nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
53 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. IDCourserians, a MOOCs Learning Community in Indonesia By Manda Firmansyah
  2. Implications of cloud computing for personal data protection : An Indonesian perspective By Sinta Dewi Rosadi
  3. Transboundary Haze Polluters and Accountability: The Legal Landscape in Indonesia and Malaysia By HANIM KAMARUDDIN; CECEP AMINUDDIN
  4. Modeling Dependency and Conditional Volatility between Asian Economic Community (AEC) Country Exchange Rate and Inflation Using the Copula-GARCH Model. By KANTA TANNIYOM; Paponpat Taveeapiradeecharoen; Prapatchon Jariyapan
  6. The consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole in 2013 By Mohammad Iqbal Irfany; Stephan Klasen; Rezky Syahrezal Yusuf
  7. The implementation of e-health programs and protection of data privacy: a comparative study between Indonesia, By Sinta Dewi Rosadi
  8. The Indonesia's Implementation of Cape Town Convention 2001 By Prita Amalia Faiz
  10. Re-branding the branded? A sociological analysis on Taiwan's International Image by English-speaking countries By Ya-Hsuan WANG; Hsin-Jen CHEN
  11. Green consumer behavior: Chiang Mai Thailand By Nisachon Leerattanakorn
  12. Philippines: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Philippines By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  13. Myanmar: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  15. The Nature of Dialogue in the Primary Science Classroom in Indonesia By Munasprianto Ramli
  16. Fraud and Forensic Accounting: Knowledge and Risk Assessment Task Performance in Malaysian Public Sector – Conceptual study By Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
  17. Philippines: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  18. Extent of Exchange Rate Coordination in Asia By Sen Gupta, Abhijit
  19. Renewable Energy Policies and the Solar Home System in Cambodia By Han Phoumin
  20. Is Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia really affordable? Measuring Operational Affordability of Public Low-Cost Housing in Kuala Lumpur. By Suzaini Zaid
  21. Game Theory of Green and Non-green Oriented Productions: Dried Longan Enterprises By CHANITA PANMANEE; ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT; AREE CHEAMUANGPHAN; KASEM KUNASRI; NISACHON LEERATTANAKORN
  22. Consumer’s Willingness to Pay for Gasohol E100 in Chiang Mai Province and Nakhon Ratchasima Province. By Pacharaporn Arkornsakul; Woraphon Yamaka; Sombat Singkharat
  23. Myanmar: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Myanmar By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  24. Malaysia: Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting By International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
  25. Forensic Accounting and Fraud: Capability and Competence Requirements in Malaysia By Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
  26. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia By Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryantono
  27. Unregistered Well-Known Mark Protection In Indonesia By Rika Ratna Permata
  28. Tax morale and reciprocity. A case study from Vietnam By Jahnke, Bjoern
  29. Improving Asian Students’ Writing Skills through TELL Environment: What makes the difference? By Wadinlada Thuratham; Dararat Khampusaen
  30. Energy Security of Resource-poor Countries: a New Paradigm of Conceptual Framework By Lixia YAO
  31. Insuring Health or Insuring Wealth? An Experimental Evaluation of Health Insurance in Rural Cambodia By Levine, David; Polimeni, Rachel; Ramage, Ian
  32. An Exit Strategy to Resolve Waste Water Pollution from Batik Industry along the Watershed of Pekalongan River, Indonesia By Mayanggita Kirana; Indah Susilowati
  33. Volunteerism after the Tsunami : the effects of democratization By Miguel De Abreu Freire,Tiago Alexandre; Henderson,J. Vernon; Kuncoro,Ari
  34. The antecedents of corporate sustainability performance By Salina Daud
  35. Efficiency and Technology Gap Ratio of Lending Performance of Micro-credit Institutions in Thailand: The Meta-frontier Analysis By KASEM KUNASRI; SOMBAT SINGKHARAT
  36. Framing the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Post 2015: Quality and Equity Issues in Investing in Basic Education in ASEAN By Tereso S. TULLAO, Jr.; Miguel Roberto BORROMEO; Christopher James CABUAY
  37. Institutions and investment in South and East Asia & Pacific region: Evidence from meta-analysis By Hawkes, Denise Donna; Yerrabati, Sridevi
  38. Does intelligence help fighting inflation: an empirical test? By Salahodjaev, Raufhon
  39. Unprecedented Changes in the Terms of Trade By Mariano Kulish; Daniel Rees
  40. Global Service Learning and Higher Education By Mike Sherrill
  41. Virtual Design and Construction in Bidding Process By Hasnanywati Hassan
  42. Tax Policy and Economic Growth: A Semi-Parametric Approach Using AMT By Shafi, Maryam; Asghar, Zahid
  43. A New Look at the Determinants of Growth in Asian Countries By Manuk Ghazanchyan; Janet Gale Stotsky; Qianqian Zhang
  44. Foreign inventors in the US:\r\n Testing for Diaspora and Brain Gain Effects By Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
  46. Portfolio Optimization of Global REITs Returns: High-Dimensional Copula-Based Approach By ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT
  47. Title: Strategic Intelligence Monitor on Personal Health Systems Phase 3 (SIMPHS 3) – Veterans Health Administration (USA) Case Study Report By Francisco José Mansoa; Alberto Sánchez; Elena Villalba; Ignacio Peinado
  48. Age of Decision: Pension Savings Withdrawal and Consumption and Debt Response By Sumit Agarwal
  49. Fertility, Household Structure, and Parental Labor Supply: Evidence from Rural China By Li, Hongbin; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen
  52. Multilateralism in the Aid Allocation -Why do donors give aid multilaterally? By Ziyi Qin
  53. The Roles of Risk Governance on Islamic Banking Systems By Fauziah Mahat; Noor Azman Ali

  1. By: Manda Firmansyah (University of Bristol, Graduate School of Education)
    Abstract: The notion of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has attracted thousands life-long learners worldwide to enrol. Following this, some face-to-face learning communities have emerged in societies either through MOOC providers or organically founded. Example of the latter is IDCourserian based in Jakarta, Indonesia. Since a little is known on how a MOOC being studied in such community setting, this study aims to investigate what is actually happening in the IDCourserians, using collaborative learning as the theoretical framework. Adopting an intrinsic qualitative case study, this research employed interview, observations, and document review to gather data from six IDCourserian members, community meetups, and its Facebook group. For analysis, this study utilised thematic analysis approach. The findings show that the methods the IDCourserians members learn MOOCs together evolved as the community progressed, ranging from face-to-face to online and synchronous to asynchronous. However, only several from seven identified learning methods can be regarded as collaborative learning. Furthermore, the findings also remark that such online learning platforms still need face-to-face interactions and disregard the notion that education can be fully delivered through online technologies. Moreover, how the learning methods are in tension between two types of MOOC (c-MOOCs and x-MOOCs) will be discussed further.
    Keywords: MOOCs, learning community, collaborative learning, distance and blended education, lifelong learners
  2. By: Sinta Dewi Rosadi (Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia)
    Abstract: ABSTRACTThe implementation of e-health programs and protection of data privacy: a comparative study between Indonesia, Australia and MalaysiaDr. Sinta Dewi RosadiThe application of e-health program refers to tools and services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) that can improve prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and management. The e-health program can benefit the entire community by improving access to care and quality of care and by making the health sector more efficient includes information and data sharing between patients and health service providers, hospitals, health professionals and health information networks; electronic health records; telemedicine services; portable patient-monitoring devices, operating room scheduling software. The e-health goals is to improve citizens' health by making life-saving information available and increase healthcare quality and access by making e-health as part of health policy and to provide health services more effective, user-friendly and widely accepted by involving professionals and patients in strategy, design and application. As one of the archipelago country with the total population estimated 255 million Indonesia has encounter many challenges in providing better health services so that the e-health program is one alternatives to provide better health services. However in the implementation of e-health program will facing legal challenges since the patients personal data is a sensitive data and its collection, use and storage needs legal protection and if the health care services provider does not keep the patients health data in confidential there will be a real risk that people will stop sharing their medical history with healthcare provider if they don’t have confidence that the right privacy controls are in place. This article is the result of preliminary study that analyze the legal framework of protection of e-health program relating data privacy protection is available and compare with Australia and Malaysia
    Keywords: ( Key words: e-health program, legal protection, data privacy)
    JEL: K29
    Abstract: In the second last quarter of 1997, the haze experience affected many countries in South East Asia (SEA) particularly Indonesia and Malaysia. These countries became unwilling victims of slash and burn or burning activities for land clearing purposes carried out in their own forestlands, mostly by foreign vested agricultural companies and local farmers. The impacts of severe haze caused by manmade burning activities in these neighbouring countries at that particular time transcended both borders into other parts of SEA and resulted into economic losses and damages, loss of biodiversity and impacts on human health. It was alleged that agricultural companies that were mostly oil palm concessionaires had used fire as a tool to clear forests including peatland areas to transform the areas into readily planted areas despite the fact that Indonesia and Malaysia were well aware of the need for strict law enforcement. Implementation and changes in domestic laws of Indonesia and Malaysia since the 1997 haze occurrence had proved to be quite challenging in dealing with issues of local burning and prevention thereof. The enforcement to penalise foreign based companies in Indonesia and Malaysia is slow and plagued with issues related to alleged cronyism and corruption, lack of awareness and education, weaknesses in institutional framework and lack of political will. In addition, the penalties imposed are too low that it is insufficient to deter further acts of environmental pollution by these companies. Whilst these limitations hinders effective enforcement in both countries, incidences of forest fires leading to transboundary haze pollution becomes more imminent particularly between March to October each year. Hence, it is suffice to conclude that domestic laws have been insufficient to control and prevent transboundary haze from activities by foreign vested agricultural companies in Indonesia or Malaysia. As these companies have Indonesian or Malaysian interests that carry out agricultural activities in either countries, an external regulation should be explored to complement and support internal regulation in each country to ensure that the activities of these transnational companies are undertaken within the confines of environmental standards and ASEAN notion of cooperation. Thus, a legitimate legislative framework to impose and enforce internationally environmental standards recognised under human rights obligations upon the overseas activities of the plantation corporations incorporate within the host state’s territory may be feasible to imposing accountability to haze polluters in Indonesia and Malaysia.
    Keywords: haze, polluters, Malaysia, Indonesia, accountability, companies.
    JEL: K32 Q53 K33
  4. By: KANTA TANNIYOM (Chiang Mai Rajabhat University); Paponpat Taveeapiradeecharoen (Chiang Mai University); Prapatchon Jariyapan (Chiang Mai University)
    Abstract: Structural dependence and conditional volatility are solutions to comprehend financial crisis behavior. Investigation has been widely analyzed especially to what circumstances occurred in EURO zone countries. This leads many economic researchers attention to prepare uncertainty beyond relationship and variation. This paper aims at estimating the dependency and conditional volatilities the growth rate of AEC exchange rate and inflation of Thailand using COPULA-GARCH models. The motivation of this journal is to reach the most rational policy for BANK of Thailand, since exchange rate is one among tangible strategies. Both margins are distributed by skewed-t, and ARMA-GARCH is fitted to monthly data. Growth rate of those variables residual independence are checked by bivariate random dependence which is represented by P-Value and for Marginal Persistence Volatilities will be tested by using Dynamic Conditional Correlation Method, Fifteen static copulas are applied to those dependencies. AIC, SIC and Kendall’s tau will be an appropriate approach to assess results. Empirical results show huge coefficients of correlations between AEC exchange rates and Thailand inflation in the short-term period and slightly correlated in the long-term period of conditional volatility and dependency. In addition, there is evidence to convince that it was a positive relationship.
    Keywords: Copula; Conditional Valatility; ARMA-GARCH; Exchange Rate; Dynamic Conditional Correlation; Bivariate Independent Test
    JEL: C01 C50 C58
  5. By: Maimon Herawati (Journalism Studies, Communication Science Faculty Universitas Padjadjaran)
    Abstract: South Korean’s Hallyu came to Indonesia more than a decade ago and still dictating the popular culture in Indonesia. This research aims to understand the behavior of Indonesian female students in consuming the Hallyu products, notably Korean dramas. Qualitative research method was conducted using depth interview and focus group discussion technique. Snowball sampling was chosen in order to examine wider Hallyu’s pop culture lovers. The lovers were categorized using George Gerbner’s into heavy, moderate, and light viewer. It is found that light and moderate viewers do not purchased Korean-related product in order to express their interest. On the contrary, heavy viewers are keen to purchase goods related to Korea. They are also very active in discussion at netcafe such as Soompi. The heavy viewers also acted as cultural intermediaries of Korean pop culture, who collect pop culture contents and offer them to other Korean pop culture lovers. However, few heavy viewers changed their pattern into becoming moderate and light viewers due to the repetitive content of Korean dramas. Another reason for the change is the uncomfortable feeling of watching ‘public display affection’ scenes as in recent Korean drama trend. As the cultural waves come and go, it is important to understand the waning interest of some audiences. In order to explore more, wider and deeper research is needed.
    Keywords: Hallyu, cultural intermediaries, cultural consumer, Indonesia
  6. By: Mohammad Iqbal Irfany (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Rezky Syahrezal Yusuf (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole. Combining the use of the GTAP data for emission intensities, of input-output tables for inter-industry linkages with household expenditure categories, we then estimate and calculate the carbon footprint from household consumption, including its drivers, pattern and decomposition of increasing household emission intensities. We find that the main driver of carbon footprint is overall household income, but that differentials in fuel, light and transportation expenditures are key drivers of the household carbon footprint. These expenditures also ensure that the carbon footprint of household in Jambi is higher than in Indonesia as a whole, despite lower per capita incomes. At the same time, substantially lower income inequality in Jambi ensures that the inequality in the carbon footprint is much lower in Jambi than in Indonesia as a whole; particularly noteworthy is the poorer quintiles in Jambi have substantially higher emissions than average Indonesian households in the same quintiles. In Sulawesi, average emissions are much lower and also not as unequal than in Indonesia as a whole. Overall expenditures are by far the most important driver of household carbon emissions, but in Jambi, emissions are higher at all expenditure levels, suggesting particularly carbon-intensive consumption patterns.
    Keywords: Development economics; carbon footprint; household emissions; comparison of Sulawesi, Jambi, and National SUSENAS
    JEL: Q54 D12 O13
    Date: 2015–09–19
  7. By: Sinta Dewi Rosadi (Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia)
    Abstract: ABSTRACTThe implementation of e-health programs and protection of data privacy: a comparative study between Indonesia, Australia and MalaysiaDr. Sinta Dewi RosadiThe application of e-health program refers to tools and services using information and communication technologies (ICTs) that can improve prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and management. The e-health program can benefit the entire community by improving access to care and quality of care and by making the health sector more efficient includes information and data sharing between patients and health service providers, hospitals, health professionals and health information networks; electronic health records; telemedicine services; portable patient-monitoring devices, operating room scheduling software. The e-health goals is to improve citizens' health by making life-saving information available and increase healthcare quality and access by making e-health as part of health policy and to provide health services more effective, user-friendly and widely accepted by involving professionals and patients in strategy, design and application. As one of the archipelago country with the total population estimated 255 million Indonesia has encounter many challenges in providing better health services so that the e-health program is one alternatives to provide better health services. However in the implementation of e-health program will facing legal challenges since the patients personal data is a sensitive data and its collection, use and storage needs legal protection and if the health care services provider does not keep the patients health data in confidential there will be a real risk that people will stop sharing their medical history with healthcare provider if they don’t have confidence that the right privacy controls are in place. This article is the result of preliminary study that analyze the legal framework of protection of e-health program relating data privacy protection is available and compare with Australia and Malaysia
    Keywords: Key words: e-health program, legal protection, data privacy)
    JEL: K19
  8. By: Prita Amalia Faiz (Faculy of Law, Universitas Padjadjaran)
    Abstract: Pursuant to Article 38 paragraph I of the Statute of International Court of Justice, international convention constitutes one of the most important source of International Law. Ratification is a phase of international convention drafting which is relied on the state’s policy regarding the relation to international law and national law. In 2007, Indonesia ratified the Cape Town Convention 2001 through the President Decree No. 8 Year 2007. The adoption of International Law to National Law of a state will affect the national law of such state. Thus, it is important to observe the implementation of Cape Town Convention 2001 in Indonesia and its impact, whether its advantages or disadvantages to national law of Indonesia.This research uses normative juridical method with analysis descriptive approach. The research knowledge by primary, secondary, and tertiary sources and also discussing international convention especially concerning ratification of Cape Town Convention 2001 by Indonesia related to Law No. 1 of 2009.In Implementation the Cape Town Convention 2001, Indonesia had accommodated several provisions of the national law, among other things, the Law of Aviation 2009 and several implementing regulations i.e. Minister of Transportation Decree. Four essential matters which should be implemented related to international interest, priority right, and the remedy, the provision of international registration have not implemented yet by Indonesia. The ratification of Cape Town Convention 2001 and advantages the Indonesian aviation companies by having rate reduction from American Export Import Bank for the airplane trades, however the Indonesian aviation companies should be aware of such privilege in entering into the airplane procurement contracts due to the international interest therein, hence in the event of breach of contract, the creditor can withdraw the airplane by virtue of the international registration based on Cape Town Convention 2001.
    Keywords: Cape Town Convention 2001, Implementation and Ratification, International Interest, International Registration
    JEL: K30
    Abstract: Arbitration Agreement between the parties is the important sources of law in the arbitration proceeding, especially in International Commercial Arbitration. Arbitration Agreement, which could be made before and after the dispute, provide jurisdiction to the arbitral tribunal to settle the dispute. Traditionally, the arbitration agreement provide that only the parties in the agreement could be bound the arbitration proceeding. However, in commercial arbitration there is a circumstances, which has third party could be bound to arbitration proceeding. Indonesia has already arbitration law based on Law No. 30 Year 1999 in regard with Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution. This law stipulate how is arbitration proceeding could be proceed in Indonesia, include third party issues in arbitration proceeding which is stipulate in Article 30. Commonly, how is third party could be bound the arbitration proceeding also regulate in Arbitration Rules of the Institutional Arbitration such as ICC with ICC Rules. Indonesia has Institutional Arbitration namely Indonesia National Board of Arbitration, which has BANI rules as Arbitration Rules. In Indonesia the arbitration proceeding also applies the Indonesia Procedural of Civil Law as a source.This article will discuss how is third party could be bound the arbitration proceeding in Indonesia, especially in regard with Commercial Arbitration. The discussion will examine number of issues. First, how is Indonesia Arbitration Law require the definition of third party in arbitration proceeding, compared with international convention or model law. Second, how is Indonesia Arbitration Law, especially Article 30 could be interpreted when there is third party would like to join the arbitration proceeding and how the regulation on Indonesia Procedural of Civil Law could be used to decide or consider third party in arbitration proceeding. This two issues need more elaboration, since Indonesia Arbitration Law has not give more explanation or sample case to explain this article. The result of discussion will be an input for Indonesia to amend the Arbitration Law.
    JEL: K39
  10. By: Ya-Hsuan WANG (National Chung Cheng University); Hsin-Jen CHEN (National Chung Cheng University)
    Abstract: In spite of Taiwan’s rapidly high development in manufacture and technology, it is somehow unknown to international students before they visited Taiwan; with the most confusion with Thailand. Addressing the policy of multicultural education with the focus of international literacy for teachers, this project explores the possibility, depth and width for developing the teaching materials, New Taiwan Image, of international education for English-speaking countries. Based on 24 individual interviews with Taiwan’s international students from Australia, United Kingdom, Canada and United States, this study aims to explore Taiwan’s international images in terms of its traditional culture, modern culture and popular culture. According to the research results, the most impressive image for Taiwan is its traditional culture. The researched international students in Taiwan are best impressed by its preservation of traditional cultures, values, and heritages which are equated to Chinese culture. Yet, they are least impressed by its modern culture and popular culture though people in Taiwan are mostly carrying on modern life. The researched students feel ambivalent toward Taiwan’s religious rituals like burning ghost money; and consider it as primitive and superstitious. Underneath the appreciation of old-fashioned traditional culture, the “othering” image subtly discloses their western mentality of cultural superiority. One of the most positive images is the reputation of Taiwanese hospitality. International students soon felt people in Taiwan are very kind to white people, yet unkind to non-white people. It is so-called “benevolent racism” because Taiwanese people favor “whiteness”. The above findings show that cultural imperialism is still prevalent; the embedded value of cultural superiority exists in students’ projection on other culture. Positive images acknowledge great preservation of exotic old culture and good development of modernity and industrialization. Negative images continuously strengthen the otherness of local culture and construct local custom as backward, weird, or mysterious. Positive and negative images on Taiwan work together to ensure dominant culture superior to any other culture that developed far below modern standard. Mostly, traditional culture was seen a stumbling stone against globalization.Hence, this article aims to rebrand the branded by suggesting that we shall develop international educational materials from the perspective of critical multiculturalism. International education should focus on constructing knowledge of new Taiwan image with the attitude of cultural equality and social justice towards cultural diversity. It is dedicated to transform and change the current situation of non-recognition or mis-recognition due to insufficient information about Taiwan.
    Keywords: Cultural Imperialism, International Education, National brand, New Taiwan Image
  11. By: Nisachon Leerattanakorn (Maejo University)
    Abstract: For several decades, environmental consciousness has been highlighted. Such many consumers have been progressively participate in green activities and tend to be green consumers. A survey was adopted and sampling of 1,200 consumers who purchased green products or eco-friendly products in Chiang Mai, Thailand. This paper focuses on the segmentation of consumers into five shades; lifestyle of health and sustainability, neutralities, drifter, conventional and unconcern group based on their buying behavior and psychographic toward green consumption by applying cluster analysis. The different characteristics, purchasing patterns and awareness of environment of each segment of green consumer has been analyzed. Moreover the result from multiple regression analysis indicates that both demographic and psychographic-behavior variables are significant factors influencing degree of green consumption
    Keywords: Green Consumer, Green Consumption, Market Segmentation
    JEL: A10
  12. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: Context: The Philippine economy is expected to grow in line with potential, at around 6½ percent per annum. Inflation is projected to remain within the BSP’s target band (3±1 percent). The external position is strong and fiscal policy is prudent, with a declining public debt ratio. Its small, bank-centric financial system has strong buffers, and risks associated with bank-corporate-real estate linkages are currently contained. Poor infrastructure has constrained private investment and job creation. Public investment continues to be low due to weak implementation capacity despite an increase in the investment budget and progress on fiscal transparency. Investment in human capital has been raised but needs to be stepped up. Financial development and inclusion, as well as structural reforms to foster competition and diversification, are essential for inclusive growth. Risks: Tilted to the downside; tighter global financial conditions and a surge in financial volatility leading to sharp capital outflows; continuing weak budget execution; and severe El Niño conditions.
    Date: 2015–09–04
  13. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: Myanmar: Selected Issues
    Keywords: Export sector;Global competitiveness;Natural resources;Fiscal policy;Banking sector;International banks;Bank supervision;Risk management;Selected Issues Papers;Myanmar;
    Date: 2015–09–18
  14. By: Rika Ratna Permata (Faculty of Law Universitas Padjadjaran)
    Abstract: Trade mark definition in Indonesia based on Article 1 Law Number 15 Year 2001 about trade mark , shall mean : a sign in the form of picture, name, word, letters, figures , composisition of colors, or combination of said elements, having distinguishing features and used in the activities of trade in goods or services. Based on that definition Indonesia only protect visual mark.In recent times, conventional mark ( Visual mark) has been expanded to include non visual mark such as sounds.Now, Indonesia doesnt have a regulation to protect non visual mark.Sounds have been increasingly used as a trade mark in the market place. However, it has traditionally been difficultt to protect sounds as trademark through registration.This issue broadened the legal definition of trademark which is encompassed not only merely a sign.In other countries sounds have been more succesfully registered based on their distingtive sounds example: MGM and their Lion roar.Based on that issues Indonesia should protect sounds as aTrademark and to determine what kind of model regulation for soundmark protection.
    Keywords: Trademark, sound, protection
    JEL: K30
  15. By: Munasprianto Ramli (Manchester Institute of Education, University of Manchester)
    Abstract: Dialogue plays important roles in education since the classroom is the place were teacher interacts with students and students talk to one another. This study explored the nature of dialogue in the classroom which implemented the new curriculum in Indonesia. To achieve this research purpose, I addressed the following research question; what are the key features and the pattern of classroom dialogue in the primary science classroom? A case study approach was employed for this study; I am focusing my study on one primary school in the Greater Jakarta. Using triangulation as a metaphor, I adopted two different methods for this study, including interviews and classroom observations. The finding shows that both triadic (Initiation Response Feedback/IRF) and Non Triadic (Initiation Response Probing Response Probing / IRPRP) pattern of dialogue occurred in the classroom talk. The study also indicates that most of the talk adopted cumulative and exploratory talk
    Keywords: Dialogue, Classroom Talk, Primary Science, Science Education, New Curriculum
    JEL: I20 I29
  16. By: Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
    Abstract: The PwC’s 2011 Global economic crime survey confirms the fact that loss due to economic crime in Malaysia is on the increase and requires immediate intervention. The Malaysian government vision 2020 to be a developed nation with the drive: “People first, performance now” [1] will require high level acquisition and adoption of technology as a business facilitator, new legislation, and increase in the activities of government offer new opportunities for fraud perpetrators and forensic accountants. In anticipation of these challenges, this paper discusses the need for a forensic accountant knowledge on task performance fraud risk assessment in the Malaysian public sector. It also creates awareness to stakeholders fighting fraud in the public sector to the understanding of fraud mechanism and how to deal with fraudsters. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between knowledge and fraud risk assessment task performance in the office of the Accountant general and Auditor general of Malaysia which has the potential to usher in the best global practices in fighting fraud in the Malaysian public sector.
    Keywords: Fraud Forensics; Accounting; Accountability; Forensic Accounting; Auditing; Assurance; Corporate Governance; Risk Management; Investigation;Risk Assessment; Task Performance; Problem Representation; Skills; Mindset; Knowledge; Values; Ethics; Fraud Risk Assessment; Financial Criminology; Fraud; Fraud Related Problem Representation; Fraud Prevention; Fraud Detection; Fraud Response; Fraud Specialist; Auditor; Forensic Accountant; Fraud Examiner.
    JEL: M4 M40 M41 M42 M48 M49
    Date: 2014
  17. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: Philippines: Selected Issues
    Date: 2015–09–04
  18. By: Sen Gupta, Abhijit
    Abstract: High level of intra-regional trade and negative spillovers from competitive devaluation make exchange rate coordination extremely desirable in Asia. Employing a hypothetical Asian Currency Unit we evaluate the degree of coordination among Asian currencies. Traditional empirical tests yield little evidence of coordination among real and nominal exchange rates. However, introducing endogenously determined structural breaks to account for changes in exchange rate regimes provides more mixed evidence. While there is still little evidence for coordination in nominal terms, some degree of coordination among real rates emerges. The limited evidence for exchange rate coordination can be explained by the diverse exchange rate regimes prevailing in these economies, signaling differences in policy objectives.
    Keywords: Asian Currency Unit, currency coordination, structural breaks, exchange rate regimes, panel unit root
    JEL: E58 F33 F36 N15
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Han Phoumin (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia)
    Abstract: Only about one-third of households in Cambodia have access to commercial energy. Full rural electrification remains far from being achieved, and energy services are mainly delivered through fuel-based engines or generators to produce electricity that can then be stored in batteries, while biomass rather than electricity is used to power many small industrial processes. The current electricity cost in Cambodia is very high, ranging from US$0.15/kWh in Phnom Penh to US$1.00/kWh in rural areas. This high cost of electricity in rural areas provides an opportunity for the Solar Home System (SHS) to be competitive, although the installed system price of SHS remains high despite a decline in global SHS prices. This study aims to (i) review the current Renewable Energies (RE) policies in Cambodia, and (ii) analyse the cost structure through the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of HSH compared with current electricity costs in rural areas. The results indicate that the LCOE of SHS (without any government subsidy) is about 50 percent cheaper than the current electricity price in rural areas. When factoring in a government subsidy of US$100 per SHS unit, the LCOE of SHS drops to about one third of the current electricity price in rural areas. These results imply that promoting SHS would enable rural households to cut spending on electricity, thus increasing deposable incomes and social wellbeing of rural communities. Policy support for SHS is needed from the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) to ensure that the upfront costs remain comparable to other countries. It is therefore important for the state-owned electricity utility, Electricité du Cambodge, and the Rural Electricity Department to look into the whole value chain of SHS from procurement through to installation. In order to achieve savings it may be necessary to make large purchases directly from manufacturers, and increase transparency in the bidding and procurement process, together with the removal of import taxes on Renewable Energy equipment, including SHS. Furthermore, providing training to local technicians and small business entrepreneurs will be necessary to promote the solar energy business in rural Cambodia. This will help to drive down the unit costs of SHS, and promote the widespread use and application of SHS in rural Cambodia.
    Keywords: : Government policy, Solar Home System, Solar PV, rural electrification
    JEL: Q42 L11 Q48
    Date: 2015–09
  20. By: Suzaini Zaid (University of Malaya)
    Abstract: Affordability in housing is often defined by the ratio of purchase price or rent, to total household income. At present, public low-cost housing units in Malaysia are sold or rented at below market price value being subsidized by the government. This housing affordability definition overlooks other important issues such as long-term operational costs, where a typical low-income household spends a substantial share of monthly income on energy and utility services such as electricity and water. Consequently, the apportionment or percentage of average household income spent on operational household expenditure such as rent, electricity and other utilities are investigated in this paper, by using a survey questionnaire and interview techniques. This paper presents a brief overview to how low-cost housing can contribute to sustainable development in terms of long-term operational affordability for social and economical sustainability
    Keywords: Public housing. Low-cost housing. Sustainable urban housing. Triple-bottom-line. Housing Policy
    JEL: O00
  21. By: CHANITA PANMANEE (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University); ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT (Faculty of Economics, Chiangmai University); AREE CHEAMUANGPHAN (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University); KASEM KUNASRI (Faculty of Management Sciences, Chiangmai Rajabhat University); NISACHON LEERATTANAKORN (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University)
    Abstract: Dried longan is one of economic product in the northern of Thailand. It does not only solve the excess supply problem of fresh longan, but increase employment opportunities. Currently, the environmental responsibility is the important issue in which both producers and consumers are interested. Dried longan production system, thus, changes from traditional system using extravagant energy to environmentally friendly system using green technology. However, the green products are accepted in some consumer groups. Consequently, this paper explores the best decision making on green or non-green oriented productions of the dried longan enterprises by applying the game theory. The selected samples are two dried longan enterprise clusters in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces for playing in this game. The results represent that the green production system is the best choice of producers. It brings about the high economic payoffs but low physical resource usage. However, the information is necessary for the consumers to perceive value of green consumption and increase demand of green products. This findings are obviously useful for the dried longan enterprises in Thailand to make a decision for changing their production from traditional to green orientation.
    Keywords: Dried longan enterprise clusters, Green production, Non-green production, Game theory
    JEL: C70 C79 C71
  22. By: Pacharaporn Arkornsakul (Faculty of management sciences,Chiang Mai Rajabhat University); Woraphon Yamaka (Faculty of Economics Chiang Mai University); Sombat Singkharat (Faculty of management sciences,Chiang Mai Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The purposes of this research was conducted to study the behavior of consumers who use gasohol and their willingness to pay for it and also to determine factors that influence consumer to pay for gasohol E100 in Chiang Mai and Nakhon Ratchasima Province. Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was adopted as a hypothetical situation in the form of questionnaires which consists of double bounded dichotomous choice. Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) was the method of analysis used and willingness to pay for gasohol by using Generalized Ordered Logit Model. Stata is needed for collecting data. The result of research found out that due to 800 samples from two sample group (Chiang Mai 400 samples and Nakhon Ratchasima 400 samples) to compare the willingness to pay for gasohol E100. It is discovered that most consumers was unwillingness to pay for the second gasohol quotation which was lower 32.50 Bath per liter due to most consumer were unconvinced the quality of gasohol E100. The measurement of willingness to pay for gasohol E100 average was 30.64 baths per liter in Chiang Mai group and 27.12 baths per liter in Nakhon Ratchasima group. In addition, attitude toward the environment is one of all factor are determining the willingness of consumers to pay for gasohol E100. Gasohol E100 is unknown among the majority of car users. Thailand Government should carry out promote and inform people about the benefits and drawbacks of gasohol E100 and should research on it. It should be supported as a short term and long term study. As a consequence, consumers will understand and be confident in using gasohol E100. This will change willingness of consumers to pay for gasohol E100
    Keywords: Willingness to pay; Gasohol E100; Energy
    JEL: C25 D10 Q58
  23. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: Myanmar is undergoing a historical political transition, with its first general elections since the start of reforms scheduled on November 8, 2015. Meanwhile, negotiations with armed ethnic groups to reach a final ceasefire agreement are continuing against a tight deadline before the elections. Favorable outcomes on these two fronts would pave the way for greater political and social stability and underpin continued economic transition.
    Keywords: Article IV consultation reports;Economic growth;Credit expansion;Fiscal policy;Monetary policy;Flexible exchange rate policy;Multiple currency practices;Economic indicators;Balance of payments statistics;Millennium Development Goals;Debt sustainability analysis;Staff Reports;Press releases;Myanmar;
    Date: 2015–09–18
  24. By: International Monetary Fund. Fiscal Affairs Dept.
    Abstract: Malaysia: Technical Assistance Report-Strengthening Outcome Based Budgeting
    Keywords: Budgeting;Budgets;Budgetary reforms;Technical Assistance Reports;Malaysia;
    Date: 2015–09–16
  25. By: Popoola, Oluwatoyin Muse Johnson; Che-Ahmad, Ayoib; Samsudin, Rose Shamsiah
    Abstract: The 2011 Global Economic Crime Survey instituted by PricewaterhouseCoopers confirms the economic crime in Malaysia to be on the increase and, therefore, requires immediate attention to stem the tides. In anticipation of the challenges occasioned due to a shift from the modified cash basis to the accrual basis of accounting, the Malaysian State’s determination to move from a developing nation to a developed nation and to be ranked among the first 10 in 2020, this paper presents the need for forensic accountant and auditor capability (i.e., mindset and skills) on forensic accountant and auditor competence (i.e., task performance fraud risk assessment (TPFRA)) in the Malaysian public sector. It also draws the attention of the users of public sector accountants and auditors to the understanding of fraud mechanisms and how to deal with fraudsters. The population of this study comprised the accountants and auditors in the office of the Accountant General and Auditor General of Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to investigate the competence requirements of accountants and auditors in the effective and efficient utilization of capability requirements, which have the potentials to usher in the best global practices in fighting fraud in the Malaysian public sector.
    Keywords: Fraud Forensics, Accounting, Accountability, Forensic Accounting, Auditing, Assurance, Corporate Governance, Risk Management, Investigation, Risk Assessment, Task Performance, Problem Representation, Skills, Mindset, Knowledge, Values, Ethics, Fraud Risk Assessment, Financial Criminology, Fraud, Fraud Related Problem Representation, Fraud Prevention, Fraud Detection, Fraud Response, Fraud Specialist, Auditor, Forensic Accountant, Fraud Examiner
    JEL: M4 M40 M41 M42 M48 M49
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Rivayani Darmawan (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Nunung Nuryantono (Bogor Agricultural University)
    Abstract: Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial’s logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relationship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as migrants often face serious constraints from the local residents in claiming the land, and thus tend to find new forest land which can be used as a means of living or converted into an agricultural plantation. This paper empirically investigates the relationship between recent in-migration and deforestation in Indonesia. By combining available population census data with the satellite image data MODIS, we find a significant positive relationship between migration and deforestation at the district level using a fixed effects panel econometric framework. The results also suggest that the expanding oil palm production is one significant driver for the fast disappearance of Indonesia’s forest.
    Keywords: deforestation; migration; oil palm; Indonesia
    JEL: Q23 R14 J61
    Date: 2015–09–19
  27. By: Rika Ratna Permata (Faculty of Law, Universitas Padjadjaran)
    Abstract: As a part of Intellectual Property Rights, Trademark have a significant role in trade and business activities. Trade Marks has a function as identification to distinguish the production of goods or services produced by a person as a means to promote of the goods or services as well as a guarantee of the products quality within the same time a mark will create an image on the reputation of the goods or services. and many of them Became well-known mark. Mark represent the goods or services will make the mark became famous mark so it needs legal protection for the marks owners. Indonesia which has been stipulated in Trade Mark Act, 2001 apply first to file system which will provide legal protection to those who register its marks in the Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights to obtain exclusive rights and legal protection and recognized as a legitimate owners. In the Trade Mark Law especially in Criminal provisions do not set penalties for infringement of unregistered trade mark and raised legal questions as to how the legal action can be taken when there is infringement unregistered well-known in Indonesia.
    Keywords: well-known mark, unregister mark, protection
    JEL: K39
  28. By: Jahnke, Bjoern
    Abstract: Understanding the effects of reciprocity on tax morale is crucial to explain tax compliance behavior. However, there is only little research about which sources of reciprocity affect tax morale most. Thus, this paper for the first time gauges the effects from two sources of reciprocity on tax morale in an empirical study. The first source, vertical reciprocity, measures how tax payers value their contributions to the government. The second source, horizontal reciprocity, examines the impact of the perceived compliance behavior of other tax payers. The focus of the study is on Vietnam. The country seems to be a promising spot for this type of research because it exhibits an exceptional high level of tax morale and collectivism but only has low tax audit probabilities. This analysis is based on a consumer survey in the City of Hue which combines and extends questions from previous versions of the European and the World Value Survey. The result shows that both reciprocity measures are significantly correlated with tax morale but that vertical reciprocity prevails.
    Keywords: Tax morale, Tax compliance, Tax evasion, Reciprocity
    JEL: D79 H26 Z13
    Date: 2015–09
  29. By: Wadinlada Thuratham (Khon Kaen University); Dararat Khampusaen (Khon Kaen University)
    Abstract: Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) has played an importantly integral tool in providing EFL students with valuable language experiences in language classrooms. Since the introduction of recording machine for pronunciation in 1970s’, teaching and learning innovation has been advanced and moved forward with an interesting pace. It is however an unanswered question whether teaching innovation can make any true advantages to Asian students who have typically been familiar with a spoon-feeding learning approach. This study focuses on technology-enabled lessons as a supplemental teaching tool for teaching English writing to EFL university students in a Thai university. Additionally, a discussion is developed on the benefits found in using technology (e.g., web-based lessons, blogs, electronic feedback, and Microsoft Office Word) as a part of writing activities. The researcher is particularly interested in investigating on how Asian students harness technology when they have always been passive learners in schools. The paper thus further illustrates the importance of promoting learner autonomy in Asian EFL context and elaborates the main factors contributing to its development. The author also criticizes on the effectiveness of TELL in an Asian university for future advancement in EFL education.
    Keywords: TELL, learning autonomy, Asian students, writing
    JEL: I23 I29 Z00
  30. By: Lixia YAO (Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: It is important to recognize the similarities of the four resource-poor island countries in East Asia: Singapore, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan, which have many characteristics in common. All of them had high growth rates that had been sustained over many years. Energy production, particularly fossil fuel production in these countries is not able to keep up with the pace of energy demand growth. Therefore, they are highly dependent on imported energy. This research will present a novel framework for assessing energy security of the resource-poor island countries and evaluating energy policies of these countries. The framework consists of three dimensions: vulnerability, reliability, and sustainability. First, as these countries have little indigenous energy resources, their import dependency makes these countries highly vulnerable to disruption of energy supply. This constitutes the first critical dimension for their energy security: vulnerability. This dimension covers the primary energy resources. Second, besides the vulnerability of fossil fuels import dependency, another key factor that has deep impact on these resource-poor countries is the reliability of electric power sector, which sustains the engine of their economic growth. This dimension covers the secondary energy resources. Third, environmental issues are always closely associated with energy production and utilization. The resource-poor countries have remained committed to putting efforts in maintaining sustainability and keeping the country green. Hence, concerns of sustainability constitute an indispensable component of their contemporary energy regime. This is the third dimension for their energy security: sustainability.Based on the three dimensions of energy security, the research will compare energy policies and energy security situation of the four resource-poor countries in East Asia. Through the evaluation and comparison of their energy policies, the aim of the research is to identify energy policies that help to improve energy security of resource-poor countries, discuss the policy implications, and give suggestions to the governments.
    Keywords: Energy policy; energy security framework; resource-poor countries
  31. By: Levine, David; Polimeni, Rachel; Ramage, Ian
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Insurance, Health, Impact, Randomized Trial, Cambodia
    Date: 2014–04–01
  32. By: Mayanggita Kirana (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP)); Indah Susilowati (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP))
    Abstract: Pekalongan municipality lies in the west-northern part of Central Java, it is considered as one of the biggest herritage of batik (a uniques textile printed) industry of Java since long time ago and till now.This textile industry of batik operates in small- to large-scales. Many of batik industry to get rid of their waste water directly to the ditches and at last flow to Pekalongan river. In fact, Pekalongan river as a part of watershed of Kali Kupang is stream down to Java sea passing the regency and municipality of Great Pekalongan. The main problem encountered in managing Pekalongan river since the last decade is heavy liquid waste pollution from batik industry. This is due to incomplete compliance of industry and less committment from other stakeholders for zero-waste conception. Many efforts had have been put on managing the Pekalongan river from technical aspect. However, it is remain ineffective to reduce the pollution which is shared mostly by the community and batik-makers. People are perceived that uncleaned water of Pekalongan river is becoming an indicator of spin over economic activities of textile industry. It is a big dilemma between economic and environment choice. The study aimed to formulate a blue print strategy for river-and-estuaries management using social enginering to empower stakeholders in the study area. This research employed purposive sampling to collect the data from households, entrepreneurs, and key-persons/ informants. In-depth interview and FGD were carried out, accordingly. This study applied a mix-method of quantitative method, such as institutional analysis and economic valuation method; and the qualitative ones to outline the strategy of stakeholders’ empowerment. The results indicated that in the long-run co-management approach - among the responsible stakeholders along the river-and-estuaries resources - will shed a light for better management scheme for the study area. However, in the short-run, people tend to be more realistic to fall their choice more on economic consideration. Therefore, it is indeed need a social-engineering strategy to romance the stakeholders awareness to promote the sustainable resource management for river-and-estuaries. This study suggested that sooner or later, empowerment of the A-B-G-C stakeholders is becoming the most important agenda to manage river-and-estuaries resourcefor last for long
    Keywords: pollution, batik, river, Pekalongan, Indonesia
  33. By: Miguel De Abreu Freire,Tiago Alexandre; Henderson,J. Vernon; Kuncoro,Ari
    Abstract: Using three waves of survey data from fishing villages in Aceh, Indonesia for 2005?09, the paper examines the determinants of local volunteer labor after the tsunami. Volunteer labor is the village public sector labor force for maintenance, clean-up and renovation of public capital. While also examining the effects on volunteerism of village destruction and trauma, pre-existing social capital, diversity, and aid delivery, the papers focuses on the effects of democratization. The tsunami and massive international aid effort prompted the settlement of the insurgency movement in Aceh, which had led to suspension of local elections over the prior twenty or more years. Until 2006, village heads who call volunteer days were effectively selected by village elites, who may highly value the public facilities maintained by volunteer labor. With elections, volunteer days fall under the new regime, with democratically elected village heads calling fewer volunteer days, which may appeal more to the typical villager. Identification comes from pseudo-randomized differential timing of elections.
    Keywords: Parliamentary Government,E-Government,Peri-Urban Communities,Rural Urban Linkages,Social Accountability
    Date: 2015–09–15
  34. By: Salina Daud (Universiti Tenaga Nasional)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming are major challenges for Malaysia as well as for companies. Companies are fronting growing pressure to become greener or more environmentally friendly. Due to pressure from consumers and government, companies need to review their production processes. Consequently, they have to apply the concept of sustainable development in their policies and plans. The objective of this study is to examine three dimensions, mainly, knowledge management, eco-innovation and corporate sustainability performance to support sustainability environment. Creating sustainability environment is one of the main agendas in Malaysia Plan. The study focuses on examining the effect of knowledge management strategy on eco-innovation; the effect of knowledge management strategy on corporate sustainability performance; the effect of eco-innovation on corporate sustainability performance; and the mediating effect of eco-innovation on knowledge management strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Halal pharmaceutical companies were chosen as a sample in the study. Data were collected using survey questions and were analysed using Smart PLS. Results show that strategic KM contributes significantly to eco-innovation but does not contribute significantly to corporate sustainability performance. Eco-innovation significantly affects corporate sustainability performance and it mediates the relationship between strategic knowledge management and corporate sustainability performance. It is suggested that pharmaceutical companies in the study need to enhance the creating, sharing and utilizing of implicit and explicit knowledge in order to enhance companies’ corporate sustainability performance.
    Keywords: Knowledge management, codification, personalization, eco-innovation, corporate sustainability performance.
    JEL: M20
  35. By: KASEM KUNASRI (Chiang Mai Rajabhat University); SOMBAT SINGKHARAT (Chiang Mai Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: Many types of state initiated micro-credit institution have been established in Thailand with the primary principle of extending low cost loans to low income individuals so as to eventually help improve their quality of life. However, these micro-credit institutions still have varying degree of operational drawbacks from the absence of supportive structure to ensure organizational sustainability and the lack of efficient and effective credit management systems as they have to function under the framework of specific act by which they are institutionalized. The present endeavor employed meta-frontier concept for determining technology gap ratio and lending efficiency of microcredit institutions operating under different organizational rules and regulations as well as credit management methods with the focus on agricultural cooperatives (AC), village funds (VF), and production-oriented savings groups (PSG). The needed data were collected from 600 samples of such micro-credit organizations. Meta-frontier efficiency scores were found to be different at 0.01 statistically significant level. The group having the highest average score of efficiency is agricultural cooperative (0.6116), followed by village fund (0.4370) and production-oriented savings group (0.4119), respectively. In terms of technology gap ratio, there are differences at 0.01 statistically significant level. The agricultural cooperative group has the highest score at 94.71% whereas the village fund group has the lowest score, 60.93%. The technology gap is a function of optimal group size and different lending systems, i.e., the agricultural cooperatives give on loans under the amount of share capital constraint but the village funds allocate credit for each borrower equally. The findings of this study have led to a recommendation concerning the increase in optimal group size, especially to sub-district level, because size and operational environment can contribute to efficiency enhancement. Moreover, government agencies should change their roles from providing funds to promoting community self-reliance.
    Keywords: Meta-frontier; technology gap ratio; micro-credit institutions
    JEL: G21 G29 A10
  36. By: Tereso S. TULLAO, Jr. (De La Salle University-Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies); Miguel Roberto BORROMEO (Asian Development Bank); Christopher James CABUAY (De La Salle University-Angelo King Institute for Economic and Business Studies)
    Abstract: The paper starts with a survey on the role of basic education in society. Basic education promotes social cohesion, cultural appreciation, and civic consciousness, and bestows economic benefits to individuals and society. Although basic education does not fit into the strict conditions of public goods, governments are willing to finance and even directly operate schools because of its extensive spillover effects. Thus, it can be considered as a public good by design. The paper reviews the quality and equity considerations in the provision of basic education in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as the regional and national initiatives in addressing universal access and improving quality of basic education. The paper concludes with a discussion on the major issues confronting basic education and recommends the improvement of participation rates and survival rates by using developments in information and communications technology (ICT) and alternative mechanisms of financing and delivery. In addition, avenues for regional cooperation in improving quality of basic education can be done through capacity building and sharing of best practices rather than efforts towards standardisation.
    Keywords: ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community; education quality; education indicators; public-private partnership in education
    JEL: H52 I21 I25 I28
    Date: 2015–09
  37. By: Hawkes, Denise Donna; Yerrabati, Sridevi
    Abstract: Given the important role inward FDI can play in accelerating economic growth and transformation, developing countries are interested in attracting it. This study contributes to evidence based policy making and to academic research on governance FDI relationship by meta synthesising 771 estimates from 48 empirical studies published from 1980 - 2012. In comparison to less regulated and high corrupt countries meta-regression results show that countries with high regulation and low levels of corruption are able to attract more FDI. Countries with stronger legal systems are positively related to inward FDI. As expected, aggregate governance is found to have a positive effect on inward FDI.
    Keywords: FDI,governance,meta-regression analysis,systematic literature review,South and East Asia & Pacific countries
    JEL: C2 G21 O53
    Date: 2015
  38. By: Salahodjaev, Raufhon
    Abstract: This article empirically investigates the effect of intelligence on inflation, using data from 122 countries, over the period 1990 – 2013. The findings suggest strong evidence for the hypothesis that intelligence is negatively linked to inflation. This paper documents that on average, when national IQ increases from the level of El Salvador (78 points) to that of Malaysia (91.7 points), the long run inflation decreases by 27 percent. In particular, the negative effect of intelligence on inflation is stronger in countries with low levels of democracy. The negative impact of national IQ remains robust when controlled for potential determinants of inflation.
    Keywords: inflation; IQ; intelligence; democracy; cross-country
    JEL: E31
    Date: 2015
  39. By: Mariano Kulish (School of Economics, University of New South Wales); Daniel Rees (Reserve Bank of Australia)
    Abstract: The ongoing development of Asia has led to unprecedented changes in the terms of trade of commodity-exporting economies. Using a small open economy model we estimate changes in the long-run level and variance of Australia's terms of trade and study the quantitative implications of these changes. We find that the long-run prices of commodities that Australia exports started to increase significantly in mid 2003 and that the volatility of shocks to commodity prices doubled soon after. The persistent increase in the level of commodity prices is smaller than single-equation estimates suggest, but our inferences rely on many observables that in general equilibrium also respond to shifts in the long-run level of the terms of trade.
    Keywords: Bayesian analysis; open economy macroeconomics; terms of trade
    JEL: C11 F41 Q33
    Date: 2015–08
  40. By: Mike Sherrill (Aoyama Gakuin University)
    Abstract: In current times universities around the world have bolstered efforts to “globalize” or “internationalize” their campuses. This is often articulated concretely as the intent to prepare students to be “global citizens”. In tandem with this goal some universities also express the desire to develop “servant leaders”, those well equipped to lead, but who do so through collaboration and putting the needs of others first. Indeed such educational pursuits herald new potential in our contemporary societies for greater compassion, peace, and justice through mutual understanding and appreciation across cultures. However, in order to move beyond conceptualization toward actualization, we are forced to carefully consider how and to what degree the core curricula of institutions of higher education cultivate mutual global citizenship. A growing body of research identifies a point of intersection of the concerns above in the rubric “global-service-learning”. Such an approach to learning seeks to integrate academic pursuit with community engagement in a context outside the participant’s country of origin. Moreover, it is characterized by a shift away from thinking of service as “doing for” and more towards “doing with”. Drawing insight from the relevant current literature, this paper explores the relationship between global service learning and higher education. Special consideration is given to the role of universities in promoting capacity development through education and action on behalf of marginalized global communities. The paper concludes with reflections and insights gained from recent participation in global service learning programs in India and the Philippines.
    Keywords: global service learning, higher education, global citizenship, capacity development
    JEL: I23
  41. By: Hasnanywati Hassan (Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: Construction projects involve a high degree of complex procurement processes. One essential stage is the bidding process, during which the amount of profit level is critically determined. Within this context, not only the profit is important but technical, human and conceptual skills are critical for bidders. The bidding process in the construction industry is characterized by the involvement of many different parties including the client, architectural and engineering firms, general contractors, specialized contractors, material suppliers, manufacturers, etc. Faced with the challenge of global competition, business leaders serious about running ethical and responsible businesses often have to be strategic and creative in the way they address bid responses and with a clear destination in mind for their organisation. This is especially the case for construction companies that aspire to be competitive and well-regarded players in the global economy beyond their own borders. These companies have to understand and effectively manage not just business risk, but need to demonstrate the willingness to advance industry innovation, aid in nation-building and deliver greater community capacity. Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) which is a visual representation of data, is increasingly being used to more effectively communicate complex or technical information to busy readers in a clear and concise way. Many benefits have been identified in implementing VDC and its uses of virtual models of product, organization and process to simulate the complexities of the construction project delivery. VDC understands the pitfalls the project teams are likely to encounter, to analyze these pitfalls and address them in a virtual world before any of the construction work ever takes place in the real world. The implementation of VDC in bidding process is expected to reduce these demands by improving the efficiency, speed and accuracy. It uses to integrate product, process and resource models of construction projects to support the construction planning in virtual environment. This paper explores strengths of VDC based on its usage in many countries, its execution through during bidding as well as suggestions on how VDC be able to act as an imperative tool in bidding practice in Malaysian construction industry’s stakeholders.
    Keywords: Virtual Design and Construction, construction industry, bidding
    JEL: O31
  42. By: Shafi, Maryam; Asghar, Zahid
    Abstract: The present study explores the impact of tax policy on economic growth using average marginal tax rate and average tax rate for South Asian countries. The data for five developing countries: India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri-Lanka is used for the period of 1991-2010. This study uses Additive Mixed Models with penalized spline methodology. In this study we have constructed the average marginal tax rates using methodology of Seater (1982). It further identifies that the variables like average marginal tax rate (AMTRs), average tax rate (ATR), population growth rate, trade-openness, investment, human capital and real per capita GDP are the significant determinants of economic growth in the sample countries. On average, AMTRs and population growth rate reduce the performance of economic growth in the developing countries. The main findings further suggest that nonlinear effects are exerted by tax policy on economic growth. The increase in average marginal tax rate at the lower level of taxation, effects more adversely, than at higher levels of taxation. So it suggested that to increase the economic growth a substantial tax cut in prevailing tax level is essential in developing countries. As in developing countries the AMTRs affects the economic growth adversely and significantly, so developing countries should introduce tax reforms in a way that will lead to reduce dependence on AMTRs.
    Keywords: Tax Policy, Economic Growth, Semi-Parametric Method, Pakistan, Sri-Lanka, Nepal, India, Maldives, Average Marginal Tax Rate (AMTR)
    JEL: C1 H2 H30
    Date: 2015
  43. By: Manuk Ghazanchyan; Janet Gale Stotsky; Qianqian Zhang
    Abstract: This study examines the drivers of growth in Asian countries, with focus on the role of investment, the exchange rate regime, financial risk, and capital account openness. We use a panel data set of a sample of Asian countries over the period 1980 to 2012. Our results indicate that private and public investments are strong drivers of growth, while more limited evidence is found that reduced financial risk and higher foreign direct investment support growth. The exchange rate regime does not appear to be a strongly significant determinant of growth, but some specifications suggest that more flexible regimes are beneficial in this respect. Financial crises have a stronger dampening effect on growth in countries with more open capital accounts.
    Date: 2015–09–03
  44. By: Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
    Abstract: We assess the role of ethnic ties in the diffusion of technical knowledge by means of a database of patent filed by US-resident inventors of foreign origin, which we identify through name analysis. We consider ten important countries of origin of highly skilled migration to the US, both Asian and European, and test whether foreign inventors’ patents are disproportionately cited by: (i) co-ethnic migrants (“diaspora” effect); and (ii) inventors residing in their country of origin (“brain gain” effect). We find evidence of the diaspora effect for Asian countries, but not for European ones, with the exception of Russia. Diaspora effects do not translate necessarily into a brain gain effect, most notably for India; nor brain gain occurs only in presence of diaspora effects. Both the diaspora and the brain gain effects bear less weight than other knowledge transmission channels, such as co-invention networks and multinational companies.
    Keywords: migration, brain gain, diaspora, diffusion, inventors, patents
    JEL: F22 O15 O31
    Date: 2015
  45. By: Azreen Hamiza Abdul Aziz (Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore the preliminary understanding of Islamic asset management in the banking industry. To date, a uniform regulatory and legal framework supportive of Islamic asset management has yet to be developed. This paper explores and provides an understanding on the existing concept of Islamic asset management that has been used in the banking industry today. The discussion on this is divided into three parts that will answer the following three questions: Firstly, what is the meaning of Islamic asset management in the banking industry? Secondly, how do the banks manage all the assets? Thirdly, is the concept of Islamic asset truly based on 'Shari'ah' and guaranteed all the customers on the Islamicity of the products? In accomplishing these objectives, library research is mainly used to obtain the different types of theories and concepts on asset management applied to this paper with content analysis carried out from the findings. The findings of this paper reveal that Islamic asset management that has been used in the banking industry is still hold on to the conventional theory as the foundation.
    Keywords: Islamic Asset Management, Banking Industry,
    JEL: G20
  46. By: ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT (Faculty of Economics, Chiang Mai University)
    Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to investigate the optimum portfolio of REIT index return of Asia – Pacific, Europe, USA, and emerging markets with multivariate t copula based on GARCH model, and to measure portfolio risk with value at risk (VaR) and component VaR (CVaR). The 1,454 REIT price index return observations were collected from 1 Dec 2009 to 29 June 2015 and calculated based on a continuous compound basis. The empirical results showed that the estimated equations of USA, Europe and emerging REIT index returns were ARMA(2,2)-GARCH(1,1), while ASIA-Pacific was ARMA(3,3)-GARCH(1,1). The coefficients of t distribution of these equations were also statistically significant at 1%, meaning the assumption of t distribution for ARMA-GARCH estimation was reasonable. Then, the multivariate t copula was used to construct an optimized portfolio for high dimensional risk management. The Monte Carlo simulation was applied in order to construct the optimized portfolio by using the mean-CVaR model at the given significance level of 5% and to obtain the efficient frontier of the portfolio under different expected returns. Finally, the optimal weights of the portfolio were obtained with the various expected returns in frontier.
    Keywords: REITs, Portfolio Optimization, Multivariate t Copula, CVaR
    JEL: G11 C32 C58
  47. By: Francisco José Mansoa (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Alberto Sánchez (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Elena Villalba (Hospital Universitario de Getafe); Ignacio Peinado (Hospital Universitario de Getafe)
    Abstract: The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Veterans’ Affairs (this Department that has the 3rd largest budget among departments of the US administration). The medical assistance program implemented by the VHA is the largest integrated care system in the US (consisting of 150 medical centres and nearly 1,700 facilities comprising community-based outpatient clinics, community living centres, Veterans’ Centres and domiciliary assistance). It provides comprehensive care to almost 9 million veterans every year. The VHA is centrally administered and fully integrated; its services are funded and provided by the federal government. Therefore the VHA works both as a provider and payer, a rather unusual feature in the US health care structure. In fact, VHA is the only truly national health care system in the US, with hospitals or other facilities in every state and major metropolitan area of the country, as well as in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Philippines. The VHA network is divided into 23 Veterans Integrated Service Networks, or VISNs, i.e. regional systems of care working together to better meet local health care needs and provide greater access to care.
    Keywords: SIMPHS, eHealth, Remote Monitoring, ageing, integrated care, independent living, case studies, facilitators, governance, impact, drivers, barriers, integration, organisation
    JEL: I11 I18 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–04
  48. By: Sumit Agarwal (NUS)
    Abstract: This paper uses a unique panel of consumer financial transactions to examine how aging consumers respond to the option to cash out retirement savings. To obtain causal identification, we exploit an administrative regulation in Singapore that allows individuals to cash out a fraction of their pension savings at age 55. We find a large and highly significant increase in bank account balances when an individual turns 55, suggesting that the average consumer in our sample withdraws a large portion of their eligible retirement savings. In line with the predictions from the life-cycle/permanent-income hypothesis, we find modest increases (about 9 percent of the increase in account balance) in cumulative total spending twelve months later. This increase is driven largely by an increase in debit card spending and is concentrated among low-liquidity consumers. Consumers also use the increase in disposable income to pay down their credit card debt. We do not find any evidence that the average consumer responds by excessively increasing present consumption at the expense of future financial security. Nevertheless, consumers leave a sizeable portion of their withdrawn savings in low-interest accruing bank accounts for at least a year after withdrawal. We provide some suggestive evidence that consumer demographics, especially those related to financial literacy and sophistication, appear to matter for consumers' withdrawal decisions.
    Date: 2015
  49. By: Li, Hongbin (Tsinghua University); Yi, Junjian (National University of Singapore); Zhang, Junsen (Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: This paper tests the effects of fertility on household structure and parental labor supply in rural China. To solve the endogeneity problem, we use a unique survey on households with twin children and a comparison group of non-twin households. The ordinary least squares estimates show a negative correlation between fertility and parental labor supply. Using twinning as a natural experiment, we do not find evidence on the negative effects of fertility on parental labor supply. By contrast, we find that the twinning-induced increase in fertility enhances significantly the coresidence of grandparents. The results remain robust when we use the Chinese 1990 population census. We suggest that the negative effects of fertility on parental labor supply are mitigated by the childcare provided by grandparents. Our results have important implications for population and public childcare policies.
    Keywords: fertility, parental labor supply, household structure
    JEL: J13 J18 J22 O10
    Date: 2015–09
  50. By: Karnowahadi Karnowahadi (Department of Business Administration, Semarang Polytechnic State (Polines)); Indah Susilowati (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP)); Purbayu Budi Santosa (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP))
    Abstract: Surakarta city has various types of cultural heritage, both physical and non-physical, and has a great potential in improving the tourism sector. Surakarta is located at the southern part of Central Java bearing economic functions as a surviving historic city of the country. Despite the great opportunities for cultural heritage in Surakarta, the city is currently facing threats of high traffic, excessive depletion of the natural environment in the city. This is due to underestimation on the market values of cultural heritage indevelopment decisions. Surakarta require an additional source of income for the maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage. The research of willingness to pay (WTP) of the visitor of the Surakarta cultural heritage is needed. Cultural heritage is something that must be preserved, because it is a public good that can carry the name of Surakarta city in the arena of world culture. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic benefit of cultural heritage in Surakarta city as the results would be able to provide insight to the value of this unique heritage society. The methods employed is contingent valuation method (CVM). The payment vehicle opted in this study is via accomodation, where a fixed heritage charge per night was included in the total accomodation bill in Surakarta. In CVM, the logit model was defined based on dichotomous choice method to estimate the WTP randomly with different starting bid value. A total of 225 respondents were interviewed in person, using random stratified sampling method. Utility preservation of cultural heritage Surakarta influenced by several factors, such as gender, age, level of visit frequent, type of work, and the amount of WTP. Gender, age, and type of work affect the utility respondent preservation of Surakarta cultural heritage is a significant positive. Level of visit frequent variable been negatively affect utility. WTP of respondents is greater than the status quo. Variable income, national origin, marital status, and education level influence the utility of Surakarta cultural heritage preservation is not significant. How to withdraw funds for the preservation of Surakarta cultural heritage can be done by adding to the hotel and restaurant taxes, adding to the ticket of admission, or added to the retribution.
    Keywords: economic-valuation, heritage, CVM, Surakarta
  51. By: Siti Sumiati (Faculty of Economics-Sultan Agung Islamic University); Indah Susilowati (Faculty of Economics and Business-Diponegoro University (UNDIP))
    Abstract: Rembang is considered as one of the salt production centrum in Central Java province. It lies in the eastern-north of Java sea coast. Within a year farmers usually produce with rotation traditional farming system to produce salt and the brackish water aquaculture commodities (either milkfish and/ or shrimp). The salt production in this study area is mosly used for industry since less in quality for consumption purposes. Many efforts had been put on to improve the salt-farming, but can not achieve the maximum target. This is due to the advanced technology for salt-farming system (such as using fondation technique) stipulates the pond solely used for salt production throughout a year. However, farmers in Rembang used to share the pond for milkfish and/ or shrimp production within a year. The study is aimed to formulate the possible empowerment strategy to improve the salt production. Further, Cost and returns (C/R) and value chains analyes (VCA) have been applied to ascertain which commodities should be given a priority between salt and aquaculture production. The study invoked a mixed-method of quantitative-and-qualitative to answer the objectives posed. In-depth interview and focus group discussion with key-persons and informants were carried out for data collection. The study found that farmers’ role were more considered as the price taker more in salt production compare than in milkfish or shrimp. Moreover, the margin of value chains from salt seems to be less favourable to the farmers. In facts, milkfish and/ or shrimp production is just accounted as a complimentary routine activities to complete a year farming system. Thereafter, this study suggests to re-structure the farming system management practiced in the study area thru empowering the farmers; and improvement in institutional set up for agribusiness in salt industry.
    Keywords: empowerment, salt, farming, agribusiness, Rembang, Indonesia
  52. By: Ziyi Qin (Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University)
    Abstract: After World War Two, the advanced countries tend to use multilateral approach to deal with international affairs. As the widening and deepening of globalization, more and more multilateral institutions have been created and become very important actors in on the global stage. In the international development aid system, the growing number of multilateral aid agencies indicates the popularity of multilateralism among most of the world. However, the scale of multilateral aid is still very small comparing with bilateral aid.Donors support the multilateral agencies while they still finance the bilateral aid projects by themselves. The first puzzling here is sometimes we can find the multilateral agencies and donor countries implement similar projects in the same recipient country. This overlapping is also criticized by many scholars regarding as the aid fragmentation issues. What’s more, although multilateral aid is argued to be more sensitive to recipient country’s real needs, the increase of bilateral aid is far beyond the increase of multilateral aid. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out the donor’s motivation behind the aid allocation policy regarding bilateral aid and multilateral aid.This paper investigates the determinants of donors’ multilateral aid policy by focusing on the characteristics of donors. The substantial literatures have been investigated the bilateral aid policy by focusing on the recipient side and the ties between donor and recipient. This paper emphasizes the domestic determinants’ influence on the policy making by applying the quantitative methodology. The panel data analysis is based on the data of OECD DAC 23 member countries from 1990 to 2012. Dependent variable is the willingness to contribute to multilateral aid, measured by the multilateral aid per total ODA. The basic equation and independent variables are:Y_it =
    Keywords: Aid Allocation, Multilateral aid, Bilateral aid
  53. By: Fauziah Mahat (Universiti Putra Malaysia); Noor Azman Ali (Universiti Putra Malaysia)
    Abstract: The role financial institutions sector in economic activities with higher capitalization ratio have the impact to alleviate credit and market risks including measuring in loan-to-deposit ratio. Good risk governance cannot be denied when the failure of financial systems does not exempt the Islamic financial institutions. Some of the recent examples for the collapses of Ihlas Finance House of Turkey, the Islamic Bank of Africa, Dubai Islamic Bank and Investment Companies of Egypt. The failure of financial market in OECD countries demonstrate Islamic banks are not much different from conventional banks. Another issues raised in this paper is the financial crisis which reveals risk-related issues resulted from mismanagement of risk at organizational level including various stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to discuss the significant roles of risk governance as the mediating variables between the risk management initiatives and the banks corporate performance. Early empirical study define risk management as a process which managers capabilities identifying and mitigate risk. There are vast reason of explaining the necesity of governance to avoid risk-related failure of financial marketis due to systems complexity and high risk exposures. The risk governance concept is founded from the agency theory, stakeholder-based governance theory, and delegated monitoring theory. The stakeholder based governance present the ideas whereby banks need to provide multiple benefits relationship include customer, supplier, distributors and employees. This research explores the secondary data relevant to analyze the risk governance effects of the 50 international Islamic banks between the periods of 2008-2013. The necessary statistical testing was explained for hypothesis testing and the model development. The expected outcome from the analysis is to tightened the construct to ensure level of risk monitoring is sufficient, minimizing moral hazard and prompt corrective action framework by incorporating the elements of corporate governance.
    Keywords: Financial Risk Management; Corporate Governance; Risk Governance; Islamic Banking
    JEL: G38

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