nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
39 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Retail Networks and Real Estate: the case of Swiss luxury watches in China and Southeast By Thierry Theurillat; Pierre-Yves Donzé
  2. Essays on the Export Performance of Vietnam/Essais sur la Performance à l'Exportation du Vietnam By Hanh Vu Thi
  3. The stakes of politics and electoral administration : a comparative study of Southeast Asian democracies By Kawanaka, Takeshi
  4. Megalopolis: An assay for the identification of the world urban mega-structures By Blanca Arellano Ramos; Josep Roca
  5. Wooden Furniture Outlook By Ugo Finzi; Stefania Pelizzari
  6. ASEAN Economic Integration through Trade and Foreign Direct Investment: Long-Term Challenges By Kawai, Masahiro; Naknoi, Kanda
  7. Whistle blowing - is it sedition or public duty in emerging economies By Shanthy Rachagan
  8. Measuring the costs of FTA utilization : evidence from transaction-level import data of Thailand By Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Laksanapanyakul, Nuttawut; Urata, Shujiro
  9. Effects of RoHs and REACH regulations on firm-level production and export, and the role of global value chains : the cases of Malaysia and Vietnam By Otsuki, Tsunehiro; Honda, Keiichiro; Michida, Etsuyo; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Ueki, Yasushi
  10. Comparing Basic Education in the United States of America and Thailand By Achara Chaicharoen; Jaruwan Ployduangrat; Kanjana Pataya
  11. How large are productivity differences between Islamic and Conventional Banks? By Wahida Ahmad; David Prentice
  12. Regional Distribution of Creative and Cultural Industries in Indonesia By Fikri Zul Fahmi
  13. The Readiness for Implementing STEM Education Through the Basic Schools By Trairat Pipatpokkapole; Sukunya Roipila
  14. Does trade liberalization boost quality upgrading? : evidence from Indonesian plant-product-level data By Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takii, Sadayuki
  15. The study of Gifted Education model for Thailand By Donsak Tsailexthim; Vasinee Israsena Na Ayuthaya; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  16. Productivity, Capital Intensity and ISO14001 Adoption\Theory and Evidence from Vietnam By Bin Ni
  17. Interprovincial differences in the endowment and utilization in labour force by educational attainment in Indonesia's post-crisis economy By Mitsuhiko Kataoka
  18. Social Networks and Employment Performances: Evidence from Rural – Urban Migration in Vietnam By Dang, Duc Anh
  19. Environmental Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-level evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing (Japanese) By JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
  20. Risk Management of Curriculum of Educational Administration Programs in Public Universities, Thailand By Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  21. Appropriate STEM Education Design for Kindergarten By Vasinee Israsena Na Ayuthaya; Patamaporn Dejakaisaya; Paveena Santanakhul
  22. Sinitic Traits in Viet and Muong Song Lore By Ekaterina Starikova
  23. Fiscal Redistribution In Middle Income Countries:: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa By Nora Lustig
  24. Project Evaluation of Transportation Projects: an Application of Financial Computable General Equilibrium Model By Euijune Kim; Geoffrey J.D. Hewings; Hidayat Amir
  25. Environmental and Economic Impact of Carbon Credit in Makassar City in Indonesia By Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takahide Fukuda
  26. The development of mathematics teachers in primary schools,Thailand By Sukunya Roipila; Wijit Chalopatham; Kridsana Mookkaew
  27. The An Appropriate STEM Education Design for Secondary School,Thailand By Prapon Chaicharoen; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  28. Sustained Impacts of Kaizen Training By Yuki Higuchi; Vu Hoang Namb; Tetsushi Sonobe
  29. Floating-strike Asian options with regime-switching By Adriana Ocejo
  30. Mode Of Science Teachers Development In Elementary School, Thailand By Narintip Boonchaloeymak; Suwat Boontam; Chatmongkon Tojumsil
  31. The geostrategical challenges of the Trans-Pacific Partnership By Andriy Karakuts
  32. The Study of characteristics of the teachers in the 21st century. By Cheunruedee Butakhiao; Jaruwan Ployduangrat
  34. Cointegration of Matched Home Purchases and Rental Price Indexes ¨C Evidence from Singapore By Jing Li; Badi Baltagi
  35. Welfare Consequences of Information Aggregation and Optimal Market Size By William E. Griffiths; Gholamreza Hajargasht
  36. Relationship between Telecommunications Investment and Total Factor Productivity By Chuhwan Park
  37. Opportunities and benefits of local content requirement policy: case of Eastern Siberian oil and gas industry By Irina Semykina
  38. Convergence in per capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: a panel data approach By Guilherme de Oliveira; Giana de Vargas Moraes
  39. Right to a healthful environment: Flagship of fundamental human rights – An international perspective By Sri Yogamalar; Abdul Haseeb Ansari

  1. By: Thierry Theurillat (Real Estate and Construction Department, University of Hong Kong); Pierre-Yves Donzé (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Shopping centers are among the most significant places to sell luxury goods in East Asia. However, the relations between retail networks of luxury companies and access to land and real estate still need to be addressed. On the one hand, an extensive literature highlights how the turn to luxury industry since the 1990s has enabled some European countries to maintain their comparative advantage on the global market and at the same time to keep a significant part of their production non-globalized. Yet, an issue that remains to be addressed is the way European luxury companies are able to enter and expand their sales networks in emerging countries. On the other hand, while real estate has become a major economic circuit in East Asia, there is still a lack of works about the property industry and companiesf concrete strategies and business models. This article is hence an exploratory study that tackles the issue of real estate within the strategies of the main actors of the Swiss watch industry, namely Swatch Group, Richemont and LVMH, which have massively invested in their retail network in China and East Asia since the 1990s. While these three companies went through local retailers until late 1990s, they managed to expand their sales networks by increasingly controlling the retail spaces in China and in some Southeast Asia countries, such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, and Taiwan, increasingly influenced by Chinese consumers. For these countries which now represent a major part of their respective market shares, the Swiss watch groups rarely invest directly in large-scale real estate projects like shopping malls. They however have various strategies of control and integration between retail and the commercial real estate industry.
    Keywords: Swiss luxury watch companies, China and Southeast Asia, retail real estate
    JEL: L81 L85 N85 R3
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Hanh Vu Thi
    Abstract: Trade liberalization and international economic integration are major and important issues especially to developing countries including Vietnam. They have provided the country with many opportunities such as foreign investment projects from developed countries, an increase in the State budget through taxation on exports and imports, the higher level of employment, which have all contributed to improving the standard living of the people. Since the country's Reform (Doi Moi) in 1986, trade liberalization has brought about an increase export value from 0.78 billion USD in 1986 to more than 72 billion USD in 2010 which accounted for an average of 70% increase to the GDP of Vietnam. Moreover, Vietnamese firms are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of innovation and this is becoming the main driver for Vietnam's deeper participation in regional and global economic integration organization such as ASEAN and WTO. Exports play an important role in Vietnam’s international trade, helping to increase the national revenue and to improve the position of Vietnamese firms in the global value chain. Such an improvement of Vietnam's position in the global value chain means being higher in the chain rather than carrying out simple processing at the low-end. If the production factors which include labor, capital, and fixed assets are analyzed in relation to firms' exports, plausible assessments of Vietnamese firms' contributions to the global chain can be determined. It should be also noted that the country's trade policy reform has affected the structure of Vietnam's exports during periods, has been subject to the effect of the volatile world's trading market and the effect of an emerging giant exporter such as China. However, Vietnam's exports are facing some problems on international trade market for various reasons. Firstly, the export structure continues to be mainly based on primary and labor-intensive products such as the agricultural, forestry, fishery and footwear sectors. Secondly, low value added and labor intensive products account for a large proportion of the total exports since almost all economic sectors of Vietnam are involved in the assembly and simple processing stage of the global value chain. We hope this dissertation can help to constitute a reliable basis for formulating export trade policy. Firstly, there is a need for greater efforts from Vietnamese government to implement social economic structural reform with a special focus on SOEs, in order to strengthen investors' confidence. Secondly, there is also a need to encourage the shift away from labor-intensive export products toward capital-intensive products with special emphasis on innovation in particular through research and development activities of firms. The dissertation studies export trade of a single country namely Vietnam. It is an empirical study, which tests both macro and micro determinants of Vietnamese export trade. Particularly, the dissertation uses export trade data at country and firm level to test hypotheses for each determinant including firm and sector effects. We have extracted a dataset on Vietnam's export trade for the 1997-2009 period via WITS of the World Bank. For firm's gravity model, we used export data of firms from VCO for the 2006-2010 period. We analyzed determinants of firms' exports by combining firms' export data and the data of footwear, rice and wood and wood products firms' characteristics for the year 2008. Since firms' export intensity strictly lies in the unit interval, we transformed it into the type of logit then attempted with the OLS and quantile regression methods. Our dissertation mainly focuses on certain external factors of Vietnamese exports at macro and micro levels and analyzes some important determinants of exporting firms in three sectors namely footwear, rice and wood and wood products. Relevant findings based on empirical analysis serve to suggest policy implications and firms' managerial practices. In general, wealthier nations are preferred destination market for Vietnamese exports because of their higher purchasing power. The government of Vietnam therefore tries to negotiate proactively and conclude trade agreement as well as memorandum of understanding with such countries as these measures facilitate trade for local firms. However, rice firms in particular do not necessarily consider country with the large economy to be their destination market. In fact, there are several reasons for firms to enter international market and to sign contracts such as to improve their net profits, to expand their market share or to develop potential market. Regarding determinants of Vietnamese exporting firms, higher wages reduce a firms' propensity to export in general which significantly affects wood and wood products and footwear firms. Although, in some cases, increasing wages somewhat improve worker's productivity thus increasing export revenue, in other cases for economic reasons, higher wages can not be afforded by employers for manual workers in manufacturing sectors where skilled labor is not essential. Investing in high-tech production technology does not necessarily increase growth in the value of Vietnamese firms' exports in three sectors mentioned. Although, state-owned firms have been granted preferential or priority treatment by the Government, they appears to be less efficient than others. The regression result shows that state-owned firms in all three sectors are lagging in export performance. Ongoing Government support for state-owned, firms may lead to an unfair competitive environment especially for small, privately owned firms since the Government protection of the Government seem to be unreasonable. If full data on firms' exports of in all sectors had been obtained, the author of the dissertation were able to draw conclusions on the determinants for all sectors and compare their effects on exports accordingly. We consider innovation indicators would be interesting particularly for firms located in a developing and emerging country such as Vietnam. Therefore, we need an appropriate survey method to collect information to resolve the missing data problem of the existing database.
    Keywords: research copperation; doing business
    Date: 2015–08–24
  3. By: Kawanaka, Takeshi
    Abstract: Elections play a crucial role in political stability in post-democratization, and electoral administrations are the key to the electoral process. However, not all newly democratized countries have established reliable electoral administration. New democracies in Southeast Asia, such as the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand, have independent election commissions which have different characteristics, especially in terms of neutrality. Based on three cases, this paper claims that the stakes of politics are the major determinant of the variations in neutrality. The high stakes of politics in Thailand brought about the partisan election commission, while the low stakes in Indonesia made the electoral system relatively neutral. Like Thailand, the high stakes of politics in the Philippines also cause political intervention in the electoral administration.
    Keywords: Southeast Asia, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Democracy, Elections, Electoral administration, The stakes of politics
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Blanca Arellano Ramos; Josep Roca
    Abstract: The urban development of the twentieth century can be characterized by rise of the metropolitanization process. However, especially since 1950, it has been producing a real change of scale in this growth: the infinite growth of metropolitan peripheries, encouraged by the process of urban sprawl, has increased the urbanization of rural environments in the interstices between cities and metropolitan areas. Previously isolated urban systems have been caught in the web of urbanization and generated new urban spaces characterized by increasing complexity. Megacities, intuited in the early twentieth century by precursors of contemporary urbanism (Geddes, 1915; Mumford, 1938), have come true (Gottmann, 1961). This paper, following the work begun by Florida et al (2008), uses the methodology of nighttime satellite images as a method for the delimitation of the megalopolis. This methodology allows the worldwide identification of 444,502 populated areas illuminated with sufficient intensity (64 on a scale of 256) for consideration of urban nature. 433 of these illuminated areas reach a population of over one million inhabitants, concentrating 2,537 million inhabitants, 37.8% of the population of the planet. 92 over 5 million represent the seeds of megalopolitan structures. And 30 structures, that we call proto-megas, exceed 15 million, reaching a population of 1,298,757,300 inhabitants, placing as strong candidates to be characterized as megalopolis. In the study presented here we identified 26 megacities with a population exceeding 20 million, concentrating 1,374,291,094 people in their environment. These megalopolis are distributed throughout the entire planet. Asia highlights the presence of 18 large agglomerations: 2 transnational (India-Pakistan and India-Bangladesh), 5 in India, 6 in China (5 in the continent and one in Taiwan), and 1 in Japan, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines and the Middle East. America (4 megalopolis), Europe (3 agglomerations) and Africa (1 agglomeration), demonstrate the global reach of the geography of the megalopolis. Only Oceania is free of such urban formations. It can be concluded that megacities are a new form of urban settlement that affects the entire planet. This fact is not a phenomenon exclusive of the first world versus what the pioneering work of Geddes, Mumford and Gottmann seemed to suggest. Latin America, Africa and especially Asia, are also protagonists of these new forms of occupation of space. Emerging urban territories that seem to make out a new economic and social order in which Europe and North America will no longer have the unique role of protagonist.
    Keywords: Megalopolis; Metropolis; Night Lights; Urban Agglomerations
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Ugo Finzi (CSIL Centre for Industrial Studies); Stefania Pelizzari (CSIL Centre for Industrial Studies)
    Abstract: This report contains an overview of the world wooden furniture industry, where for wooden furniture we refer to finished furniture in both wood based panel and solid wood. Part I reviews the world market, the major producing countries and the status and prospects of world trade of wooden furniture including a world trade matrix. CSIL forecasts of growth of demand in 2015 and 2016 by country are also included. Part II includes the Wooden Furniture Indicators (divided into World Tables and Country Tables, covering the 50 most important countries for wooden furniture production, consumption and trade). The country tables include a ten-year series of data on production, exports, imports, consumption, import penetration and export ratio for wooden furniture, a table with the main economic indicators, prospects of world consumption of wooden furniture for the years 2015 and 2016. Countries considered in the report: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam.
    JEL: L11 L68 L81
    Date: 2015–07
  6. By: Kawai, Masahiro (Asian Development Bank Institute); Naknoi, Kanda (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper explores the long-term challenges for trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region has emerged as an important production base for multinational corporations by joining East Asia’s supply chains. While proceeding to establish the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by the end of 2015, ASEAN has also forged five major free trade agreements (FTAs) with its dialogue partners (People’s Republic of China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Australia–New Zealand) and is currently negotiating the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). In addition, four ASEAN member states are working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations. Econometric evidence suggests that (i) trade flows and inward FDI mutually reinforce each other, i.e., an increase in trade flows stimulates inward FDI and vice versa; (ii) a larger market attracts more inward FDI; (iii) FTAs tend to help stimulate inward FDI; and (iv) strong institutions, good physical infrastructure, and low costs of doing business are critical in boosting inward FDI. The paper concludes that in the long run ASEAN should aim to further integrate itself with the rest of Asia and the world (through a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific and an Asia–Europe FTA), while substantially deepening its internal integration (by moving from the AEC to a customs and economic union) and thereby maintaining ASEAN centrality.
    Keywords: ASEAN; economic integration; foreign direct investment
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 F18
    Date: 2015–10–27
  7. By: Shanthy Rachagan (Monash University Malaysia)
    Abstract: This article reviews if the introduction of new laws to encourage and protect whistle blowers is sufficient to improve corporate governance in Malaysian public listed companies. It provides suggestions to formulate internal whistle blowing policies for companies. It concludes that due to the culture of the people and the taxonomy of Malaysian public listed companies and companies in other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, having laws to encourage and protect whistle blowers to get rid of corporate wrong-doings is not necessarily the only solution. The article defines whistle blowing and the benefits of encouraging whistle blowers. It proceeds to highlight the issues of concern on whistle blowing. It also deliberates particular issues of whistle blowing in Malaysia by discussing the taxonomy of Malaysian public listed companies, the strength of the regulators in enforcement, the Malaysian culture and the Malaysian corporate scandals. The article elaborates on the whistle blowing laws in Malaysia and concludes by providing alternate ways to encourage whistle blowing in Malaysian companies having in mind the taxonomy of Malaysian companies and enforcement by regulators.
    Keywords: Whistle-blowing, emerging economies, laws and regulations
    JEL: K00
  8. By: Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Laksanapanyakul, Nuttawut; Urata, Shujiro
    Abstract: In this study, we measure the utilization costs of free trade agreement (FTA) tariff schemes. To do that, we use shipment-level customs data on Thai imports, which identify not only firms, source country, and commodity but also tariff schemes. We propose several measures as a proxy for FTA utilization costs. The example includes the minimum amount of firm-level savings on tariff payments, i.e., trade values under FTA schemes multiplied by the tariff margin, in all transactions. Consequently, the median costs for FTA utilization in 2008, for example, are estimated to be approximately US$2,000 for exports from China, US$300 for exports from Australia, and US$1,000 for exports from Japan. We also found that FTA utilization costs differ by rule of origin and industry.
    Keywords: Thailand, International Trade, International Agreements, Costs, Imports, FTA, Fixed Costs
    JEL: F13 F53
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Otsuki, Tsunehiro; Honda, Keiichiro; Michida, Etsuyo; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Ueki, Yasushi
    Abstract: This paper uses firm-level data to examine the impact of foreign chemical safety regulations such as RoHS and REACH on the production costs and export performance of firms in Malaysia and Vietnam. This paper also investigates the role of global value chains in enhancing the likelihood that a firm complies with RoHS and REACH. We find that in addition to the initial setup costs for compliance, EU RoHS (REACH) implementation imposes on firms additional variable production costs by requiring additional labor and capital expenditures of around 57% (73%) of variable costs. We also find that compliance with RoHS and REACH significantly increases the probability of export and that compliance with EU RoHS and REACH helps firms enter a greater variety of countries. Furthermore, firms participating in global value chains have higher compliance with RoHS and REACH regulations, regardless of whether the firm is directly exporting, when the firm operates in upstream or downstream industries of the countries' supply chain.
    Keywords: Malaysia, Vietnam, International Trade, Productivity, Regulation, Costs, Trade, RoHS, REACH, Cost Function, Market Access, Supply Chain
    JEL: F14 L15 O53
    Date: 2015–04
  10. By: Achara Chaicharoen (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University); Kanjana Pataya (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research aims to study the basic education of Thailand And the United States. Method by interview ,document analysis, research tools are the interviews and a data recorder, data were analyzed using content analysis . The results showed that in the management of basic education in Thailand . Managed well , the school is small, medium, large and extra large . The availability of education is not just enough, especially medium and small schools in rural areas . Both the teachers and staff budget money and knowledge to manage the course and network technology. The relevant legislation and policy management is also a form of the same . Managed both form part of the community, network model, sitting format and forms servers and workstations . Including schools in the state is found in the form of management education with community participation is an important base . And the provision of basic education in the US administration by School-based management: SBM) Style management partnership between the public and private charity or local organization .
    Keywords: Basic Education, Basic Education in Thailand, Basic Education in America
  11. By: Wahida Ahmad; David Prentice
    Abstract: Despite the enormous growth in Islamic banking over the last thirty years, most studies, using DEA/stochastic frontier analysis, have found Islamic banks are either as productive or less productive than conventional banks. We take advantage of recent improvements in the direct estimation of production functions by Olley-Pakes and Ackerberg-Caves-Frazer (ACF) to develop fresh evidence on this question. Production functions are estimated and productivity calculated for conventional and Islamic banks in Bahrain and Malaysia between 1990 and 2011. We find that although in many respects the different techniques yield similar results, the ACF results are more plausible. Islamic banks in both countries tend to be around 50% as effcient as conventional banks though productivity growth is faster for Islamic banks. However, in Malaysia, a new set of banks, which we refer to as mixed banks, offering both conventional and Islamic banking, outperform conventional and Islamic banks in levels and growth. In Malaysia, at least, this new institution seems a promising way to meet the increasing demand for Islamic banking services.
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Fikri Zul Fahmi
    Abstract: This study examines the degree to which creative industries fit regional economic settings in the developing world. In so doing, we examine the characteristics of regions where clusters of these industries are found, particularly in Indonesia. Our findings show that creative industries develop in particular regions in this country, but the characteristics of these industries and spatial settings are different from developed countries. In the literature, it is well-established that creative industries are most likely to concentrate in large urban regions, where innovation and cross-fertilization of ideas take place with the support of talent pooling and relatedness among niche producers. This argument is valid for explaining the clustering of ?innovative? creative industries in Indonesia. However, the same conclusion cannot be drawn for long-established ?traditional? cultural industries, which are promoted as creative industries by the government, although they rather focus on preserving heritage values. In this respect, we suggest that policy strategies for creative industries would be applicable to fairly advanced regions with sufficient human capital and economic diversification. Meanwhile, regions specialized in traditional cultural industries can apply a different strategy to optimize the impact of these industries.
    Keywords: creative industries; cultural industries; regional distribution; Indonesia
    JEL: R10 R12 Z11 Z18
    Date: 2015–10
  13. By: Trairat Pipatpokkapole (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Sukunya Roipila (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: This research aims to study the opinions of administrators, teachers and parents.About the availability of education in the STEM and proposed to guidelines for management STEM education. Research methodology by studying the documents and interviews with experts and questionnaires. In the following issues: The environment in teaching ,the preparedness planning, school administration, teacher, and educational resources. The samples in this study were teachers, administrators, parents in primary schools. And secondary education in a multi-stage random 370. And interviewed responsible for the Promotion of Teaching Science in Thailand. The results showed that the availability of STEM education and basic education in the country at a high level. But there is a limit on the policy of national education in the STEM activities used in teaching. In STEM teaching should start from kindergarten levels . And the development of teachers to understand the procedure. And development is Teachers should encourage innovative thinking by teaching school context . And units involved are The institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology is responsible for the creation and development of innovative teaching .
    Keywords: STEM education, Basic school in Thailand, STEM teaching
  14. By: Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Matsuura, Toshiyuki; Takii, Sadayuki
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the effects of tariff reduction on firms' quality upgrading by employing an Indonesian plant-product-level panel dataset matched with a plant-level dataset. We explore the effects of lower output and input tariffs separately, by focusing on the apparel industry. By estimating the Berry-type demand function, we derive product-quality indicators based on the Khandelwal (Review of Economic Studies, 2010) methodology, which enables us to isolate quality upgrading from changes in prices. Our findings are as follows. First, a reduction in output tariffs does not affect product quality upgrading. Second, a reduction in input tariffs boosts quality upgrading in general. In particular, this impact is greater for import firms, which is consistent with the fact that the source of the boost is the import of high-quality foreign inputs.
    Keywords: Indonesia, International trade, Productivity, Tariff, Trade Liberalization, Input Trade, Quality Upgrading
    JEL: F13 F14 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Donsak Tsailexthim (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University); Vasinee Israsena Na Ayuthaya (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research aims to study of Gifted Education model for Thailand . By synthetic papers and related research ,a case study of a foreign country ,expert Interviews, and focus group The research tool is data form, interview and data were analyzed using content analysis . The results showed that : Studies gifted education model for Thailand there is an element 1) The establishment of specialized schools are School of Science, school sports and music schools. 2) classes in regular schools by classes or special classes in subjects such as English, math, science, Thai language. A selection process for children with a variety of tools and develop specific courses. As well as adjust the teaching process and authentic assesment. 3) activities by government agencies and private organizations. The results of the research will be used to guide the development of standards of education for children with special abilities further.
    Keywords: Gifted Education, Gifted Child, Educational model
  16. By: Bin Ni (Graduate school of economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: The determinants of ISO14001 adoption have been considered to fall into two categories: the external pressure from environment-oriented stakeholders or customers; the internal need due to expected future benets. In this paper we take a step further to elaborate on the mechanism of firms' adoption by investigating the interrelationship among firms' productivity, capital intensity and the decision-making of the adoption. Applying a general equilibrium model, we show that under optimal condition, highly productive firms can benefit more from the adoption. In the meantime technology advancement potentially drives up the capital intensity of the firms, and this factor will positively affect firms' incentive of adoption as well. The empirical practice using the firm-level data in Vietnam verifies our predictions with robustness. In addition, we find that the phenomenon outlined above becomes even more obvious in the manufacturing sectors.
    Keywords: productivity, capital intensity, ISO14001, Vietnam, environmental protec-tion.
    JEL: D22 F21 Q56
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Mitsuhiko Kataoka
    Abstract: The labour endowment and utilization across sub-national regions differ by educational attainment. Generally, the high-income developed regions are richly endowed with the highly educated that enjoys greater employment stability. The reverse may be true for the lower-income developing regions. The educational expansion affects educational endowment in labour force across sub-national regions and region-specific shocks and minimum wage regulations affect its utilization. We comprehensively explore the factors contributing to interregional inequalities in the labour endowment and utilization by educational attainment in the Indonesia?s post-crisis economy, introducing a variable of the employment with j educational attainment per capita (where j consists of five different levels of educational attainment) and employing Cheng and Li?s (2006) additive inequality decomposition method. Further, we employ Shorrocks? (1980) one-stage Theil decomposition method to measure the factors contributing to overall inequality in employment rate, which is the divergence between the employment rate in a nation and employment rates with j education attainment in province i. We find that the industrial structures and business functions seem to vary more widely from province to province than the other characteristics, such as demographic structures and labour market efficiency, do. The interprovincial differences in labour market efficiencies tend to be greater for the highly educated groups than the less educated. This is affected by several factors: no universal social security system, province-specific compositions of formal/informal sectors, and different minimum-wage provisions across provinces. Moreover, the interprovincial inequities in employment rates with the junior secondary education attainment have the most significant influences among all education groups. The recent increase in the corresponding labour force share could make this a crucial issue for the country. Consequently, policies for improving the efficiency in the corresponding labour market must be implemented. Cheng, Y.-S. and S.-K. Li. (2006) ?Income inequality and efficiency: A decomposition approach and applications to China?, Economics Letters 91 (1): 8?14. Shorrocks, A.F. (1980) ?The class of additively decomposable inequality measures?, Econometrica, 48 (3): 613?25.
    Keywords: decomposition analysis; interregional inequality; labor force
    JEL: R11 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Dang, Duc Anh
    Abstract: This paper considers the effects of social network on income and employment dynamics of rural-urban migrants in Vietnam. Estimation of a causal effect is challenging because unobserved factors affects both employment performances and social networks. I address this endogeneity problem by using instrumental variable method. The results suggest that social networks improve migrant’s earnings and make wage earners willing to change their jobs.
    Keywords: migration, social network, employment
    JEL: D02 J61
    Date: 2015–10–26
  19. By: JINJI Naoto; TSURUMI Tetsuya
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate how inward foreign direct investment (FDI) influences the environmental actions of local firms in the host country. We use firm-level data of Vietnam manufacturing firms for the period 2007-2008. Environmental actions are measured in five indexes, including adoption of environmental management system, certification of environmental standards, and application of cleaner production. We estimate the direct effect of foreign ownership share and three types of spillover effects on the environmental behavior of firms. Spillover effects include horizontal, forward, and backward spillovers. We find positive and statistically significant direct effects and negative and significant horizontal spillovers. We also find positive and significant backward spillovers when firms engage in international trade. Moreover, we find heterogeneity in both direct and spillover effects among source countries of FDI.
    Date: 2015–10
  20. By: Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: The purposes of this research are 1) the risk factors in curriculum management of educational administration program in public university,Thailand and 2) guidelines for the risk management. The research comprised of 3 phases: 1) analytical study to set the conceptual framework in risk management in curriculum management of educational administration program; 2) risk factors analysis in basic education schools; and 3) risk management analysis. The samples came from a management team, Teaching staff, Master and PhD student from 20 public universities. The risk management in curriculum management of educational administration program was acquired via experts’ references. The data collected by used document analysis, structured interviews, focus groups and questionnaires. The statistical data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, and content analysis. The research findings revealed that : 1. Risk of curriculum management in educational program are Financial Risk , Lack of efficient technology, Educational management does not meet students need Risk , Organizational structure Risk ,Operation Risk , The curriculum management team Risk and , Result and service Risk , Competition risk ,Reputation risk 2. The guidelines for the risk management in each component were suggested as follows: are the approach strategy which can respond to the competitive circumstance, the complete database to plan for the implementation of curriculum management, The preparation of responsible staff, the reasonable budget allocation,and the increase in number and quality of permanent teaching staff.
    Keywords: Risk Management, Curriculum Management, Educational Administration Programs, Public University
  21. By: Vasinee Israsena Na Ayuthaya (Srinakharinwirot University, Faculty of Education); Patamaporn Dejakaisaya (Srinakharinwirot University, Faculty of Education); Paveena Santanakhul (Srinakharinwirot University, Faculty of Education)
    Abstract: The purposes of this study were to develop an appropriate design for teaching kindergarten in Thailand. One thousand questionnaires were sent to early childhood educators from the Office of Basic Education Commission, Office of the Private Education Commission, Minster of Interior, Office of the Higher Education Commission, and Department of Education Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in Thailand. A total of 607 completed questionnaires were used to analyze the data. The questionnaires were developed with a focus group of experts, IOC: Index of Item-Objective Congruence and the Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (0.98). They were divided into five rating scales. This study is divided into two parts: demographics of the participants and opinions of participants (principles and purpose, methods and theories, instruction, contents, environment and media, assessment, teachers and administrators, and parents and communities). Results of this study stated that Thai teachers agreed to use early childhood theories and instruction. They concerned on ages, development, and children’s interests to teach STEM education. Collaboration among schools, parents, and communities are necessary to support STEM education. Assessments on children development and observation should be used to teach STEM education. Descriptive statistics was used to compute percentage, mean, standard deviation to obtain the results. Future studies should examine the developing of STEM education for teaching kindergarten.
    Keywords: STEM Education, Kindergarten, Teaching, Thailand
    JEL: I29
  22. By: Ekaterina Starikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of Viet and Muong song lore. The traditional view on folk songs of the Viets assumes autochthonous music and poetry as opposed to high Vietnamese Sinicized culture. In reality, high and popular culture in Vietnam were in a state of mutual influence, that’s why we can suggest that there are Sinitic traits in folk poetry and music of Viets. It can be assumed that there are Sinitic traits even in Muong song lore, but in fact Muong song lore in Muong language is not Sinicized, though Muong folk music is Sinicized
    Keywords: Vietnam, Muong, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese culture, folk poetry, song lore
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Nora Lustig
    Abstract: This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct taxes targeted to the rich. While fiscal policy always reduces inequality, this is not the case with poverty. Fiscal policy increases poverty in Brazil and Colombia (over and above market income poverty) due to high consumption taxes on basic goods. The marginal contribution of direct taxes, direct transfers and in-kind transfers is always equalizing. The marginal effect of net indirect taxes is unequalizing in Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia and South Africa. Total spending on education is pro-poor except for Indonesia, where it is neutral in absolute terms. Health spending is pro-poor in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and South Africa, roughly neutral in absolute terms in Mexico, and not pro-poor in Indonesia and Peru.<BR>Ce document de travail examine l’impact redistributif des politiques budgétaires au Brésil, au Chili, en Colombie, en Indonésie, au Mexique, au Pérou et en Afrique du Sud en utilisant la technique d’analyse d’incidence sur des données aux alentours de l’année 2010. L’impact de la redistribution est le plus important en Afrique du Sud, et le plus faible en Indonésie. La performance de la redistribution est principalement déterminée par l’effort redistributif (part de la dépense sociale dans le PIB de chaque pays) et par la mesure dans laquelle les taxes et transferts sont ciblés vers les plus pauvres et les impôts directs vers les plus riches. Les politiques budgétaires réduisent systématiquement les inégalités, mais pas la pauvreté. La dépense publique augmente la pauvreté au Brésil, en Colombie (au-delà même de la pauvreté mesurée avant redistribution) à cause de la forte taxation des biens élémentaires. L‘impact marginal des taxes directes, des transferts directs et des transferts en nature a toujours un impact progressif. L’impact marginal des taxes indirectes est régressif au Brésil, en Colombie, en Indonésie et en Afrique du Sud. Les dépenses totales d’éducation sont plus favorables aux pauvres, sauf en Indonésie, où elles sont neutres en termes absolus. Les dépenses de santé sont plus favorables aux pauvres au Brésil, au Chili, en Colombie et en Afrique du Sud, globalement neutres en termes absolus et favorables aux pauvres en Indonésie et au Pérou.
    Keywords: developing countries, social spending, inequality
    JEL: D31 H22 I3
    Date: 2015–10–26
  24. By: Euijune Kim; Geoffrey J.D. Hewings; Hidayat Amir
    Abstract: We develop a Financial Computable General Equilibrium Model (FCGE) model that can analyse the economic impacts of the infrastructure investment projects and their financing options on growth and distribution in Indonesia economy. It is possible to estimate growth and distributional effects of each project based on the financing method (government financing with tax revenues, government bond, and private financing) over the construction and operation periods if the information on the investment expenditures, the construction location and the accessibility of the project are injected into the FCGE model. The government financing with tax revenues could generate higher effects on GDP than two other financing methods regardless of projects. However, the presented values of benefits over costs are less than one for two sample highway projects, so they cannot be sustainable with regard to economic assessment.
    Keywords: Transportation Investment; Infrastructure Policy; Financial CGE Model
    JEL: C68 D58 H54 O18
    Date: 2015–10
  25. By: Yuzuru Miyata; Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takahide Fukuda
    Abstract: Economic measures are advanced to environmental problems in EU nations. The economic approach imposes a constant economic load on activities negatively affecting the environment, and it is also a technique for giving a constant profit for activities conserving the environment. The whole society is expected to be environmental-friendly state by this incentive. Moreover, this method has the advantage for inventing new technologies and efficient production processes. The direct regulation is pointed out as an environmental conservation measure. However dependence on the regulatory control has the anxiety to decline the economic vitality of firms. Therefore, the economic approach that does not decrease inventiveness and the autonomy of each firm becomes important. Carbon credit can be taken as one of the economic measures for controlling global warming. The upper limits of CO2 emissions are assigned to each firm or country, and the carbon credit is defined as a credit of the volume of CO2 emissions generated by economic activities. The mechanism in which the total CO2 emission is controlled by buying and selling the carbon credit is called emission right trading. The present study focusses on the carbon credit. Although researches on environmental and economic impact by carbon credit at a country level have already been conducted, studies on such a topic in developing countries emitting large CO2 and/or a city level have hardly been found. Hence, the present study analyzes the environmental and economic impact of introduction of carbon credit in Makassar City, which is a main city in east Indonesia, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The reason selecting Indonesia as a study country is that CO2 emissions in Indonesia considering the swiddens and the peaty land are ranked at the third place in the world. The reason selecting Makassar City as a study region is that there is an enough forest in surroundings of Makassar City and a big amount of the CO2 forest absorption can be expected for issuing the carbon credit. Moreover, it is another reason that there is an input-output table in Makassar City, and data that is necessary to construct a computable general equilibrium model is available. In this paper, Makassar City is assumed to issue a carbon credit and sell it to other regions. Numerical simulations are implemented to analyze the environmental and economic impact of the carbon credit. The simulation results show a decrease in CO2 emissions and an increase in household utility in Makassar City by selling the carbon credit to other regions.
    Keywords: carbon credit; global warming; Makassar; Indonesia; CGE
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2015–10
  26. By: Sukunya Roipila (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Wijit Chalopatham (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Kridsana Mookkaew (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to study process development of mathematics teachers in primary schools by interview and forcus group expert and teachers.There were 40 major informants of this study consisting of deputy school director,school director and teachers who were purposive selected. Data were collected by document analysis, in-depth interview and participatory observation. The phenomenological analysis was also used to analyze the collected data. The study revealed that : Process activities and criteria of mathematics teachers development in primary school were 5 steps of 1) Team work development consisted of; performing recreation teams,exercise, caring among group members, sharing information of teaching, producingteaching tools. 2) Learning resources both inside and outside school consisted of; workshop of learning units, writing lesson plan, applying learning resources of classes. 3) Professional development consisted of; providing the knowledge of philosophy and learning theories, using science technologiesand using the manual and teaching tools provided. 4) Performing teaching–learning activities consisted of; classroom observation, training of teaching techniques, workshop for lesson plan writing, and study tour. 5) Action research consisted of; concerned research study, sharing information about classroom action research, as well as technology for research presentation. In the next step of this research .There will be a trial process in the development of mathematics teachers as required .
    Keywords: Model of science teachers development, Primary school, Teachers development
  27. By: Prapon Chaicharoen (Srinakharinwirot University); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education, Srinakharinwirot University)
    Abstract: This research is aimed to study a STEM education (STEM; Science,Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) for secondary school. And assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice.The study consisted of two stages: creating patterns by studying documents, interviewing. A focus group of 22 people. And assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice by the opinion of the administrators and teachers of secondary school of 225 people. The results showed that the modeling experts have agreed at the highest level.And steps to assess the possibility of bringing the model into practice.The development consists of five elements contain. 1) The course is flexible in line with the group on ethics issues. 2) Learning Management In terms of learning methods. Basic education is well equipped to handle teaching STEM. 3 ) evaluation of learning. Assess the knowledge, skills, experience, ethics. 4 ) administration and management . Teachers need to have a better understanding about the management of STEM education and resources are available to facilitate learning . 5 ) the involvement of parents and the community need to support their children's learning .Participation and support learning and teaching. Factors and conditions that encourage educational achievement in STEM related entities such as the office of the basic education, The university offered the course of Undergraduate Teaching Profession and The institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology . Policymakers must work together Cognition And to guide the activities of teaching.
    Keywords: STEM education, Secondary school in Thailand, STEM teaching, Science,Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, Teaching Science and Technology
  28. By: Yuki Higuchi (Nagoya City University); Vu Hoang Namb (Foreign Trade University); Tetsushi Sonobe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of short-term management training for small manufacturers in two study sites in Vietnam and collected follow-up data repeatedly for two years to assess longer-term impacts than the existing studies of management training. Our training programs introduced participants to Kaizen, a common-sense approach to production management. In both sites, many participants started to recognize the importance of learning about management and improved their management skills. The impacts on management skills were statistically significant two years after the programs. Our results suggest that the training program increased participants’ value added in one of the two study sites, likely because they learned how to eliminate wastes in production.
    Date: 2015–10
  29. By: Adriana Ocejo
    Abstract: We study the price of Asian options with floating-strike when the underlying asset price follows a regime-switching geometric Brownian motion. We propose an iterative procedure to compute the option prices without recourse to solving a PDE system. Our approach makes use of the scaling property of Brownian motion and the Fixed-Point Theorem.
    Date: 2015–10
  30. By: Narintip Boonchaloeymak (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Suwat Boontam (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary)); Chatmongkon Tojumsil (Srinakharinwirot University,Prasanpimt Demonstration School (Elementary))
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a model for science teacher developmentin elementary school by using A-I-C technique and participatory action research process.There were 21 major informants of this study consisting of deputy school director,school director and teachers who were purposive selected. Data were collected by document analysis, in-depth interview and participatory observation. The phenomenological analysis was also used to analyze the collected data. The study revealed that The model of science teacher development in primary school was composed of: 1) Collaborating goal setting between teachers, parents, and stakeholders. 2) Setting activities of science teacher development program which were; setting of teaching criteria, setting of school abilities and setting of action research criteria. 3) Setting of developmental criteria which were; teacher team work development, development of learning resources both inside and outside school, teaching professional development, teaching-learning activities and action research development. 4) Teacher development through PAOR process for 3 rounds and 5) Results evaluation. The results of this research will lead to the development of science teachers in elementary schools.
    Keywords: Model of science teachers development, Elementary school, Teachers development
  31. By: Andriy Karakuts (The National Insitute of Strategic Studies)
    Abstract: The Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) is an economic treaty of twelve countries from Asia-Pacific region including the United States, which sees the agreement as a major implementation of its drift towards Asia. Besides the economic aspect of the agreement, the creation of a liberal association states that provides new rules for XXI century trade is also of great geostrategic importance. The TPP provides the U.S. the leverages for a regional dominance and creates the rules for development of this strategic region. The agreement could influence the geostrategic architecture of the Asia-Pacific by deepening a political and economic division between the U.S. and China, Japan and China. The TPP can lead to development of the parallel regional integration unions and further divide this area between competing economic and political projects of the U.S. and China.
    Keywords: Trans-Pacific Partnership, Asia-Pacific, USA, China, Japan, geostrategy
    JEL: F53 F13 F51
  32. By: Cheunruedee Butakhiao (Doctoral Student (Educational Administration) Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University Thailand); Jaruwan Ployduangrat (Faculty of Education Srinakharinwirot University Thailand)
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the feature and the need for self-development of teachers in the 21st century. Proceed by : in-depth interviews. To get feedback on the features of a teacher. The needs and in line with the 21st century. The data provider has two groups of 5 experts and administrators of basic education. Primary Educational Service Area Office, Area 1 Nonthaburi 10 Then the defining feature of the 21st century teacher to teacher focus group of 40 people. After the data were a questionnaire about the actual situation and the expectations of teachers in the 21st century, which features a questionnaire rating scale. Collect data on 722 teachers in Nonthaburi primary education service area office 1, Thailand. The results showed that In actual practice occurred. Is moderate and expectations and needs are high. The results of the research will be used to set guidelines.and develop a strategy to develop a feature based on teacher expectations for education in the 21st century.
    Keywords: characteristics of the teachers, teachers in the 21st century, Strategy Development, Educational strategies
  33. By: Komlan Gbongli (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Peng Yi (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Owusu Ackah (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)
    Abstract: Industrial clusters over the years has being the engine for growth in most economies accounting for most of national manufacturing sector. This sector turns to be the source of innovation and competitive advantage. It is further responsible for the establishing of new startups and social poverty alleviation in most countries especially in South East Asia but this happens not to be the case in sub-Saharan Africa. Indigenous cluster turns to be less innovative as compared with others in developing countries such as China and others. Therefore this study examines the current state of innovation capabilities of SME cluster and propose a conceptual framework that can aid in how information and technology is diffused. It further investigate the influence of both interaction of various stakeholders and the clustering environment on innovation performance. In addition this study provides a platform for government and major stakeholders to implement and evaluate cluster strategy.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  34. By: Jing Li; Badi Baltagi
    Abstract: This paper exploits the homogeneity feature of the Singapore private residential condominium market and constructs matched home purchase price and rental price series using the repeated sales method. These matched series allow us to conduct time series analysis to examine the long-term present value relationship in the housing market. Three key findings are obtained. First, we fail to establish a cointegrating relationship between the home purchase price and rental price based on nationally estimated indexes. Second, area-specific indexes demonstrate strong cross-correlations, invalidating the use of first generation panel unit root tests that ignore these cross-correlations. Third, Pesaran¡¯s CIPS test indicates that the unit root hypothesis is rejected for the first difference of both indexes. We also do not reject the hypothesis that home purchases and rental price indexes are cointegrated with a cointegrating vector (1,-1).
    Keywords: Cointegration; housing market; purchase and rental price; market efficiency
    JEL: R00 C1
    Date: 2015–10
  35. By: William E. Griffiths (Department of Economics, University of Melbourne); Gholamreza Hajargasht (Department of Economics, University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: We consider mostly Bayesian estimation of stochastic frontier models where one-sided inefficiencies and/or the idiosyncratic error term are correlated with the regressors. We begin with a model where a Chamberlain-Mundlak device is used to relate a transformation of time-invariant effects to the regressors. This basic model is then extended in several directions: First an extra one-sided error term is added to allow for time-varying efficiencies. Next, a model with an equation for instrumental variables and a more general error covariance structure is introduced to accommodate correlations between both error terms and the regressors. Finally, we show how the analysis can be extended to a nonparametric technology using Bayesian penalised splines. An application of the first and second models to Philippines rice data is provided. A limited Monte Carlo experiment is used to investigate the consequences of ignoring correlation between the effects and the regressors, and choosing the wrong functional form for the technology.
    Keywords: Technical Efficiency, Penalised Splines, Gibbs Sampling
    JEL: C11 D24 C23 C12
    Date: 2015–01
  36. By: Chuhwan Park (Yeungnam University in Korea)
    Abstract: This study examines diverse production functions and total factor productivity (TFP) levels of 29 OECD countries by using regional data for the 2003-2013 period and related determinants. First, the relationship between TFP and capital and that between TFP and labor are negative (-). Second, communications equipment investment by type has a negative effect on TFP in which communications capital is considered by type, providing support for the productivity paradox. Third, imports have a negative (-) relationship with TFP, whereas the degree of openness has a positive (+) relationship. Finally, the Asian region has a positive effect on TFP, whereas the American region has the greatest negative effect.
    Keywords: TFP, Telecommunications Equipment Investment, Determinants, Random Coefficient Model
    JEL: D22 A10 D29
  37. By: Irina Semykina
    Abstract: This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR) policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. Focusing on the experience of the Eastern Siberia the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach based on rent-seeking strategy doesn?t allow having any significant benefits from resource endowment in the regions. The key idea is that the establishment of completely new industry has to affect regional economic development, budget revenues dynamics, and employment, to influence the related industries and services in the region. Such benefits are of great importance especially for the Eastern Siberian regions which had been endured the alarming depopulation and deindustrialization processes since the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. Oil and gas production is capital intensive industry, but at the same time involves quite limited number of employees. Equipment and machinery producing industries, as well as oil and gas related services and engineering, on the contrary can be referred to the highly skilled and labor intensive sectors. Moreover linkages between oil and gas industry and other local industries can impact regional economic growth through investments and creating value added activities in equipment and materials. Nowadays Russian national oil and gas companies don?t have a clear local content strategy, it?s mainly addressed as part of the ?corporate social responsibility agenda?. The paper provides the review of the LCR policy which has been widely used in some countries with similar industry pattern like Norway, Brazil and Malaysia. The conducted analysis let to form possible scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of regional economic development depending on the scale of LCR policy. The developed approach based on statistical modeling allows assessing both direct and indirect (via intersectoral relations) effects of LCR policy. The obtained results allow to conclude that the implementation of LCR policy lead to the growth of real income per capita and the job creation in the region which give the opportunity to reverse the population decrease trend. The development of equipment and services suppliers for oil and gas industry by ripple effects can boost socio-economic development and diversify regional economics. The paper also dwells on some pitfalls and risks accompanying LCR policy and considers crucial points of introducing this kind of policy for local and federal government.
    Keywords: regional economics; oil&gas resources; local content requirement policy; Siberia
    JEL: O20 Q32 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  38. By: Guilherme de Oliveira; Giana de Vargas Moraes
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to estimate a dynamic panel data to test the convergence hypothesis in per capita CO2 emissions. The empirical approach uses random and fixed effects estimators to obtain the converge rate to 118 countries of the Extend Pen World Table, distributed in global and regional samples of countries. Our results show that the convergence rate increases when country-specific effects are considered in the model. In general, Asian and Latin American countries are converging faster to steady-state than the average of countries. The opposite was observed in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries. In addition, stable and strong convergence rates were found in global and regional large samples, a new result regarding previous literature.
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide emissions; conditional convergence; economic growth; environmental dynamics; panel data
    JEL: Q5 Q52 C33
    Date: 2015–10–22
  39. By: Sri Yogamalar (Monash University Malaysia); Abdul Haseeb Ansari (International Islamic University Malaysia)
    Abstract: The right to a healthful environment gained global recognition with the growing trend in environmental consciousness and development of human awareness over the past decades. This human right is interlinked to our environment because an ecosystem which is otherwise will affect all living organisms to the very root of their existence. It is said that the right to a healthful environment is the flagship of all fundamental human rights. This stems from the indubitable fact that the survival of mankind is totally dependent on a clean, healthy and pollution-free environment. This paper delves into the constitutions of 23 nations in 6 different continents, with the right to a healthful environment as the central theme. It also explores the status, adequacy and enforcement of this basic human right as a constitutional right. To what extent Mother Nature is protected and how effective our environmental safeguards are, directly and indirectly, have reciprocal effects on the sustainable development of a country. In the midst of facing today’s global environmental challenges, it is the fervent hope of every citizen to live a decent life with reasonable living conditions for survival, and preservation of human dignity and sanity. This can only be achieved if the greed of the developed countries gradually erodes in the face of abating the sufferings of mankind by having a heart for humanity. Going back to basics, the right to a healthful environment actually relates to the sustainable survival of the humankind because it encompasses fresh air to breathe, safe and clean drinking water, sufficient nutritious food, proper homes for shelter and adequate sanitation facilities for the sustenance of all biota. Without securing and maintaining a healthful environment for present and future generations to come, mankind will drastically be deprived from enjoying the fundamental human rights that make life worth living.
    Keywords: Constitution, human rights, environment, fundamental liberties, anthropogenic, right to health, judicial activism, enforcement
    JEL: Q51

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