nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒04‒16
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Indonesia; 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Indonesia By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  2. Excess capital and bank behavior : evidence from Indonesia By Hamada, Miki
  3. Comparing the economic impacts of Asian integration by computational simulation analysis By Isono, Ikumo; Kumagai, Satoru; Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Keola, Souknilanh; Tsubota, Kenmei; Gokan, Toshitaka
  4. A Curse of ‘Point Source’ Resources? : Cash Crops and Numeracy on the Philippines 19th-20th Century By BASSINO, Jean-Pascal; BATEN, Joerg
  5. Potential and Challenges for Emerging Development Partners: The Case of Indonesia By Hosono, Akio
  6. Innovation and Performance of Enterprises: The Case of SMEs in Vietnam By Vu, Hoang Nam; Doan, Quang Hung
  7. Pengelolaan Keuangan Publik di Indonesia: Tinjauan Keuangan Publik Islam By Aan Jaelani
  8. Modelling Culturally Responsive Teaching: A Case-Based Study in the Malaysian Setting By Faizah Idrus
  9. Asset composition of the Philippines' universal and commercial banks : monetary policy or self-discipline? By Kashiwabara, Chie
  10. Management Characteristics of Cambodian Microfinance Institutions: Operational Efficiency and Management Objectives By OKUDA, Hidenobu; SHI, Minjie
  11. Long-term impacts of an unanticipated risk event : the 2007/08 food price crisis and child growth in Indonesia By Yamauchi,Futoshi; Larson,Donald F.
  12. Intergenerational Income Mobility in Vietnam By Doan, Quang Hung; Nguyen, Ngoc Anh
  13. Why Do Companies Issue Sukuk? By Paul-Olivier KLEIN; Laurent WEILL
  14. The framing discourses of 'Honorary white' in the anti-apartheid movement in Japan By Makino, Kumiko
  15. Disaster and political trust: The Japan Tsunami and Earthquake of 2011. By Uslaner, Eric; yamamura, Eiji
  16. Old-age dependency: Is it really increasing in aging populations? By Tilak Abeysinghe
  17. Granger Causality and Structural Causality in Cross-Section and Panel Data By Xun Lu; Liangjun Su; Halbert White
  18. Fiscal and Financial Crises By Michael D. Bordo; Christopher M. Meissner
  19. Forms of Government Decentralization and Institutional Quality: Evidence from a Large Sample of Nation By Goel, Rajeev K.; Saunoris, James W.
  20. Are Higher Education Institutions Responsive to Changes in the Labor Market? By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Cortes, Sol Francesca S.
  21. Measuring population mobility speed from space By Keola, Souknilanh; Kumagai, Satoru
  22. Preferential trading agreements and the gravity model in presence of zero and missing trade flows: Early results for China and India By Rahul Sen; Sadhana Srivastava; Don Webber
  23. Exploring Cybernated Storytelling: Enhancing Communication Skill. By Roziana Rosli; Faizah Idrus

  1. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: Since the taper tantrum episode in mid-2013, the Indonesian authorities have taken significant steps to strengthen the policy framework, including through sound monetary management and a prudent fiscal stance, underpinned by historic fuel subsidy reforms in 2015. This has led to improved economic fundamentals. Nevertheless, Indonesia, like many emerging market economies (EMs) is facing pressures from shifts in the global economy due to slower growth and rebalancing in China, a severe down cycle in commodity prices, and monetary policy normalization in the United States. While the near-term outlook is positive, downside risks and vulnerabilities remain elevated.
    Date: 2016–03–15
  2. By: Hamada, Miki
    Abstract: The Indonesian banking sector has been restructured since Asian financial crisis and restored to soundness. The capital adequacy ratio (CAR) returned to a sound level; however, the average excess capital has become too high, while credit disbursement has remained low. This paper investigates the determinants of excess capital among Indonesian banks and its effects on credit growth during the 2000s. The results indicate that the determinants of excess capital vary widely depending on bank type. Return on equity (ROE) affects excess capital negatively among domestic banks, and the effect of non-performing loans is mixed, differing for various bank types. Excess capital affects credit growth positively, except among foreign banks.
    Keywords: Banks, Finance, Bank capital, Bank lending, Bank behavior
    JEL: G21 G30 N25
    Date: 2016–03
  3. By: Isono, Ikumo; Kumagai, Satoru; Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Keola, Souknilanh; Tsubota, Kenmei; Gokan, Toshitaka
    Abstract: The Geographical Simulation Model developed by IDE-JETRO (IDE-GSM) is a computer simulation model based on spatial economics. IDE-GSM enables us to predict the economic impacts of various trade and transport facilitation measures. Here, we mainly compare the prioritized projects of the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) and the Comprehensive Asia Development Plan (CADP). MPAC focus on specific hard or soft infrastructure projects that connect one ASEAN member state to another while the CADP emphasizes the importance of economic corridors or linkages between a large cluster and another cluster. As compared with MPAC projects, the simulation analysis shows that CADP projects have much larger positive impacts on ASEAN countries.
    Keywords: Asia, International economic integration, Regional economic cooperation, Economic geography, Spatial economics, Economic integration, ASEAN, Simulation analysis
    JEL: F15 O53 R12
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: BASSINO, Jean-Pascal; BATEN, Joerg
    Abstract: Does the shift from subsistence agriculture to a specialization in cash-crop production affect human capital? We assess the influence of the rapid expansion of the cultivation of cash crops for export in the mid and late 19th century Philippines, with a focus on the increase or decline of basic numeracy. Based on the historiography, we expect the expansion of cash crops (in 19th century Philippines, mostly abacá, sugar, and tobacco) to have a negative effect on human capital of the majority of the population during the first phase. To test this hypothesis, we mobilize a new and large data set based on age statements from parish records, which includes 228,853 underlying observations. This is the first long term quantitative study on numeracy in a Southeast Asian country. We aggregate the individual observations by 41 provinces and the birth decades from the 1800s to the 1930s in order to obtain a large and informative panel (panel observations based on less than 50 underlying age statements are dropped). This allows us to compare regional levels of numeracy before, during, and after the introduction of the three main cash crops.
    Keywords: cash crops, human capital, numeracy, age heaping, Philippines, sugar, abaca
    JEL: I25 N3 N5 O13 O53
    Date: 2016–03–18
  5. By: Hosono, Akio
    Abstract: Emerging development partners can play an extremely important role in international cooperation, because they have accumulated valuable experience and knowledge in identifying and implementing their own development solutions. They have also overcome many of the same difficulties and constraints that other developing countries face. However, such experience and knowledge has hitherto not been effectively shared among countries of the South. For example, most development partners from the South have not yet established an articulated institutional framework to carry out such knowledge sharing with other countries. Valuable knowledge and technologies are often not well documented or still remain tacit, thereby constraining their smooth transfer to other countries. The objective of this paper is to gather insights into the potential and challenges in development cooperation for new development partners by drawing from a case study on Indonesia. Indonesia is a member of G20 and a pioneering emerging development partner that is mainstreaming knowledge-centered South-South cooperation. The ‘Indonesian model’ is found to be flexible and pragmatic, with a significant emphasis on technical cooperation, and without a strong regional or specific-country focus. The country’s experiences and its innovative use of South-South and triangular cooperation (SSTC) might be considered valuable for other emerging development partners looking for a modality of effective SSTC.
    Keywords: development cooperation , emerging development partners , South-South cooperation , triangular cooperation , knowledge sharing
    Date: 2016–04–05
  6. By: Vu, Hoang Nam; Doan, Quang Hung
    Abstract: Innovation is widely recognized as a key determinant of enterprise performance. It is, however, not clear how innovation affects performance of small-and-medium enterprises (SMEs) in transition economies. Based on data collected from surveys of SMEs in Vietnam from 2005 to 2011 this study shows that the human capital of owners/managers of SMEs, the quality of workers, and public physical infrastructure positively affect innovation and the performance of SMEs. More importantly, the study finds that innovation in products, production process, and marketing is a decisive factor for higher performance of SMEs in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Innovation, SMEs, Vietnam
    JEL: D22 J54 L11 L25 O3
    Date: 2015–01
  7. By: Aan Jaelani
    Abstract: Public financial management by the government is very important in view of the level of welfare in Indonesia is still low, as there are still much poverty with the level of fulfillment of the needs of low, corruption that occurs in every area of government, income distribution is uneven, low economic growth, and various irregularities other budget. With a qualitative approach that emphasizes the phenomenon of the social reality and the country's financial management practices in Indonesia, the approach to history and historical analysis is able to provide solutions to the existing problems. Reviewing public financial revenues and government spending become instruments in creating public welfare.
    JEL: B15 B2 H20 H6 P5
    Date: 2016–03–28
  8. By: Faizah Idrus (The International Islamic University Malaysia)
    Abstract: Heterogeneity in the Malaysian school system has divided students of various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. The chances of getting a group of multicultural students in a classroom are far slimmer in the rural areas than in schools situated in the urban areas. The classroom composition in the urban areas displays a different pattern depending on the location of the schools. With this imbalance, Malaysia’s existence as a multicultural nation lies more in name than in reality. With the call for greater enhancement of unity and integration among ethnic community in schools (Preliminary Report Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025, this study intends to examine the significance of the Third Space theory by looking through the lens of Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT). Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students. While the Third Space theory (Bhabha, 1994) accentuates the importance of using students home/community experiences to that of schools, which is thus far being sidelined in the Malaysian setting. The Third space is an interstice or a place in-between which is imperative for students who come from diverse cultures. This investigation therefore aims to 1. draw out the elements of CRT for teachers. 2. model these elements to be used in the secondary school English language classrooms and 3. determine teachers/students responses towards CRT. Two short stories (Malaysian-based stories) are chosen. A mixed method approach will be used employing primarily qualitative inquiry through phenomenological approach (interviews with teachers and students and classroom observations will be conducted) and a set of questionnaire to elicit pertinent information on teachers common practices in the English classrooms.20 schools from 4 regions in Malaysia will be identified and Form 4 students (and their teachers) will be selected as respondents. The findings from teachers/students responses will point to the direction of how teachers have afforded the spaces for CRT through infusing CRT skills in language classrooms. Through this investigation, teachers and students responses of the use of CRT elements/materials in the English language classrooms are recorded and analysed to determine their willingness/reluctance to adopt this approach in the classroom.
    Keywords: Culturally Responsive Teaching; Third Space Theory; ESL Classrooms
    JEL: C93 I29
  9. By: Kashiwabara, Chie
    Abstract: The central bank of the Philippines (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, BSP) has improved its monetary policy measures since the 2000s. After rationalizing the country's banking sector since late-1990s, its monetary policy and the uniiversal/commercial banks' (UCBs) behavior in allocating their assets has changed since mid-2000s. Though further and more detailed studies are nesessary, based on the results of simple correlation analyses conducted in this paper suggest a possible mixture of the country's monetary policy and their own decision-making in asset allocations, instead of a "follow-through" attitude.
    Keywords: Monetary policy, Banks, Monetary policy measure, Universal and commercial banks, The Philippines
    JEL: E42 E52 G38
    Date: 2016–03
  10. By: OKUDA, Hidenobu; SHI, Minjie
    Abstract: It is difficult to decide how to measure the efficiency of microfinance institutions' management. This is because, different from other profit maximizing financial institutions, an essential management characteristic of microfinance institutions involves working toward greater access for the poor. This paper seeks to describe the characteristics and efficiency of the management of microfinance institutions in Cambodia, in terms of microfinance institutions' specific objective of expanding access to the poor, by using the analytical methodology described in the work of Guti駻rez-Nieto et al. (2007), with respect to microfinance institutions in Latin America. The analysis was conducted in two steps: in Step 1, the operating efficiency indices of major microfinance institutions were measured, by conducting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) using data from the National Bank of Cambodia's annual publications. Next, in Step 2, a principal component analysis was conducted using the efficiency indices measured in Step 1, and the management characteristics of each microfinance institution were analyzed. According to the results of our analyses, although great diversity exists among microfinance institutions in Cambodia, (1) large-scale microfinance institutions exhibit higher overall efficiency, (2) approximately one-third of microfinance institutions are oriented towards access for the poor, and (3) access-oriented institutions also exhibiting high overall efficiency comprised less than one-fifth of all microfinance institutions. These results suggest a need for policy that promotes expanding the scale of microfinance institutions, while simultaneously maintaining their orientation toward access for the poor.
    Keywords: Cambodia, Microfinance Institutions, DEA, Principle Component Analysis
    Date: 2016–03–31
  11. By: Yamauchi,Futoshi; Larson,Donald F.
    Abstract: Unanticipated spikes in food prices can increase malnutrition among the poor, with lasting consequences; however, livelihood strategies that include producing food for home consumption are expected to offer a measure of protection. Using anthropometric and consumption data from Indonesia collected before and after the 2007/08 food price crisis, this paper finds evidence of both effects. Based on standardized height and weight measures, the results indicate that soaring food prices had a significant and negative impact on child growth among non-farming households. A corresponding effect was undetectable for food-producing households. The results remain robust when income effects from increased commercial sales and possible attritions through migration and fostering are considered. Further, local food price changes were uncorrelated with the share of non-farming village households and the initial average child nutrition status in the village, suggesting that the observed outcomes are directly attributable to market events and livelihood strategies. Interestingly, gender differences were not detected. The findings imply that the food price crises can have negative impacts on children, potentially leading to lifelong income inequality among those affected at a vulnerable stage of life.
    Date: 2016–04–11
  12. By: Doan, Quang Hung; Nguyen, Ngoc Anh
    Abstract: This paper uses five waves of Vietnam Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 1992/1993, 1997/1998, 2002, 2010, and 2012 from General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO) to estimate income elasticity for Vietnam and contributes it to the growing of literature review on intergenerational mobility. The result of analysis, employing the two-sample two-stage least squares technique, shows that intergenerational income mobility is about 0.48 – 0.49 in Vietnam and it is one of the most mobility in developing countries. In terms of distribution income, the findings from transition matrix and two-sample instrumental variable quantile regression highlight that the bottom quintile has the lowest mobility, implying that opportunities for children in poor families escape the poverty being still fragile. Income mobility at top quintile, in addition, has increase over time. Finally, educational mobility at bottom and second groups has significant upper mobility and the top is “like father, like son”.
    Keywords: Intergenerational income mobility, Vietnam, Two-sample two-stage least squares (TS2TLS), transition matrix, quantile regression.
    JEL: J28 J6
    Date: 2016–02
  13. By: Paul-Olivier KLEIN (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); Laurent WEILL (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants for firms to choose sukuk over conventional bond. We investigate the potential impact of information asymmetries and adverse selection to explain why firms prefer using sukuk. We perform logit regressions of the choice of debt type to determine which characteristics lead a firm to issue a sukuk rather than a bond. We use a dataset of sukuk and conventional bond issuances in Malaysia from 2004 to 2013. We find evidence of the influence of information asymmetries and adverse selection on the choice of the sukuk market.
    JEL: G14 P51
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Makino, Kumiko
    Abstract: International and transnational solidarity is being increasingly recognized as an indispensable part in the recent historiography on the liberation struggle in Southern Africa. Yet the literature has mostly focused on anti-apartheid movements in the West, and anti-apartheid movements in Asia have attracted little attention. Focusing on the Japanese citizens' movement (shimin undo) against apartheid, which loosely coalesced into the Japan Anti-Apartheid Committee (JAAC), this paper looks into how the issue of 'honorary white' was brought into the early period of the anti-apartheid movement in Japan, and how the framing discourses of the movement was developed around the issue.
    Keywords: South Africa, Japan, Apartheid, Foreign relations, People's movement, Anti-apartheid, Honorary white, International solidarity
    JEL: F50
    Date: 2016–03
  15. By: Uslaner, Eric; yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: We show how disasters influence subjective political trust by testing the effect of the 2011 Great East Japan. For this test, we used the individual level data of 7 Asian covering the period before and after the disaster. The key findings are: the disaster lead to sharp drops in trust of the national government, trust in the Prime Minister, trust in political parties, and trust in the parliament. However, we do not find a loss of support in local governments.
    Keywords: Political trust; Natural disaster; Nuclear accident
    JEL: H84 J28 Q54
    Date: 2016–04–05
  16. By: Tilak Abeysinghe (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: To account for economic dependency we propose an adjustment to the old-age dependency ratio based on savings of the elderly. Singapore data highlight that the conventional dependency ratio substantially exaggerates the burden of the elderly.
    Keywords: Retiree savings, Birth cohorts, Savings-adjusted old-age dependency ratio JEL Classification: C1, E62, J11
  17. By: Xun Lu (Department of Economics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Liangjun Su (Singapore Management University); Halbert White (University of California)
    Abstract: Granger non-causality in distribution is fundamentally a probabilistic conditional independence notion that can be applied not only to time series data but also to cross-section and panel data. In this paper, we provide a natural de nition of structural causality in cross-section and panel data and forge a direct link between Granger (G-) causality and structural causality under a key conditional exogeneity assumption. To put it simply, when structural e¤ects are well de ned and identi able, G-non-causality follows from structural non-causality, and with suitable conditions (e.g., separability or monotonicity), structural causality also implies G-causality. This justi es using tests of G-non- causality to test for structural non-causality under the key conditional exogeneity assumption for both cross-section and panel data. We pay special attention to heterogeneous populations, allowing both structural heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity. Most of our results are obtained for the general case, without assuming linearity, monotonicity in observables or unobservables, or separability between observed and unobserved variables in the structural relations.
    Keywords: Granger causality, Structural causality, Structural heterogeneity, Distributional heterogeneity, Cross-section, Panel data
    JEL: C14 C33 C36
    Date: 2016–02
  18. By: Michael D. Bordo; Christopher M. Meissner
    Abstract: Interconnections between banking crises and fiscal crises have a long history. We document the long-run evolution from classic banking panics towards modern banking crises where financial guarantees are associated with crisis resolution. Recent crises feature a feedback loop between bank guarantees and bank holdings of local sovereign debt thereby linking financial to fiscal crises. Earlier examples include the crises in Chile (early 1980s), Japan (1990), Sweden and Finland (1991), and the Asian crisis (1997). We discuss the evolution in economic theorizing on crises since the 1950s, and then provide an overview of the long-run evolution of connections between different types of crises. Next we explore the empirics of financial crises. We discuss the methodological issue of crisis measurement encompassing the definition, dating, and incidence of financial crises. Leading data sets differ markedly in terms of their historical frequency of crises leading to classification uncertainty. There is a range of estimates of output losses from financial crises in the literature, and these are also dependent upon definitions. We find economically significant output losses from various types of crises using a consistent methodology across time and data sets. Predicting crises also remains a challenge. We survey the Early Warnings Indicators literature finding that a broad range of variables are potential predictors. Credit booms have been emphasized recently, but other factors still matter. Finally, we identify a new policy trilemma. Countries can have two of the following three choices: a large financial sector, fiscal bailouts devoted to financial crises, and discretionary fiscal policy aimed at raising demand during the recessions induced by financial crises.
    JEL: E62 G01 N1
    Date: 2016–03
  19. By: Goel, Rajeev K. (Asian Development Bank Institute); Saunoris, James W. (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of various forms of government decentralization on institutional quality across countries. Using corruption and the shadow economy to proxy for institutional quality, as well as three forms of government decentralization (i.e., virtual, physical, and fiscal), the econometric results show virtual decentralization to be the most effective in improving institutional quality. The effects on transition and countries in Asia are also considered.
    Keywords: government decentralization; shadow economy; institutional quality; virtual decentralization
    JEL: H11 H73 K42
    Date: 2016–03–31
  20. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Cortes, Sol Francesca S.
    Abstract: Higher education is a key driver of the economic growth of countries. Any country hopes that its universities, including state colleges and universities (SUCs) and private higher education institutions (PHEIs), produce the manpower needed to propel the country into high, sustained, and equitable development. This can be achieved if its universities respond well to changes in the labor market. This study seeks to review and assess how well the SUCs and PHEIs respond to regional market demands through wage premium analysis and their experience in introducing new program offerings, changing curriculums, and closing programs. To achieve this, it analyzes the developments in labor market outcomes such as wage premiums at the discipline level derived using data from the Labor Force Survey. It also uses focus group discussions with both SUCs and PHEIs to document and understand the relative ease of introducing changes into their academic programs in response to labor market changes.
    Keywords: Philippines, higher education, curriculum, programs, labor market, wage differentials
    Date: 2016
  21. By: Keola, Souknilanh; Kumagai, Satoru
    Abstract: Ad-hoc population dynamics in Krugman’s type core and periphery models adjust population share of a region, based on its real wage rate deviation from national average, at pre-specified speed of population mobility. Whereas speed of population mobility is expected to be different across countries, for geographical, cultural, technological, etc. reasons, one common speed is often applied in theoretical and simulation analysis, due to spatially patchy, and temporally infrequent, availability of sub-national regional data. This article demonstrates how, increasingly available, high definition spatio-temporal remote-sensing data, and their by-products, can be used to measure speed of population mobility in national and sub-national level.
    Keywords: Southeast Asia, Population, Migration, Population movement, Regional data, Regional migration
    JEL: R10 R23
    Date: 2016–03
  22. By: Rahul Sen (Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology); Sadhana Srivastava (Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology); Don Webber (Department of Accountancy, Economics and Finance, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK)
    Abstract: The two most populous countries of the world have embarked upon an extensive array of preferential trading agreements in recent decades. This paper specifically investigates the impacts on trade creation and trade diversion of China’s and India’s 11 major preferential trade agreements using an augmented gravity model that takes into account zero and missing trade flows in the data, employing a Zero Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression model as suggested in the recent literature by Burger (2009) and Kohl (2012). The early results for the ZINB model, provided only for India and China as the home country, confirms that Chinese exports and imports were more likely to be net trade creating in presence of PTAs while India’s exports were more likely to be net trade diverting in the presence of the same PTAs, with imports having an insignificant effect. For India and China so far, most ASEAN+6 PTAs seems to have created both intra-bloc and extra-bloc trade. APTA is observed to be the only significant export creating PTA for India, while APTA and ACFTA are both found to be export creating for China.
    Keywords: Trade creation; Trade diversion; Distance; Trade agreements
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2015–02
  23. By: Roziana Rosli (International Islamic University Malaysia); Faizah Idrus (International Islamic University Malaysia)
    Abstract: Storytelling is one of the most common activity used in teaching English proficiency to language students. It requires narration of the story in oral, and sometimes aided by audio-visual elements. It is widely accepted as a teaching technique to many educators because it engages students in learning. Storytelling can also be used to enhance students’ communication skill. Upon listening to a story, students are anxious to share the stories and relate it to their own experience. However, until recently, little attention has been paid on how storytelling with the help of cyber or online social network could be utilized in order to engage students during class activities and at the same time to improve their communication skills. Thus, this study intends to fill the gap of the factors that inhibits students’ engagement in classroom activities that promotes communication skill. The assumption here is that many teachers and students lack the knowledge of cybernated storytelling or find it difficult to be implemented in the classrooms. This investigation explores how cybernated storytelling is accepted or rejected by students when it is introduced in the classroom. The term ‘cyber’ can be denoted as computer-generated setting in the internet environment Initially, by sharing stories in the cyber or a more common term, online social network, these stories can be developed and shared more broadly at the same time helping students to learn and be aware that their education place is part of a broader community. Students can learn to connect their own stories with their surroundings. Besides that students can learn to combine auditory and visual elements to ultimately create their own storytelling. The software WhatsApp and (WA) online social network,Facebook(FB). will be used as the communication tools among the students and teachers. If planned appropriately as part of an educational project, the same technologies and features of WA and FB would be able to facilitate and produce effectual and meaningful learning of English within an online community of English language learners. Hence, storytelling activity can be enhanced by using WA and FB. This research will contribute to conceptualize the theories behind the perceptions of teachers and youth towards cybernated literacy especially in English language classrooms. These findings will be very useful in terms of solving problems in groups, generating ideas and formulating models of digitized storytelling, modules and programmes for youth on cybernated literacy.
    Keywords: Storytelling, Cybernated, Communication
    JEL: I21 I20 I23

This nep-sea issue is ©2016 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.