nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒02‒23
fifteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. The Role Of Stakeholders On Implementing Universal Services In Vietnam By Thai, Do Manh; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit
  2. The Relationship of Government Revenue and Government Expenditure: A case study of Malaysia By Ullah, Nazim
  3. Effects of decentralized health care financing on maternal care in Indonesia By Hartwig, R.; Sparrow, R.A.; Budiyati, S.; Yumna, A.; Warda, N.; Suryahadi, A.; Bedi, A.S.
  4. Nonhumans in the Practice of Development: Material Agency and Friction in a Small-Scale Energy Program in Indonesia By Yuti Ariani Fatimah; Saurabh Arora
  5. Bank Lending and Income Inequality: Evidence from Indonesia By Putra Pamungkas; Clovis Rugemintwari; Amine Tarazi; Irwan Trinugroho
  6. Determinants of economic growth in South East Asia: an analysis for the first decade of the third millennium By Markus Brueckner; Paitoon Kraipornsak
  7. Poverty among ethnic minorities: transition process, inequality and economic growth By Bui, Tuan; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
  9. Clean Energy and Sustainable Development lab activity report, 2014-09-31 to 2015-12-31 By Minh Ha-Duong; Hoang Anh Tran
  10. Spillover Effects of the U.S. Financial Crisis on Financial Markets in Emerging Asian Countries By Bong-Han Kim; Hyeongwoo Kim; Bong-Soo Lee
  11. The Effect of Sin Tax and Anti-Smoking Campaign in Regulating Cigarette Smokers in Davao City, Philippines By Deluna, Roperto; maneja, Kimbely
  12. Trade in Value Added: Concepts, Estimation and Analysis By Marko Javorsek; Ignacio Camacho
  13. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship By Quan-Hoang Vuong
  14. Grabbing the 'clean slate' : The politics of the intersection of land grabbing, disasters and climate change By Uson, M.
  15. Proposal on ASEAN+3 Multi-currency Bond Issuance Framework (AMBIF) By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;

  1. By: Thai, Do Manh; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of stakeholders on implementing the universal services policy in Vietnam (interval 2005-2010) in order to clarify their impact and their position on performing the policy. The stakeholder theory is employed to identify and categorize the stakeholders. The authors are to look at the role of the stakeholders such as the national government, international organizations, policy intermediaries, companies, and customers/citizens via applying the qualitative method to gather data and analyse the secondary document. The qualitative approach of interviews on some officers who participated in building up and operating the policy was also conducted. The results demonstrate that stakeholders have a huge impact on the success of the universal service policy.
    Keywords: universal services,stakeholders,role
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Ullah, Nazim
    Abstract: Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced budget deficit since 1998. But it is not accepted by all and hopes that state should be in a position of either balance budget or surplus budget. The optimum level of Government budget is the state where government expenditure is totally offset by source of government revenue and that can be achieved through increasing tax revenue or decreasing expenditure. The aim of this study to find out the theoretical relationship between the revenue and the expenditure in Malaysia using the four hypotheses from literature study. The study finds out that although majority of the government revenue is from direct tax, the government spending only varies due to change in indirect tax revenue and non-tax revenue. Basically the study is analytical in nature and based on data collected from published sources focusing on the impact of the revenue and the expenditure on the continuous development of the Malaysia. Finally, we try to suggest to the authority to follow the proper rules and guidelines at the time policy making whereby they will be able to coup up with the optimum revenue and relevant expenditure in the state.
    Keywords: Keywords: Government Revenue, Government Expenditure, Budget Deficit, Malaysia
    JEL: C1 C10
    Date: 2016–01–31
  3. By: Hartwig, R.; Sparrow, R.A.; Budiyati, S.; Yumna, A.; Warda, N.; Suryahadi, A.; Bedi, A.S.
    Abstract: We exploit variation in the design of sub-national health care financing initiatives in Indonesian districts to assess the effects of these local schemes on maternal care from 2004 to 2010. The analysis is based on a district pseudo-panel, combining data from a unique survey among District Health Offices with the Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys, the national socioeconomic household surveys, and the village census. Our results show that these district schemes contribute to an increase in antenatal care visits and the probability of receiving basic recommended antenatal care services, and a decrease in home births, especially for households that fall outside the target group of the national health insurance programs. The variation in scheme design is a source of impact heterogeneity. Including antenatal and delivery services explicitly in benefit packages and contracting local rather than national health care providers increases the positive effects on maternal care.
    Keywords: health care financing, decentralization, maternal health care, Indonesia
    JEL: I13 I18
    Date: 2015–03–30
  4. By: Yuti Ariani Fatimah (Eindhoven University of Technology); Saurabh Arora (SPRU, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: We develop the outlines of a new approach to study the role of nonhumans in constituting ‘implementation’ and calculative-discursive practices in development projects and programs. Developing a conceptual framework built on the concept of friction (material resistance or recalcitrance encountered in processes of transformation), we analyze an Energy Self-sufficient Village program in Indonesia. Focusing on specific projects and episodes within this program, we identify multiple distinctive instances of friction. These were driven by nonhumans’ (and humans’) resistance, as remolding of development beneficiaries’ practices was attempted by project administrators, government officials, entrepreneurs and by the (scientific) calculations embedded inside their policies, strategies and models. In concluding, we distill four ways in which nonhumans shape development practices: a) by resisting representations and calculations produced by human actors, b) by re-directing planned/expected courses of action, c) through biophysical change to their weight or textures as they move in space and time, and d) by mediating competition for resources. Overall, nonhumans play a central role in making and unmaking asymmetric relations of power. Their diverse material and discursive agency, which manifests differently in different relational settings, also highlights the importance of broadening the range of spokespersons who speak on behalf of nonhumans and whose voices can be considered reliable and true. Our study thus provides support to calls for pluralizing and democratizing development ‘expertise’ beyond the usual suspects in science, government and civil society.
    Keywords: actor-network theory, practices, relational agency, development policy, sustainable development, agrofuels, bioenergy, Indonesia
    Date: 2016–04
  5. By: Putra Pamungkas (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Clovis Rugemintwari (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Irwan Trinugroho (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between financial development and income inequality by using a broad range of loan categories as proxies for financial development. Our unique data set allows us to identify loans to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). It also allows us to distinguish business loans and consumer loans. Using panel data for 33 provinces in Indonesia during the 2007-2013 period, we find that lending to MSMEs reduces income inequality while businesses loans, either for working capital or investment purposes, but also consumer loans increase income inequality. Our results indicate that boosting loans to micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises could significantly contribute to reduce income inequality.
    Keywords: Income Inequality,Gini Index,Bank Lending,Indonesia
    Date: 2016–01–06
  6. By: Markus Brueckner; Paitoon Kraipornsak
    Abstract: This paper examines determinants of economic growth in South East Asia during the first decade of the third millennium - the 2000s. Building on the growth model initially developed by Loayza et al. (2005), and augmented by Araujo et al. (2014), estimates are obtained for the impact that transitional convergence, structural reforms, stabilization policies, and external conditions had on economic growth in the South East Asian region during the 2000s. The most important driver of economic growth was transitional convergence, accounting for about one half of the region's growth. Improvements in structural reforms and favorable external conditions accounted for about one quarter of growth. Stabilization policies had a negligible impact.
    Date: 2016–02
  7. By: Bui, Tuan; Nguyen, Cuong; Pham, Phuong
    Abstract: This paper investigates the process of reducing poverty in ethnic minority households. Using two recent Vietnam household surveys, we find that ethnic minority households are more likely to be persistently poor and less likely to be persistently non-poor than ethnic majority households. The within-group component generated by the variation in income within each ethnicity group explains more than 90 percent of the change in total inequality. Income redistribution plays an important role in decreasing the poverty gap and decreasing poverty severity. Different ethnic groups have different poverty patterns, which should be noted when designing policies to alleviate poverty and inequality.
    Keywords: Ethnic minority; household income; inequality; poverty; decomposition
    JEL: D1 D6
    Date: 2015–12–25
  8. By: Penporn Janekarnkij (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics,Faculty of Economics,Kasetsart University,Thailand)
    Abstract: This case study refers to the role of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) as an economic tool in supporting and promoting sustainable development locally. It was developed for using in both undergraduate and graduate courses in natural resource and environmental economics and economic valuation of ecosystem goods and services. Students should be able to apply their knowledge in basic economic concepts of demand and supply, economic valuation of ecosystem goods and services, as well as basic watershed ecology in analyzing a practical situation provided in the case. Main contents of this case study comprise four parts. The first part is the general information about the study area and the community conservation practices in case of Mae Lao Watershed, Thailand. The second part deals with Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in theory and in practice. The third part consists of questions for discussion and group exercises for students to practice. The final part contains the information of teaching note about learning objectives, student audience and background readings.
    Keywords: Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES), watershed conservation, Mae Lao, ecosystem service valuation, contingent valuation method (CVM)
    JEL: Q51 Q58
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech - AgroParisTech, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi); Hoang Anh Tran (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi)
    Abstract: The Clean Energy and Sustainable Development laboratory – CleanED – was established in December 2014 with support from USTH and French Embassy in Hanoi. In September 2015, CleanED lab counted five researchers from France and Vietnam, five doctoral fellows and two internationally qualified staff. This international and interdisciplinary research team gets the mission to contribute to the green growth of the energy sector in Vietnam. Its expertise ranges from engineering to public policy on: Natural resources characterization and management Biomass and waste to energy conversion process technologies Energy systems optimization from smart grid to national plans
    Keywords: clean energy, biomass energy, sustainable development, Vietnam, cooperation, activity report, smart grid
    Date: 2016–01–27
  10. By: Bong-Han Kim; Hyeongwoo Kim; Bong-Soo Lee
    Abstract: We examine spillover effects of the recent U.S. financial crisis on five emerging Asian countries by estimating conditional correlations of financial asset returns across countries using multivariate GARCH models. We propose a novel approach that simultaneously estimates the conditional correlation coefficient and the effects of its determining factors over time, which can be used to identify the channels of spillovers. We find some evidence of financial contagion around the collapse of Lehman Brothers in September 2008. We further find a dominant role of foreign investment for the conditional correlations in international equity markets. The dollar Libor-OIS spread, the sovereign CDS premium, and foreign investment are found to be significant factors affecting foreign exchange markets.
    Keywords: Financial Crisis; Spillover Effects; Contagion; Emerging Asian Countries; Dynamic Conditional Correlation; DCCX-MGARCH
    JEL: C32 F31 G15
    Date: 2015–02
  11. By: Deluna, Roperto; maneja, Kimbely
    Abstract: This study identified the effectiveness of Sin Tax and Anti-smoking media campaign in regulating cigarette smokers in Davao City. Descriptive statistics were used to present the socio demographic, awareness of anti-smoking media campaign and perception and attitude of a smoker. Logit regression analysis was used to know the responsiveness of the smokers to Sin Tax. Result revealed that current cigarette smokers are mostly male, age group of 10-24, employed, single, smaller family size, urban and smokers having 8 to 11 years in school. Based on perception of the respondents, anti-smoking media campaign did not affect the smoking behavior of the respondents. However highest fraction of cigarette smokers are aware and reduced their cigarette consumption because of anti-smoking ordinance. The result from Logit Regression Analysis revealed that occupational status, location and number of years in schooling are significant and having positive effects on their cigarette consumption in response to Sin Tax. While gender, age, marital status, family size, change in income, price of cigarette and price of rice are insignificant variables.
    Keywords: Sin Tax, Cigarette Regulations, Anti-Smoking Campaign, Smokers Behavior
    JEL: C54 D12 I18
    Date: 2015–04–01
  12. By: Marko Javorsek (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)); Ignacio Camacho (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP))
    Abstract: This working paper introduces the concept of Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and presents an initial analysis of TiVA for selected regional ESCAP economies. The paper introduces Global Value Chains (GVCs) and issues for the measurement of trade statistics due to proliferation of GVCs. It further presents the TiVA estimation methodology, as defined in the literature, and provides an overview of the data requirements for estimation. The paper reviews current initiatives on regional / international input-output tables (IOTs) and TiVA analysis, and availability of data in the Asia-Pacific region. The paper concludes with a TiVA analysis of selected regional ESCAP economies that are available in the current data sources. The paper has been prepared under the Regional Programme on Economic Statistics (PRES) and we hope it will support the efforts of statistical offices in the region to improve related statistics.
    Keywords: International trade statistics, trade in value added, global value chains, Asia and the Pacific, input-output, supply-use
    JEL: C67 D57 F13 F14 F15 F23 O19 O24
    Date: 2015–05
  13. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: This paper presents new results that are obtained from investigations into a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs survey data, containing 3071 observations. Evidence found from the estimations using multinomial logits supports relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurshiprelated performance or traits has been found. Specifically, those relationships include: a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that help to learn in details about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers a discussion on some striking insights and useful explanations on this entrepreneurship data set.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; creativity; perseverance; cultural changes; transitional economies
    JEL: L26 M13 O33
    Date: 2016–02–04
  14. By: Uson, M.
    Abstract: Land grabs in the wake of a disaster are nothing new. However this phenomenon gains certain particularities and interest when it happens within the current context of climate change policy initiatives and the global land rush. This nexus produces a new set of political processes containing new actors and alliances, legitimizations, and mechanisms of dispossession that set off a different pace for land grabs. This study explores this nexus which has the potential to swiftly reboot spatial, institutional and political land arrangements in poor communities on a large scale, globally. The gap in the scholarly literature found in the disaster – global land rush – climate change nexus was examined from the perspective of a local community devastated by the 2013 super typhoon Haiyan in central Philippines. Using a political economy lens, the study revealed that along with the dynamics of the structural and institutional environment, the interaction between the pro-reform social and state actors determines the nature, pace, extent and trajectory of the land struggle. The ‘state-society interactive’ approach highlights the political agency of both the state and social actors, particularly how they exercise their autonomy and capacity, and maximize channels within and external to the state to advance their claim. How the interplay of different institutions of climate change mitigation, land grabs and disasters interacts with the political processes of current land grabs is the focus of this study.
    Keywords: land grabs, climate change, disasters, Philippines, small islands
    Date: 2015–02–11
  15. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Office of Regional Economic Integration, ADB); ;
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to describe the AMBIF proposal in greater detail, including the definition of its components and the proposed approaches for its implementation, as well as the idea of pilot issues. The proposal in this report are targeted to obtain the consent of the policy bodies and regulatory authorities in participating markets, and as to create awareness of and interest in AMBIF among institutions in the private sector. The report is divided into a number of chapters, each focusing on a particular aspect of the AMBIF proposal. Following an introduction, Chapter II highlights the basic approaches and principles applied throughout the AMBIF discussions. Chapter III revisits the development of the process of defining AMBIF, while Chapter IV contains the resulting key components of AMBIF. Chapter V describes the proposed AMBIF bond issuance regulatory process needed for its actual implementation. Chapter VI addresses market requirements and possible additional components to be included under AMBIF and other issues that could be considered at a later stage or through separate discussions by different stakeholders. Following the conclusion in Chapter VII, the next steps to be taken in the proposed ABMF Phase 3 are the subject of Chapter VIII. The report is the product of the collaborative efforts of the National Members and Experts and International Experts of the ABMF in cooperation with the Asian Development Bank’s Office of Regional Economic Integration.
    Keywords: bond market, capital market, bond issuance, bond issuance program, cross-border bond issuance, ABMF, ASEAN+3, ASEAN, harmonization
    Date: 2014–03

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