nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
twenty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. ASEAN: Regional Integration and Reforms By Mari PANGESTU; Lili Yan ING
  2. Measuring the effects of monetary policy on house prices and the economy By Williams, John C.
  3. Assessing the Prospects for an E.U.-ASEAN Air Transport Agreement By Alan Khee; Jin Tan
  5. An Integration of Sustainable Design Strategies and Environmental Stewardship to Landscape Development Plan for the Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture By Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat; Shahida Mohd Sharif
  6. Exchange Risk Management and the Choice of Invoice Currency: 2014 Questionnaire Survey of Japanese Overseas Subsidiaries (Japanese) By ITO Takatoshi; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko
  7. Empowering rural women with entrepreneurship skill in Malaysia By SALWANA HASSAN
  8. What Do We Mean by a Level Playing Field in International Aviation? By Mike Tretheway; Robert Andriulaitis
  9. A Comparison of Agricultural Cooperatives in Thailand and China By Ratchanee Mukhjang
  10. Stress among Medical Students in the Deep South of Thailand By Norman Mudor; Adhhiyah Mudor
  11. A Regional Analysis of Markets Uncertainty Spillover By Kamel Malik Bensafta
  12. Do local business ownership matter the city growth and sizing? The case of Phitsanulok Manufacturing 1971-2014 By Wattanadumrong
  13. Impact of Long Term Care for the Elderly in Urban Area of Thailand By thanach kanokthet
  14. Strategies for Addressing Smallholder Agriculture and Facilitating Structural Transformation By Dalila Cervantes-Godoy
  15. Russia and Asia-Pacific Security: The Maritime Dimension By Evgeny A. Kanaev; Anastasia S. Pyatachkova
  16. Balance-of-Payments Constraints in Colombia: Effects of International Openness and Trade with Asia By Pavel Vidal Alejandro; Jose Tomas Pelaez Soto; Mauricio de Miranda Parrondo
  17. Towards 2030 UN Agenda on Sustainable Development Goals: Technical Challenges in Measuring the Gender Inequality for Asia Pacific By Aggarwal, Bhavya; Chakraborty, Lekha S
  18. Reconnection Strategies of Physical Landscape: A Case Study in the Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture By Shahida Mohd Sharif; Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat; Siti Nurulhidayah Zakaria
  19. Burnished Ornamentalism: Making Sense of History, Iconography and the Visual Cultural Practices of Postcolonial Elite Schools in Globalizing Circumstances By Cameron McCarthy
  20. Challenging the Writer’s Authority: A study of the Participatory Creative Process of the Malay Novelists By Sohaimi Abdul Aziz

  1. By: Mari PANGESTU (Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia); Lili Yan ING (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) and University of Indonesia)
    Abstract: Over recent decades, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has advanced a policy of regional integration, starting with the ASEAN Free Trade Area, followed by the ASEAN+1 free trade agreements with its six main trading partners, and now with ASEAN+6. For ASEAN to further advance regional integration in the East Asian context, it should continue to focus on trade in goods, investment, and services, to smooth out the process of trade creation and investment realisation. East Asian integration is designed not to be just an ‘extensive regional trade agreement’, but more a ‘responsive vehicle’ that consists of trade and investment commitments combined with facilitation, to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of trade and investment agreements and the liberalisation agenda for all members. To keep regional integration viable, it should adopt an open regionalism policy.
    Keywords: ASEAN, integration, global value chains, free trade agreement, reforms
    JEL: F1 F14 F15
    Date: 2015–09
  2. By: Williams, John C. (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco)
    Abstract: Presentation to Bank Indonesia, BIS Conference on “Expanding the Boundaries of Monetary Policy in Asia and the Pacific”, Jakarta, Indonesia, August 20, 2015
    Date: 2015–08–20
  3. By: Alan Khee; Jin Tan
    Abstract: In February 2014, transport officials from the European Union (E.U.) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) met on the sidelines of the Singapore Airshow to discuss a possible comprehensive air transport agreement between both sides. At the meeting’s conclusion, the ASEAN states invited the European Commission to launch the internal processes necessary to secure a mandate to commence negotiations on an agreement. In particular, ASEAN welcomed Vice President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Transport Siim Kallas’ statement that he would propose to the Commission to seek authorization from the Council of the European Union to start negotiations (E.U.-ASEAN Joint Declaration, 2014).
    Date: 2015–01
  4. By: Santidhorn Pooripakdee (Silpakorn University Phetchaburi IT Campus)
    Abstract: With subsidiaries operating in various countries, MNCs find themselves surrounded by the complexity and cultural diversity that are different from their home countries. MNCs need to develop and choose the appropriate degree of management control to exert on their subsidiaries. The objectives of this research are (1) To study the factors that influence the degree of management control used by MNC headquarters on their subsidiaries in Thailand; (2) To study the degree of management control that American and Japanese MNCs exerted on their subsidiaries in Thailand; (3) To study the variables that influence the effectiveness of both American and Japanese subsidiaries in Thailand; and (4) To study the effect of management control exerted by American and Japanese MNCs on their subsidiary effectiveness. The research uses a survey-based method to examine American and Japanese subsidiaries operating in Thailand. The results indicate that (1) the degree of MNC ownership plays an essential role in determining the degree of each type of control system that the parent company might choose to control its subsidiaries; (2) the Nationality of MNC have influence the degree of control employed over their subsidiaries; (3) Cultural distance also plays as an important role in determining the degree of particular types of control; (4) Decision-making structure influences only the degree of output control used over the subsidiaries, but does not influence the degree of input control. The findings also indicate that American companies use both input control and output control more than do Japanese companies. Regarding the effectiveness of MNC’s subsidiaries, cultural distance is the only contextual factor found to play an important role in achieving the effectiveness of the subsidiary. In addition, the degree of input control used by American and Japanese MNCs over their subsidiaries in Thailand does not play an important role in determining the effectiveness of the subsidiary. On the other hand, output control will influence the subsidiary effectiveness when considered with other contextual factors. In summary, the subsidiaries will achieve high or low effectiveness when the degree of output control used over it are considered or examined with other contextual variables.
    Keywords: MNCs, Management Control, Input Control, Output control, Degree of management ownership, Nationality of MNC, Cultural distance, Decision-making structure
    JEL: M16 F23
  5. By: Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Shahida Mohd Sharif (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)
    Abstract: Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture (FSA) is gearing towards the ‘Eco Campus’ movement which is in line with the university focus to foster sustainable practices in the campus. The lack of landscape elements and facilities in the newly established campus has inspired a landscape development plan equipped with sustainable strategies initiatives for multifunctional uses. Located in the city of Sandakan, the campus was established in 2011 and currently undergoing intensive infrastructure development for teaching and learning purposes. The strategies correspond to the challenges faced by the campus in terms of its rough microclimate and the deterioration of soil condition which could severely affect future landscape implementation if meticulous planning is overlooked. The strategies acknowledge the importance of engaging the stakeholders of the campus; especially the students and staff to create a multifunctional, adaptive, and resilient landscape plan. This is important to encourage more outdoor spaces utilisation and social interaction among community members. The future landscape-related development projects are envisioned to implement the strategies to reflect Universiti Malaysia Sabah ‘EcoCampus’ aspiration.
    Keywords: sustainable practices, landscape development plan, universities, sustainable strategies
    JEL: Q01 O29
  6. By: ITO Takatoshi; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko
    Abstract: This study presents new findings of Japanese overseas subsidiaries' foreign exchange risk management and the choice of invoice currency, based on the 2014 RIETI Questionnaire Survey of Japanese Overseas Subsidiaries. First, 60% of Japanese subsidiaries conducted exchange risk management and chose the invoice currency on a discretionary basis. Second, Japanese subsidiaries increased U.S. dollar invoicing transactions, and a marked increase in the use of Asian currencies was not observed. Third, the effect of exchange rate changes on the subsidiaries' pricing behavior differed between the yen appreciation and depreciation periods. Fourth, Japanese subsidiaries reduced the use of the yen in trade with Japan in recent years. Only Japanese subsidiaries in China increased the share of renminbi invoicing trade, and subsidiaries in other Asian economies seldom chose renminbi invoicing in external trade, except for their trade with China.
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: SALWANA HASSAN (Universiti Teknologi Mara)
    Abstract: Poverty in rural Malaysia remains unresolved and contribute7.8% to the whole poverty figure in Malaysia. Among the rural folks, 50% is women. Thus, women, as the significant human capital to fight the long lost battle of poverty, are indispensable. This will also serve as an equal opportunity for women to play active and positive roles to develop the society that has been the tasks for men all this while. More importantly rural women folks have the potential to offer better quality of life for their family by providing extra income and monetary support whenever their husbands are not able to work. The reality in this , however, cannot be solved easily as there are many factors that stand in the way and prevent the resolutions to be observed.In this regard, this paper describes a model that has been used to resolve such issues in rural Malaysia. The model utilizes a synergetic effort between an academic institution, an NGO that govern the rural women folks and a private trading company that sell the finished product. The project was conducted in rural area of Selangor and has been in operations since the end of 2013. It shows positive outcome in terms of improving the productivity and income of the participants by more than 200%. The living condition of those involved also has shown tremendous improvement and model could be used in other rural areas of Malaysia. The project captures the influence of the NGO programs upon rural women entrepreneurship and how a private trading company can facilitate to help develop a community. As a result the project reveals that self-income generating activities by entrepreneurship are the important contributing factor to empowering rural women folks in Malaysia.
    Keywords: poverty, empowerment, rural, entrepreneurship, community
    JEL: L26 O10 D71
  8. By: Mike Tretheway; Robert Andriulaitis
    Abstract: The issue of a “level playing field” has re-emerged as a major issue in international aviation. This issue has been around for decades but has been raised in recent policy debates. One policy forum in which this has been raised is the European Commission’s proposed revision to Regulation 868/2004, which some view as a response to allegations by some legacy carriers to the rapid growth of the Middle East carriers such as Emirates, Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways. Another dimension to the concern over the level playing field is the evolution in foreign ownership rules, such as the type of treaty clauses being negotiated by the European Union. Could broader acceptance of service by carriers owned by third-party nationals create conditions for a flag of convenience regime of the kind that characterises parts of maritime liner shipping? The flag of convenience issue has been discussed in the U.S. media with regard to Norwegian Air Shuttle. Norwegian’s long haul services are operated by subsidiaries Norwegian Long Haul AS and Norwegian International Ltd. The former is registered in Norway while the latter is registered in Ireland and operates flights for its parent. Some long haul flights have operated with contract flight attendant labour based in Thailand.
    Date: 2015–02
  9. By: Ratchanee Mukhjang (Naresuan University)
    Abstract: A cooperative is one of the crucial mechanism for the development of many countries since they have strong ties to local communities including Thailand and China. There are a lot of research reports related to agricultural cooperatives in Thailand and China but there are very few studies focusing on a comparison of the agricultural cooperatives in China. The main objective of this paper is to study on a comparison of agricultural cooperatives in both Thailand and China by using the institutional perspective. It was shown that the agricultural cooperatives were the major financial sources for farmers. Furthermore, they paid a leading part in the provision of goods, services, products processing respectivelyThe new institutional economics perspective explained that institutional factors influenced organizational evolution while the historic path has been affected by the interaction between institutions and organizations. The major obstacles to achieving the goal of the cooperatives in Thailand are as follows 1) limitation of knowledge and understanding about the cooperative 2) lack of linkage for mutual cooperation 3) absence organization directly taking the role in harmonizing the information technology development system 4) inadequate role of the Cooperative League of Thailand. Currently, the agricultural cooperatives was challenging by changes in various external and internal environment. To be sustainable in that situation, they must adjust their structures and business activities. In China, the agricultural marketing cooperatives has expanded rapidly in the 1990s. Additionally, the Cooperative National law on farmer professional cooperatives 2007 enhanced the expansion of the enterprises. It is believed that it could tie many small farmers with traders, retailers, as well as commercial premises. As a result, the cooperatives may contribute to the market development . More interestingly, it could enrich the supply chain. Even though, the State support is very important in the establishment of cooperatives, China apply a different model to initiate a cooperative. Particularly, the newly established cooperative must employ at least one member with huge experience. For example, he or she could access to funding sources and has plenty of social capital. The significant recommendation of the study is to learn more about the alternative model of establishing agricultural cooperatives from China.
    Keywords: agricultural cooperatives, new institutional economics, alternative model
    JEL: A14
  10. By: Norman Mudor (Medical Education Center, Yala Hospital); Adhhiyah Mudor (Sirindhorn College of Public Health Yala)
    Abstract: Medicine has been widely known as a high stress profession and medical school is often where stress begins. Identifying the common stressors among the medical students in our Medical Education Center, would help the supervisors to develop the suitable curriculum structure. This study aims to investigate the perceived sources of stress among 4th and 5th year medical student at Medical Education Center, Yala Hospital, Thailand, and to compare if the student with different gender, religion and study year perceives the source of stress differently. A descriptive cross sectional quantitative study was conducted using a 40 items self administered questionnaire adapted from the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ). The determinants are gender, religion and the study year. T-test was used for analyzing the difference in group. A 92.73% response rate was obtained. The results indicated that falling behind in reading schedule, test and examination, large amount of content to be learnt, national test exam, and lack of time to review what have been learnt were the first five commonest stressors for students. Interestingly, the Muslim students had significantly higher total stress scores than Buddhist students, and the fifth year students had significantly higher stress than the fourth year students. In contrast, gender did not associated with the total stress scores. Medical instructor should design and develop a curriculum structure which is enhancing the student’s well being and focus on academic and clinical performance for producing graduates with a positive professional attitude.
    Keywords: stress, the Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire, medical student.
  11. By: Kamel Malik Bensafta (Macroéconomie Finance - LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS - UO - Université d'Orléans - Université Hassiba Benbouali de Chlef - Université de Chlef)
    Abstract: This study aims to describe the transmission of uncertainty between the stock markets of four aggregate regions: North America, Europe non Euro-zone, Asia and the euro area. We use a non-linear VAR model with innovations following a Multivariate GARCH with variance regime change. The interest of the model with regime change is to correct the estimation bias caused by the overestimation of the shocks persistence. We apply the non-linear VAR model with regime change in daily MSCI data aggregated from four regions over the period from June 2005 to October 2013. This period included the crisis episodes in 2007 and 2011. Our results indicate the importance of taking into account changes in variance in measuring the persistence of volatility shocks. They also show the high exposure of European and Asian markets to the uncertainties of North American markets. The transmission in time of crisis is higher compared to the quiet period. This result confirms the contagious nature of the crises of 2007 and 2011 and supports the thesis of the contingency theory to crisis.
    Keywords: Structural breaks,subprime crisis,volatility transmission
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Wattanadumrong (Naresuan University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses regional investment in Phitsanulok Province located in the lower north of Thailand. Using data for 713 local manufacturing industries registered from 1971 to 2014. This study examines their performance of the city growth and sizing of locally-owned (LOEs) enterprises and nonlocally-owned (NLOEs) enterprises. The key determinants are identified using a unique assembled data recorded by local authority recording and comprising all local manufacturing industries over time. The descriptive analytical approach will be applied to full sample (all industries) and other relevant issues (capital based, scale intensive, supplier dominated industries classified according to Thailand Standard Industrial Classification; TSIC). This study briefly examines the city growth of manufacturers’ existence and its changes over time. This approach can be applied to analyze the city growth at provincial-level of the country.
    Keywords: local manufacturing, Phitsanulok Province, city growth
    JEL: M21 R19
  13. By: thanach kanokthet (Naresuan University)
    Abstract: This study was a qualitative research aiming to study the experience of long-term care, its associated impact as well as the role of organizations involved in long – term care for the elderly. Data were collected, from January of 2015 to June of 2015, through in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and direct observation of 362 elderly persons and 85 caregivers, at 6 municipality of four provinces of Thailand. The data were analyzed using content analysis, thematic analysis, and frequency and percentage.The results of long-term dependency of the elderly with stroke, dementia, co-morbidity, and chronic health problem, were documented. The care givers who provided long-term care for the elderly in Urban Area showed that the majority of them feel relative powerless; most of them (85%) were female; 30 percent had a chronic health problem; and 35 percent were elderly caregivers. 70 percent of caregivers also work, about 15 percent people need to provide long-term care for more than one person, it was found that the pattern of family caregivers for long-term elderly care in Urban Area of Thailand that the caring was subject of gratitude.Regarding the effect of care, Half of caregivers who care for the elderly with stroke and co-morbidity experienced the economic burden, due to costs of care, financial debt, and a lack of opportunities for career development.The psychological burden and emotional problems were the most common ,among those who provided care to elderly people with dementia. there is a lack of continuity of care for the elderly in the long term health care system, a lack of assurance for the quality of home care, and the lack of integration of missions of the organizations involved in the care of the elderly in a community.In conclusion, the long-term care for the elderly in Thailand results in tremendous burden on caregivers and families amidst the unavailability of family and community support systems. Therefore, support system development and system design for long-term elderly care options for caregivers and families in the community include; development of primary care services, promote the role of local government in the long term care system for the elderly, development potential family caregivers, and standardization and quality control long-term elderly care nationality.Thus, leading to the development of a sustainable aged care that is in accord with urban area of Thailand.
    Keywords: Long Term Care , Elderly ,Urban Area
    JEL: I14 I18 I19
  14. By: Dalila Cervantes-Godoy
    Abstract: This report aims to identify the main constraints that limit smallholders in emerging countries from accessing markets. It does this first through a literature review of economic development theory and findings from past empirical studies. It then looks at different policy instruments currently used in five countries: Brazil, Chile, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa. The results suggest that the focus of agricultural policies in these five countries has been on input use subsidies, whether these are for variable input use, fixed capital formation, or on-farm services. Agricultural policies that strengthen the broader enabling environment (general services or public goods) are very limited in most countries covered in this report. Empirical evidence suggests that policies that best support the integration of smallholders into markets include investments in general services for the sector, as well as policies that reinforce land tenure systems or those that promote farmer associations.
    Keywords: agricultural policy, smallholders, emerging economies
    JEL: O13 Q1 Q18
    Date: 2015–09
  15. By: Evgeny A. Kanaev (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anastasia S. Pyatachkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Russia is shifting its foreign policy focus to the Asia-Pacific region because of internal (the necessity to develop Siberia and the Far East) and external (a deepening crisis in relations with the West) factors. For this policy to be a success, Russia needs a stable and predictable regional milieu while confrontation in Asia-Pacific security is on the rise. Evidence for this assessment is provided by the current state of regional maritime security challenges. They are evolving at a faster pace than the regional mechanisms and institutions aimed to keep them within manageable bounds. The simultaneous rise of the global dimension in the main challenges to Asia-Pacific maritime security—primarily the set of issues related to the South China Sea—call for the increased involvement of an established global actor with significant economic potential, independent foreign policy and genuine interest in preserving peace and security in the Asia-Pacific region. In the current circumstances, this role cannot but be assumed by Russia. The paper discusses the specificity of current Asia-Pacific maritime security trends, Russia’s regional priorities and policy instruments which could be used to decrease tensions in the key regional maritime security challenges.
    Keywords: Maritime security in Asia-Pacific, territorial disputes, freedom of navigation, Russian policy, multilateral cooperation
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Pavel Vidal Alejandro; Jose Tomas Pelaez Soto; Mauricio de Miranda Parrondo (Faculty of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali)
    Abstract: Based on the estimation of the balance-of-payments constrained growth (BPCG) model, this article evaluates the impact of international openness and the trade with Asia on Colombia’s GDP growth. The model provides evidence in favor of the policies of trade liberalization in the 1990s, as well as highlighting the raise of a set of vulnerabilities. With regard to Asia, the dependence of Colombia’s GDP has increased but still continues to be below the contribution of the exports to the USA.
    Keywords: economic growth; balance-of-payments constraints; Colombia; Asia
    JEL: C32 F31 F43
    Date: 2015–04
  17. By: Aggarwal, Bhavya; Chakraborty, Lekha S
    Abstract: Against the backdrop of UN 2030 Sustainable Development agenda, this paper analyses the measurement issues in gender based indices constructed by UNDP and suggests alternatives for choice of variables, functional form and weights. Despite their relevance, the composite indices like Gender Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) have been criticized for their technical flaws and later replaced with Gender Inequality Index (GII). While GII conceptually reflects the loss in achievement due to inequality between men and women in three dimensions- health, empowerment and labour force participation – we argue that the assumptions and the choice of variables to capture these dimensions remain inadequate and erroneous, resulting in the partial capture of gender inequalities. Since the dimensions used for GII are different from HDI, we cannot say that a higher value of GII represents loss in HDI due to gender inequalities. However, while it is debatable the advantages of using GII over GDI (GDI is equally distributed equivalent of HDI which measures gender gap in three dimensions of human development-health, education and command over economic resources), one of the main drawbacks of using GII is that along with the inequality indicators of women vis-à-vis men, it also takes absolute indicators that are defined specifically for women- like maternal mortality rate (MMR) and adolescent fertility rate (AFR). The corresponding values for men for these absolute variables are taken as 1 which is unrealistic and leads to overestimation of the gap between women and men’s health standards. The technical obscurity remains how to interpret the index by combining women specific indicators with indicators that are defined for both. GII is a partial construct as it has not captured many significant dimensions of gender inequality. Though this requires a data revolution, we tried to reconstruct GII in the context of Asia-Pacific using three scenarios: (i) improving the set of variables incorporating unpaid care work, pay gap, intra-household decision making, exposure to knowledge networks and feminisation of governance at local levels; (ii) constructing a decomposed index to specify the direction of gender gaps and (iii) an alternative index using Principal Components Index (PCI) for assigning weights. The choice of countries under the three scenarios is constrained by data paucity. The results revealed that UNDP GII overestimates the gap between the two genders and using women specific indicators leads to a fallacious estimation of gender inequality. The estimates are illustrative. The implication of the results broadly suggests a return to GDI for capturing the gender development, with an improvised set of choices and variables
    Keywords: D63, J16, J31, O15
    JEL: D63 E0 J16 J38 O1
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Shahida Mohd Sharif (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Siti Nurulhidayah Zakaria (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)
    Abstract: The Landscape Development Plan of the Faculty of Sustainable Agriculture (FSA) aims to adopt the sustainable design strategies and environmental stewardship which can initiate reconnection with nature as well as to improve the well-being of its community. A pilot study was conducted at the faculty’s farm administration building to evaluate the foundation towards the formulation of a landscape design featuring reconnection of the major systems of physical landscape; air, water and land. Application of sustainable landscape design strategies were pre-tested on the campus ground which include soil amelioration, rainwater harvesting and selection of drought-tolerant plants. The farm administration building was chosen as it is frequently visited by the faculty members and visitors. It reflects the faculty’s aim to demonstrate to the wider public the application of sustainable practices as well as to encourage collaborative monitoring and maintenance of the landscape. The envisioned design is in response to the opportunities and ideas to improvise functionality and aesthetic appeal of the site.
    Keywords: sustainable design strategies, reconnection with nature, physical landscape
    JEL: O29 Q01
  19. By: Cameron McCarthy (University of Illinois)
    Abstract: This presentation probes deeply into the tangled of historicities that animate British-bequeathed elite schools now operating in new competitive transnational educational markets in selected post-developmental states. The scenarios of this competition are increasingly moving online in photo and video-sharing websites such as YouTube, Facebook and Flicker and in the websites that individual schools are creating to consecrate their school heritages. I examine closely the work that postcolonial elite schools in a nine-country international study are doing with their historical archives, preserved cultural objects, architecture, emblems, mottos and their school curricula as they martial these cultural resources at the crossroads of profound change precipitated by globalization and attendant neoliberal imperatives. This change is articulated across the whole gamut of global forces, connections, and aspirations. And, it is in relation to and through these dynamics that postcolonial elite schools must now position and reposition themselves—acting and intervening in and responding to new globalizing circumstances that often cut at right angles to the historical narratives and the very social organization of these educational institutions linked to England. Globalizing developments have precipitated efforts on the part of these schools to mobilize their rich heritages and pasts as a material resource and not simply as a matter of indelible and inviolate tradition. History, then, I maintain in this context, cannot be reduced to the realm of epiphenomena of securely linear school chronologies. Instead, drawing on Walter Benjamin, I look at the way in which postcolonial school histories are “active in the present” and the way in which schools in India, Barbados and Singapore are adroitly and selectively managing their school identities in the light of globalization. The results of these interventions are not guaranteed. They often run up against the revolution of rising expectations of school youngsters and their parents, the taste for global cultures and global futures indicative of the global ambitions of the young, and the pressures of alumni and other stakeholder interests which must be navigated.
    Keywords: Ornamentalism, Postcolonialism, Elite Schools, Digitalization, Globalizing Circumstances
    JEL: F54
  20. By: Sohaimi Abdul Aziz (School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: The participatory of a reader in the participatory creative process that involves the media convergence has challenged the authority of the writer. This development is further enhanced with the influence of commercialism in the writing of popular novel. But to what extent it is true? This paper will examine the participatory creative process of two Malay novelists who write popular novels. They are Ain Maisarah and Wan Iman Wan Mohd Nazi. The theory of participatory creative process which comprises of three principles, namely, media convergence, participatory cultural and emotional intelligence will be applied in this study. The method used is, textual analysis involving novel analysis and social media. The study found that the novelists still have their authority over their works although there is a huge drive of commercialism in the writing of the popular novels.
    Keywords: participatory creative process, media convergence, participatory cultural, emotional intelligence,
    JEL: Y90

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