52, C31,
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Luckmann, Jonas; Ihle, Rico; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Grethe, Harald
    Abstract: World market prices of rice have been subject to large fluctuations in recent years. Vietnam is a major exporter of rice which is also the main staple food in the country. The Vietnamese government is limiting exports, to insulate domestic consumers from world market price hikes. The effects of these policy interventions on price transmission are investigated in this study. We analyze the marketing chain of rice in Vietnam and construct a multivariate Vector Error Correction Model for markets across the country and include a policy parameter and an international reference price. We find reasonable cointegration of most markets analyzed and only a limited effect of the applied export policies: they suppressed the price in the main producing region, but did not significantly affect the prices in main deficit region. Thus food security programs directly targeting poor consumers are likely to be more efficient to improve food security.
    Keywords: export ban, export tax, multivariate Vector Error Correction Model, price transmission, South East Asia, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Q11, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Yoshino, Naoyuki (Asian Development Bank Institute); Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of the Asian economy. They make up more than 98% of all Asian businesses that provide two out of three private sector jobs in the region. Therefore, it is vitally important for Asia’s economic success to have fully functioning support measures for SMEs. However, SMEs face challenges from limited access to finance, lack of databases, low R&D expenditures, undeveloped sales channels, and low levels of financial inclusion, which are some of the reasons behind the slow growth of SMEs. This paper focuses on four major reasons that slowed the SME growth in Asia including i) lack of finance, ii) lack of comprehensive databases, iii) low level of R&D expenditures, and iv) insufficient use of information technology and provides remedies for mitigating them.
    Keywords: SME databases; financial inclusion; SME investment; R&D expenditure
    JEL: G21 G24 G32
    Date: 2016–04–18
  8. By: Ernah (Institute Development and Agricultural Economics, Leibniz University Hannover)
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis,Palm Oil,Indonesia
    Date: 2016–03
  9. By: Fabrizio Cipollini (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze); Giampiero Gallo (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze); Andrea Ugolini (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze)
    Abstract: We propose a procedure for analyzing financial interdependencies within an area of interest, interpreting a negative daily return in an Originator market as a VaR (i.e. the product of a volatility level and the corresponding α-quantile of a time independent probability distribution), and measuring the Median Response in the Destination market through its volatility associated with the one in the Originator and the reconstruction of the correlation structure between the two (through copula functions). We apply our methodology to nine Asian markets, varying the choice of the Originator and deriving a number of indicators which represent the importance of each market as a provider or a receiver of turbulence. Over a 1996-2015 period we confirm the role of traditionally important markets (e.g. Hong Kong or Singapore), while over a rolling three--year estimation period, we can detect rises and declines, the explosion of turbulence in the occasion of the Great Recession and the magnified role of China in the recent years.
    Keywords: Value at Risk, Volatility, copula functions, Spillover, turbulence, financial crisis
    JEL: C58 G01 C22
    Date: 2016–04
  10. By: Ahmed, Ovais; Mashkoor, Aasim
    Abstract: The economic development is the term represents “long-term economic planning which based on infrastructure development, trade development and most importantly human development. These pyramids are basically interconnected with economic development. In other word, the new theoretical aspects considerable compared with prior studies of economic development. There are further factors which purposely get rid of development barriers in economic planning, secure from dissolving assets of nations such as, deforestation, flood management, land of agriculture, and climate impact. These are most fundamental variables ignored by economic planner. This research study further elaborated wealth of natural resources in the example of other Asian countries like, Malaysia and china. Moreover, human development is the skeleton of economic development. They should be keep healthy and nourish which are provided complete legal material of living standards, therefore, health of nation would be controlled and maintained. Besides, education is an essential for human development, consequently, ignorance of appropriate basic level of education can lead the nation to dark of unaware of civil society i.e. harmful for growing economy at globalize world. Human without education like stagnant of literate people in economy that deliberately useless for industrial services and repercussion economic growth.
    Keywords: Economic Development, Human Development
    JEL: F6 O1 O2
    Date: 2015–04–05
  11. By: Tran Huynh Bao Chau (College of Economics, Hue University); Le Thi Quynh Anh (College of Economics, Hue University)
    Keywords: VietGAP,Vegetable Production,Vietnam
    Date: 2016–03
  12. By: Elvira M. Orbetta (Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies, Inc. (REECS), Suite 405, The Tower at Emerald Square, J.P. Rizal cor. P. Tuazon Streets, Project 4, Quezon City 1109, Philippines); Carlito M. Rufo Jr (Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies, Inc. (REECS)); Anabeth L. Indab (Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies, Inc. (REECS))
    Abstract: The study assessed the incremental benefits and costs of different options to control PM10 and SO2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants using two power plants in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), Philippines, as case studies. Benefits were estimated by modeling the changes in ambient concentrations arising from the control, estimating the improvements, and valuing these in economic terms. The study focused on adverse health effects, using dose-response function established in other studies, and economic values based on the benefit transfer technique. Control costs were estimated using the engineering cost approach. Impacts were assessed within 10 and 50 km radius from each plant. The study showed that existing controls for particulates met the emissions standard. However, the use of fuel with standard sulfur content was not sufficient to meet SO2 emissions standard. Thus, a review of the sulfur content standard in fuel was recommended. SO2 emissions from each of the two power plants translated to maximum predicted ambient concentrations that were significant relative to the maximum allowable ambient concentration. The value of the health effects avoided was much larger when the impact area was extended from 10- to 50-km radius, it was much larger for oil than for coal, with the value of mortality effects avoided dominating the total. Among the different options analyzed only the switch to cleaner fuel for oil and increased thermal efficiency for coal were justified. With a switch to cleaner fuel, the value of health damage avoided considering a 50-km impact area was 0.08% to 3.34% of the current average selling price of electricity, implying a 0.11 % to 4.31 % increase in the average cost of power service if the power plants were made to internalize the health damages.
    Keywords: cost benefits, power plant, Philippines
    Date: 2016–03
  13. By: Kong Sopheak (Graduate Program in Development Studies of the Faculty of Development Studies, Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
    Abstract: This report presents an economic analysis of the different uses and the indirect use value of mangroves in terms of their support as nurseries and breeding grounds for commercially important finfish in Koh Kong, Kep, Kampot, and Preah Sihanouk, which are four coastal provinces in Cambodia. A total of 300 households in four different locations that have different mangrove characteristics were surveyed in order to collect information on the traditional uses of mangrove extracted by the local communities. This study estimated the direct use value of mangrove products collected by households, including fuelwood, charcoal, wood for construction materials, fish, and snails. It also estimated the indirect use value of mangrove forest resulting from its nursery and breeding ground services for commercially important finfish. The results of the study showed that both the direct and indirect values derived from mangrove forests are very high. Thus, failing to find and implement appropriate management strategies and policies on mangroves conservation would lead not only to serious or irreversible ecological degradation, but also to substantial economic losses.
    Keywords: Cambodia, Coastal/Marine, Mangroves and Wetlands, Benefit Valuation
    Date: 2016–02
  14. By: Kieran, Caitlin; Sproule, Kathryn; Doss, Cheryl; Quisumbing, Agnes; Kim, Sung
    Abstract: A broad consensus has emerged that strengthening women’s property rights is crucial for reducing poverty and achieving equitable growth. Despite its importance, few nationally representative data exist on women’s property rights in Asia, hindering formulation of appropriate policies to reduce gender gaps in land rights. This paper reviews existing micro-level, large sample data on men’s and women’s control of land, using this information to assess gaps in land rights. Utilizing nationally representative individual- and plot-level data from Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Vietnam, and Timor-Leste, we calculate five indicators: incidence of landownership and distribution of landownership by sex, and distribution of plots owned, mean plot size, and distribution of land area, all by sex of owner. The results reveal large gender gaps in landownership across countries. However, the limited information on joint and individual ownership are among the most critical data gaps and are an important area for future data collection and analysis.
    Keywords: Gender, Land rights, Property ownership, Bundles of rights, Asia, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Minot, Nicholas; Stringer, Randy; Umberger, Wendy J.; Wahida
    Abstract: The rapid growth of supermarkets in developing countries has raised concern that small farmers may be squeezed out of urban markets by the quality standards and other requirements of supermarkets. This study explores these issues using data from a stratified random survey of 1180 urban households in Indonesia. The results suggest that 73% of urban households use modern food retailers, but these retailers account for just 19% of food expenditure. Econometric analysis indicates that the use of modern food retailers is associated with higher income, higher education, and ownership of a refrigerator and motorbike. The impact of supermarkets on fresh vegetable growers is likely to be minimal because 98% of urban vegetables are still purchased at traditional retailers. Projections based on the current relationship between income and shopping patterns suggests that traditional retailers will continue to play an important role in fresh produce marketing for the foreseeable future.
    Keywords: supermarkets, horticulture, urban consumption, Indonesia, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, D12, O12, Q13, Q18,
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Nguyen Thi Y Ly (Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Agriculture and Forestry); Pham Thanh Nam
    Keywords: Payment for Environmental Services,Southeast Asia,Policy Implementation
    Date: 2016–03
  17. By: Parinduri, Rasyad
    Abstract: I examine whether education increases voter turnout and makes better voters using an exogenous variation in education induced by an extension of Indonesia's school term length, which fits a fuzzy regression discontinuity design. The longer school year increases education, but I do not find evidence that education makes people more likely to vote in elections or changes whether they consider political candidates' religion, ethnicity, or gender important when they vote. If anything, education seems to make voters more likely to think candidates' development programs are important.
    Keywords: education, political participation, regression discontinuity design, Asia, Indonesia
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2016–03
  18. By: Bag, Kanti Parimal (National University of Singapore, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics); Pepito, Nona (Essec business school)
    Abstract: In a two-period continuous effort investment game as in Mohnen, et al. (2008), we demonstrate that peer transparency can be strictly harmful. This contrasts with Mohnen et al.'s result that transparency, through the observability of interim efforts, induces more effort and is thus beneficial if team members are inequity-averse. If, instead, preferences are standard utilitarian, the marginal benefit is decreasing and marginal cost is increasing in a player's own effort, then players' collective and individual efforts are strictly less with transparency than under non-transparency.
    Keywords: free-riding; transparency; team; perfect substitution
    JEL: D02
    Date: 2016–01–26
  19. By: Roggemann, Hanne; Hadnes, Myriam; Landmann, Andreas
    Abstract: We study the impact of social identity on risk sharing behavior in an ethnically diverse society in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. We ran Solidarity Games with 285 male household heads from two distinct ethnic groups. We varied participants' social identity by altering the ethnic composition in the risk-sharing group of three. Our main strategy is to influence identity induced solidarity towards the unlucky coplayer by manipulating the identity of the non-affected third player. Our results are consistent with social identity theory, predicting that identity is endogenous to group composition. We partially confirm existing evidence on in-group favoritism, once identity becomes salient. Additionally, we find that those subjects that constitute the minority in the risk-sharing group show adaptive behavior by imitating the perceived norm of the dominant ethnic group. These results suggest that identity is context specific. Particularly, the rather disadvantaged group in the heterogeneous society seems to adapt their behavior to the social environment.
    Keywords: Social Identity, Risk Sharing, Neighborhood e ects, Vietnam, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty, D3,
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Agastya, Murali (University of Sydney, 1School of Economics); Bag, Parimal Kanti (National University of Singapore, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics); Pepito, Nona (Essec Business School)
    Abstract: In a two-task team project with observable task outcomes, optimal incentives prioritize tasks differently depending on task externalities. When the tasks are independent, Principal follows a decreasing order by placing more essential task first. A task is more essential if its failure compromises the overall project's chance of success from a task-specific cutoff level by a greater percentage. This definition has no systematic relations to the variance of task outcomes. In particular, a more risky task can be less essential or more essential. Under externalities, essentiality and impact jointly determine the optimal ordering. A task with much higher impact can be performed early even if it is less essential. Optimal task ordering thus raises subtle new issues and forms an integral part in team incentives. Our analysis provides some contrast with recent team incentives results.
    Keywords: externalities in teams; sequencing; essential tasks; joint projects; team incentives
    JEL: D20 D80
    Date: 2016–01–25
  21. By: Rawadee Jarungrattapong (Thailand Development Research Institute); Suparee Boonmanunt (Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University)
    Keywords: Altruism,Cooperation,Trust,Behavior, Thailand
    Date: 2016–03
  22. By: Sharma, Rasadhika; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Grote, Ulrike; Nguyen, Trung Thanh
    Abstract: Analysis of livelihood strategies can aid to understand and resolve problems associated with vulnerability to poverty and food security. This paper aims to identify and describe the changes in rural livelihood activities by using household data for 2013 and 2014 collected in Stung Treng, Cambodia. We use the same variables and estimate different clusters for both the years. The paper concludes that despite the lag of only one year, there are noticeable changes in livelihood strategies. Firstly, we find a group of transition farmers in 2014 that is composed of households that are witnessing a shift towards commercialization. They invest and consume more than subsistence farmers. Secondly, there is a greater diversification in activities amongst the groups. Most households practice multiple activities. Lastly, with regards to self-employment, there has been a shift from agriculture and the production sector to services and crafts. All of the above changes can be deemed as positive as there is a gradual movement away from more vulnerable sectors. Accordingly, households that participate in livelihood activities related to agriculture and natural resource extraction are most affected by shocks and face the highest vulnerability to poverty. The paper additionally highlights some concerns such as a decline in availability of extracted products such as the fish stock which are expected to negatively impact on these more vulnerable rural households in the medium and longer term. Furthermore, the state of education is dismal and needs attention. Therefore, policy makers need to consider these issues while addressing rural poverty.
    Keywords: Livelihoods, Rural poverty, Diversification, Cluster Analysis, Cambodia, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q57, Q20, Q12,
    Date: 2016–04
  23. By: Suprehatin, By; Umberger, Wendy J.; Yi, Dale; Stringer, Randy; Minot, Nicholas
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide insight on how Indonesian farmer preferences for crop attributes influence their adoption decisions. Results from a Latent Class (LC) cluster analysis, using the individual scores for each of the Best-Worst (BW) scaling attributes, indicate there are four clusters of farmers, each distinct in their relative preferences for crop attributes and socio-demographic characteristics. The multinomial endogenous treatment regressions show that preference cluster effect varies across models. For the binary adoption model, we find an insignificant preference cluster effect. We find a significant preference cluster effect both for the intensity of adoption and the timing of adoption models. The effects of farmers’ crop preference cluster, however, are different across those models. The findings allow more targeted programming to encourage farmers to adopt high-value crops that have a high probability of offering benefits for farmers.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Truong Cong Thanh Nghi (Faculty of Development Economics, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City, 1A Hoang Dieu Street, Phu Nhuan District, Ho Chi Minh City)
    Abstract: This study used the experimental method to elicit abstract risk attitudes on and preferences for uncertainties based on the context of flooding in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. In contrast to the common assumption that farmers are risk averse, our results showed that farmers are, on the average, risk neutral. Moreover, although farmers are ambiguity averse toward Ellsberg-type uncertainty, they are not averse to flooding uncertainty. We also found that farmers systematically underestimate the probability of flooding. The results of the study provide possible explanations for the low take-up of insurance.
    Keywords: Vietnam, Behavioral Economics and social capital, Mitigation, Behavioral/Experimental Economics
    Date: 2016–01
  25. By: Khor, Ling; Ufer, Susanne; Nielsen, Thea; Zeller, Manfred
    Abstract: Fake or substandard fertilizer is a growing concern in many countries. Even in places not affected by fertilizer quality problems, uncertainty could arise due to doubts about the effectiveness of fertilizer in general. Past literature has examined the impact of risk preferences on fertilizer use intensity. We build upon this literature by showing theoretically and empirically that the marginal effect might not be the same for farmers of different wealth levels. In our study area in northwestern Vietnam, low wealth farmers reduce their fertilizer intensity when their risk aversion increases. The marginal effect for high wealth farmers is insignificant.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Chhinh Nyda (Master of Development Studies Program, Royal University of Phnom Penh); Cheb Hoeurn (Royal University of Phnom Penh); Poch Bunnak (oyal University of Phnom Penh)
    Keywords: Climate change, Cambodia
    Date: 2016–03
  27. By: Jaimie Kim Bayani Arias (Department of Economics, College of Economics and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños); Vicente G. Ballaran, Jr. (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Maria Emilinda T. Mendoza (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Rowena A. Dorado (University of the Philippines Los Baños); Bessie M. Burgos (SEARCA)
    Keywords: Economic Analysis,Flood Adaptation,Philippines
    Date: 2016–03
  28. By: Mohd Shahwahid H. O. (Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia)
    Keywords: Haze, Malaysia, Economic Value
    Date: 2016–03
  29. By: Izumi OHNO (Asia Pacific Institute of Research)
    Abstract: The landscape of international development has changed dramatically, with a rise of emerging economies, more diverse actors of development cooperation, and intensifying aid competition. Moreover, Japan itself stands at a major turning point. There is a new wave of ‘internationalization’ of Japanese manufacturing FDI involving SMEs, which necessitates building much deeper and co-creative partnerships with Asia. The latest revision of the 2003 ODA Charter and the formulation of the new Development Cooperation Charter by the Japanese government can be understood as an attempt to respond to such changes. This paper stresses the four principles of Japan’s contribution to international development in a new era—i.e., a quality and knowledge leader, a people-centered approach, a solution-provider, and network-based cooperation. It then proposes three sets of enhanced partnerships with Asia: (i) manufacturing (monozukuri) partnership, (ii) city development (toshizukuri) partnership, and (iii) knowledge (chiteki) partnership. Japan should create a global strategy that increases its soft power, making full use of the intellectual assets and expertise as well as the human networks accumulated in Japan and abroad, building on its sixty-year ODA cooperation. ‘Co-creative’ partnerships with Asia should be central to this global strategy.
    Keywords: development cooperation, ODA, Asian dynamism, emerging economies, SME internationalization, co-creative partnerships, public-private partnership (PPP) ,開発協力, ODA, アジアダイナミズム, 新興国, 中小企業の海外展開, 共創パートナーシップ, 官民連携
  30. By: Tran Huynh Bao Chau (Faculty Economics and Development, Studies, College of Economics – Hue University, 99 Ho Dac Di Street, Hue City, Vietnam)
    Abstract: This study estimated the health impact value of the VietGAP program on the health of farmers in Thua Thien Hue province. By employing the propensity score matching (PSM) method, findings show that the VietGAP program has a significant impact on farmers’ health. In particular, the program reduces farmers’ health problems due to pesticide exposure by 15.6%, 22.9%, 25.5%, and 23.6%, respectively, based on four types of matching. Most health problems due to pesticide exposure are moderate in severity and have short-term effects. Conventional farmers experience more health problems with more significant symptoms than VietGAP farmers do. By applying the health cost derived from direct and indirect costs, the health impact value from the VietGAP program is VND 521,870. Many farmers are aware of the harmful effects of pesticide use; intensive use of pesticides and using inadequate protective equipment increase the health risks faced by farmers. This study provided evidence of the positive impacts of the VietGAP program on the health status of farmers in Thua Thien Hue province. It is therefore hoped that the production, consumption, and management solutions provided by the VietGAP program can encourage farmers to use environment-friendly agricultural practices.
    Keywords: Agriculture, IPM, Agrochemical and Health
    Date: 2015–10
  31. By: Thanakvaro Thyl de Lopez (University of Cambridge, Magdalene College, Cambridge CB3 0AG, UK.)
    Abstract: Founded in the ninth century, the city of Angkor lies at the heart of Khmer cultural heritage. Since 1995, the number of foreign visitors to the temples of Angkor has jumped from a few thousand a year to nearly a million. The neighbouring city of Siem Reap has experienced rapid growth in recent years and local infrastructure and services have struggled to keep up with the demands of international mass tourism. While it represents a significant source of foreign currency for Cambodia, mass tourism has increased pressure on Angkor's cultural and natural features, including water supply. This study of the impacts of tourism on local people involved face-to-face interviews of more than 400 souvenir vendors and 2,500 households residing in Angkor. It found that revenues from park entrance fees represent a unique opportunity to restore Angkor to a thriving city and provides a catalogue of useful and feasible community development projects that could be financed in this way.
    Keywords: National park, Cambodia
    Date: 2016–04
  32. By: Khanal, Aditya; Koirala, Krishna; Regmi, Madhav
    Keywords: Efficiency, DEA, Stochastic Frontier, financial factors, Agricultural Finance, International Development, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2016–01–22
  33. By: Takahashi, Daisuke; Honma, Masoyoshi
    Abstract: This session is organized by members of the Agricultural Economics Society of Japan. This session explores analytical and policy framework through empirical examinations on key factors that are supposed to play a crucial role on the structural change for sustainable evolution of farm sector from a perspective of Japan and Korea. The session consists of four papers. These four papers provide empirical evidence and policy implications that will be effective in other parts of fast growing Asia. We take up two keywords: farm structural change and emerging new demands surrounding farm sector. The first and second papers shed light on farm structural change in Japan and Korea, which contrast the differences in farm behaviour between the two countries. The third and fourth papers address the emerging demands for farm sector in Japan: educational tourism in dairy farms and growing trade demand for japonica rice due to global Japanese food popularity.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
  34. By: TANAKA Masaru (Moune Institute for Forest-Sato-Sea Studies); HATAKEYAMA Shigeatsu (NPO Mori wa Umi No Koibito)
    Abstract: Japan has managed to keep 67 percent of its forest area over the last half century. However, fishermen and the scientific community noticed a gradual breakdown in the fundamentally important ecological link between its forests and surrounding seas. In response, the Kyoto University established the Field Science Education and Research Center, which initiated the Forest-Sato-Sea studies on the interdependence of forest and sea ecosystems. Simultaneously, a grassroots movement of coastal fishermen--'The Sea is Longing for the Forest'--had started to develop. With heightened awareness of environmental problems resulting from the massive earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident of 2011, the movement and the people behind the studies have closely collaborated, convinced that fundamental solutions to environmental problems will require environmental education for the next generation--one rooted in real-life experiences. Such experiences can be gained by studying and working to restore the interdependence among forests, seas, rivers, and wetland habitats that connect them. To this end, it is hoped that an ASEAN Center for Forest/Sea Studies will be established, affirming ASEAN's commitment to collaboratively creating a sustainable future by balancing economic prosperity with environment conservation.
    Keywords: environment, forest, sea, ecosystem
    Date: 2016–02
  35. By: Tong Yen Dan (School of Economics & Business Administration, Can Tho University)
    Keywords: Cost-Benefit Analysis,Mekong Delta,Dike Heightening
    Date: 2016–03

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