nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒08‒25
seventeen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. NARBO: A Decade of Achievements (2004-2014) - Promoting Integrated Water Resources Management and Improving Water Governance By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  2. Unlocking Indonesia's Geothermal Potential By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  3. Progress Report on Establishing a Regional Settlement Intermediary and Next Steps: Implementing Central Securities Depository–Real-Time Gross Settlement Linkages in ASEAN+3 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  4. Competition, financial intermediation and riskiness of banks: Evidence from the Asia-Pacific region By Wahyoe Soedarmono; A Tarazi
  5. Strengthening Partnerships: Accountability Mechanism Annual Report 2014 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. Corporate communications and public relations in Asia: Context, status quo, and future challenges By Dühring, Lisa; Zerfass, Ansgar
  7. Eight strategies for development in comparison By Priewe, Jan
  8. The Nutrition-Learning Nexus: Evidence from Indonesia By Maria C. Lo Bue
  9. Fewer Fish for Higher Profits? Price Response and Economic Incentives in Global Tuna Fisheries Management By Chin-Hwa Jenny Sun; Fu-Sung Chiang; Patrice Guillotreau; Dale Squires
  11. Does the presence of institutional investors in family banks affect profitability and risk? Evidence from an emerging market By Bowo Setiyono; Amine Tarazi
  12. Competition Law and Policy in Singapore By Burton ONG
  13. Travel Motivations of Seniors: A Review and a Meta-Analytical Assessment By R. Patuelli; P. Nijkamp
  14. Impacts of Universal Health Coverage: A Micro-founded Macroeconomic Perspective By Huang, Xianguo; Yoshino, Naoyuki
  15. How Labour Market Policies Affect Innovation and Trade Competitiveness By Siwage Dharma Negara
  16. Does Anti-Diversification Pay? A One-Sided Matching Model of Microcredit By Thilo Klein
  17. Complementary currency systems questioning social and economic changes By Marie Fare; Pepita Ould Ahmed

  1. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Rapid population growth and economic development jeopardize water security in Asia, giving further emphasis in the global agenda to the need for improved water governance. In order to address Asia’s water security issues, an integrated and comprehensive approach for better water resources management is essential. The Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO) was launched in 2004 to promote integrated water resources management (IWRM) and improve water governance in the region. NARBO seeks to promote IWRM in Asia and has continuously advocated capacity-building activities for a better understanding of IWRM in Asian river basin organizations. This publication commemorates the 10-year anniversary of NARBO’s founding and features a collection of narratives from water management practitioners across the region. These provide insights for the future direction of NARBO and highlight the necessity of improved water governance to tackle the water crisis in Asia.
    Keywords: integrated water resources management, IWRM, Network of Asian River Basin Organizations, NARBO, water governance, water security, river basin management, river basin organization, RBO, adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, water security, asian river basins, adbi, crbom, jwa, natural resources management, water quality, floods, drought, sustainable ecosystems, water use, river administration, water governance
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report was produced jointly by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank and is based on a series of technical assistance activities conducted during 2013-2014. The study documents key issues that have constrained the development of Indonesia's geothermal power development sector, including tari?s, tendering processes, financial considerations, permitting, and inter-agency coordination. The report then makes a set of comprehensive recommendations to unlock the potential of the sector, including a new tari? regime, improvements to the tendering process, re-negotiation of power purchase agreements, and innovative modes of financing and project de-risking.
    Keywords: Asian Development Bank, ARGeo, avoided cost tariffs, avoided fixed costs, avoided global externalities, avoided variable costs, binary bottoming plants, Clean Technology Fund, climate change, drilling index, feed-in tariffs, Geo Dipa Energi, GeoFund, geothermal energy, Geothermal Fund, Indonesia Geothermal Association, Indonesia, IUP, JICA, Pertamina Geothermal Energy, PLN, power purchase agreements, renewable energy, risk mitigation, sensitivity analysis, steam above ground system, tariff reform, tendering, WKP, World Bank
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This progress report developed by the Cross-Border Settlement Infrastructure Forum (CSIF), composed of the central banks and central securities depositories in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea—collectively known as ASEAN??, is an important step for the establishment of Central Securities Depository–Real-Time Gross Settlement (CSD–RTGS) Linkages as a regional settlement intermediary in the region. The report shows the desktop study results between the Bank of Japan and the Hong Kong Monetary Authority aiming to create a common model for the linkages. The report also sets out the implementation road map for establishment of CSD–RTGS Linkages. As secretariat of the CSIF, the Asian Development Bank supports this initiative.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, settlements, asean+3, asian bond markets, central securities depositories, real-time gross settlement, asian development bank, multi-currency bonds, csd–rtgs linkages, delivery versus payment, money markets, cross-currency dvp, boj, hkma
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Wahyoe Soedarmono (Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional, Faculty of Business / Sampoerna School of Business); A Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - unilim - Université de Limoges - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: From a sample of commercial banks in the Asia-Pacific region over the 1994-2009 period, this study highlights that banks in less competitive markets exhibit lower loan growth and higher instability. Such instability is further followed by a decline in deposit growth, suggesting that Asian banks are also subject to indirect market discipline mechanisms through bank competition. This study therefore sheds light on the importance of enhancing bank competition to overcome bank risk and strengthen financial intermediation. Likewise, this study advocates the importance of strengthening market discipline to reduce bank riskiness regardless of the degree of competition in the banking industry.
    Date: 2015–02–02
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the Compliance Review Panel, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the Compliance Review Panel, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This year’s Annual Report of the Accountability Mechanism (AM) has the theme “Strengthening Partnerships” with good reason: Cooperation is the heart and soul of the mechanism. Without close collaboration among the AM, governments, a?ected people, nongovernment organizations, and civil society organizations, the AM cannot work. Collaboration between the AM and Asian Development Bank (ADB) sta?ff is essential. We are constantly learning from stakeholders in ADB projects and from project staff?, and we also learn from our interactions in the field during outreach missions. In this publication, the Office?ce of the Special Project Facilitator, the Offi?ce of the Compliance Review Panel, and the Compliance Review Panel itself present their activities in 2014 and some of the challenges for 2015.
    Keywords: accountability mechanism, OSPF, OCRP, compliance, annual report 2014, consultation, compliance review, problem-solving, SPF, CRP
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Dühring, Lisa; Zerfass, Ansgar
    Abstract: This research paper offers insights into the status quo of corporate communications and public relations in Asia and analyzes the political, economic and cultural context in which practicioners operate. As a result of the economic upswing and political opening of Asian nations in the last decade, the fields of corporate communications and PR have experienced an expansion and professionalization. However, these developments differ from those in Western countries. Political and cultural particularities have led to specific characteristics of Asian corporate communications/PR like the importance of personal relationships and hierarchy. As Asian markets become increasingly important in terms of production and sales and with growning numvers of international companies establishing parts of their HQs and communication managers is/becomes essential. The paper discusses current topics, challenges and findings of recent empirical studies and outlines fields for future research that are importance to corporate practice.
    Abstract: Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht gibt einen Überblick über den Staus Quo von Unternehmenskommunikation und Public Relations im asiatischen Raum und geht auf politische, wirtschaftliche und kulturelle Besonderheiten ein. Im Zuge des wirtschaftlichen Aufschwungs und der politischen Öffnung der asiatischen Nationen hat auch das Kommunikationsmanagement eine Expansion und Professionalisierung erfahren, die sich jedoch von den entsprechenden Entwicklungen in westlichen Nationen unterscheidet. Politische sowie kulturelle Einflüsse führen zu spezifischen Ausprägungen in der Kommunikationsarbeit. Kenntnisse hierüber sind für deutsche Kommunikationsmanager essentiell, da Asien nicht nur als Produktions- und Absatzmarkt, sondern auch als Unternehmensstandort immer wichtiger wird. Zahlreiche internationale Firmen haben in den vergangenen Jahren Teile ihrer Unternehmenszentralen sowie ihrer Kommunikationsabteilungen nach Asien verlagert. Der Bericht diskutiert heutige Herausforderungen und Themen und skizziert Ergebnisse aktueller empirischer Studien. Es werden zudem Fragestellungen für künftige Forschung aufgezeigt, die für die Unternehmenspraxis von Interesse sind.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Priewe, Jan
    Abstract: The article provides a broad-based overview on competing development strategies and the economic performance of developing countries, mainly since the year 2000. Four traditional mainstream development strategies are discussed (Washington Consensus, neo-liberalism, "good governance" and MDGs) and three long-debated key strategic issues are reconsidered (inward or outward development with export-led growth, industrialisation or growth with predominant primary goods exports, foreign-aid-based development). A heterodox approach to development with a focus on macroeconomic policies and structural change is added and discussed in more detail. Implicitly, this lays the groundwork for a macroeconomic theory of development. The rough empirical comparison finds that countries and areas with strong emphasis on macroeconomic policies, mainly in Asia, have performed unambiguously better than the mainstream approaches since 1980. From successful Asian countries, it can be learnt that a long-run continuous growth and development performance with more resilience against adverse shocks is key. Almost all larger middle-income countries have embarked on industrialisation, thereby strategies based upon primary commodities or high current account deficits are unlikely to be successful in the long run. A stronger role of a package of six macroeconomic policies is advised, particularly for the larger economies. Size matters in this respect. Smaller countries depend stronger on market niches and idiosyncratic strategies. The global economic order, due to liberalisation of trade and finance, including the prevailing global currency system, sets harsh constraints for policy space towards implementing national strategies.
    Keywords: Development,Macroeconomic Policies,Developmental State,Economic Growth,Good Governance,International Trade,Washington Consensus,Millennium Development Goals
    JEL: E6 O4 O11 O20 O23 O57
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Maria C. Lo Bue (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of nutritional status on subsequent educational achievements for a large sample of Indonesians children. I use a long term panel data set and apply a maternal fixed effect plus an instrumental variables estimator in order to control for possible correlation between some of the components of the error term and the main independent variable which will likely to cause a bias in the estimates. Differences in nutritional status between siblings are identified by using exposure in the earliest months of life to the drought associated with the Indonesian wildfires of late 1997. Estimation results show that health capital (measured by height-for-age z-scores at childhood) significantly and positively affects the number of completed grades of schooling and the score on cognitive test. Nevertheless, I only find little robust evidence of an effect on the readiness to enter school.
    Keywords: Educational achievement; child nutrition; siblings’ difference models; environmental shocks; Indonesia
    JEL: I12 I20 O15 O53
    Date: 2015–08–06
  9. By: Chin-Hwa Jenny Sun (Gulf of Maine Research Institute); Fu-Sung Chiang (National Taiwan Ocean University - National Taiwan Ocean University); Patrice Guillotreau (University of Nantes (LEMNA) - University of Nantes (LEMNA)); Dale Squires (National Marine Fisheries Service - National Marine Fisheries Service - University of California, San Diego)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates industry-wide economic incentives arising from changes in product prices in an industry exploiting a common renewable resource under public regulation that sets total sustainable conservation targets. Changes in prices alter economic incentives through impacts upon revenues, profits, conservation, and nonmarket public benefits. Economic incentives in industries exploiting common resources have been examined along many margins, but not at the overall industry level from changes in market prices arising from public regulation. We analyse the impact upon economic incentives from changes in overall sustainable output level and market price through a study of a tuna fishery to estimate ex-vessel price and scale flexibilities for imported skipjack and yellowfin in Thailand’s cannery market. The unitary scale flexibility, estimated from the General Synthetic Inverse Demand Systems (GSIDS), indicates no loss in revenues and even potential profit increases resulting from lower harvest levels that could arise from lower sustainable catch limits. However, for this to work, three of the inter-governmental tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organization (tRFMOs), that manage majority of the yellowfin and skipjack tuna in Pacific and India Oceans, would have to coordinate their conservation measures on catch limit of both species together.
    Date: 2015–01–28
  10. By: David Amiel (Ecole normale supérieure); Paul-Adrien Hyppolite (Ecole normale supérieure)
    Abstract: What would be the short-term financial consequences of exiting the Euro? This article addresses this issue by focusing on some key strategic non-financial corporations and systemic banking Groups of French nationality. We show that special attention should be paid to the marketable debt under foreign law issued to finance domestic activities which is unlikely to be redenominated in a devalued domestic currency becoming suddenly much more difficult to service. What would be the magnitude of this effect ? Drawing on a new database on debt securities compiled at the firm level and taking into account the nationality of the ultimate issuer, this paper identifies strategic and systemic French companies that would end up, in case of a Euro exit, with unhedged mismatches on their respective consolidated balance sheets, thereby triggering large negative balance sheet effects. These very mismatches would prove to be in fact very similar to currency mismatches faced by many financial and non-financial corporations in emerging economies at the time of the Asian crisis in the late 1990s, with the difference that they would be related to the juridical nature of the contracts instead of the currency of issue. We find that a significant share of the French financial and non-financial private sector finances its domestic activities with Eurodenominated debts under foreign law, which would ultimately remain in Euro and be repaid with a devalued currency if France were to leave the Eurozone. Historical examples support the idea that this “redenomination channel” has been crucial in explaining the successes or failures of exits from monetary unions. The “redenomination issue” played an important role in the 2002 Argentine collapse. On the contrary, some specificities, unlikely to be found in the Eurozone, of the widely-praised exits from the Gold Standard in the 1930s and of the “Velvet Divorce” in 1993 Czechoslovakia explain why this very issue was defused. Hence, the problem of private debt and the difficulties of redenomination appear to be much more formidable than conventional wisdom has long held and this should be kept in mind by policy makers.
    Date: 2015–02–16
  11. By: Bowo Setiyono (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - unilim - Université de Limoges - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - unilim - Université de Limoges - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether the presence of institutional investors in family-controlled banks impacts their performance and risk. Using detailed data on Indonesian banks from 2001 to 2008 and controlling for various factors, our results first show that family-controlled banks are less profitable and more risky than other banks. Specifically, family presence, either under the form of direct ownership, pure single majority, or family directors, is related to higher default risk, income variability, and loan risk. However, the presence of institutional investors as a second stage block holder in family controlled banks tends to mitigate and even reverse such behavior by reducing risk-taking and improving performance. Our results are generally robust with regard to endogeneity issues and alternative specifications.
    Date: 2014–10–23
  12. By: Burton ONG (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: This paper provides a bird’s eye view of developments in field of competition law and policy in Singapore over the past 10 years, highlighting the progress made in the areas of enforcement, regulatory policy and advocacy.
    Keywords: Competition Law, Antitrust, Singapore
    JEL: L10 L19
    Date: 2015–08
  13. By: R. Patuelli; P. Nijkamp
    Abstract: Over the past decades, leisure travel has become increasingly popular in older segments of the world population, as a consequence of global factors such as a rise in life expectancy, improved health conditions, a higher disposable income, and increased availability of discretionary time in retirement age. Consequently, researchers have become more interested in studying the motivations for travel of seniors. A number of questions may be raised or have been addressed in the recent past: What are the main factors explaining the travelling choices of seniors? Are their travel motivations different from the ones of the younger population, which have been widely studied in the past? Are geographical differences in terms of motivations comparable between different age groups? Why is senior tourism a topic of particular interest with regard to Asia? In order to answer such questions, in this paper we provide a review of the literature on the travel motivations of seniors. On the basis of 29 articles published on the topic, we provide a qualitative and meta-analytic assessment of past findings, by investigating the dimensions of travel motivations most frequently employed in past seniors surveys. Finally, we discuss a research agenda for further analysis of senior travel motivations and for the integration of this branch of travel research within a wider framework.
    JEL: C35 L83
    Date: 2015–08
  14. By: Huang, Xianguo (Asian Development Bank Institute); Yoshino, Naoyuki (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of tax-financed universal health coverage schemes on macroeconomic aspects of labor supply, asset holding, inequality, and welfare, while taking into account features common to developing economies, such as informal employment and tax avoidance, by constructing a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents. Agents have different education levels, employment statuses, and idiosyncratic shocks. Given three tax financing options, calibration results suggest that the financing options matter for outcomes both at the aggregate and disaggregate levels. Universal health coverage, financed by labor income tax revenue, could reduce inequality due to its large redistributive role. Social welfare cannot be improved when labor decisions are endogenous and distortions are higher than the redistributive gains for all tax financing options. In the absence of labor supply choice, mild welfare gains are found.
    Keywords: universal health coverage; DSGE model; idiosyncratic shocks; social welfare
    JEL: E24 E26 E62 H23 H51 J11
    Date: 2015–08–10
  15. By: Siwage Dharma Negara (The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), The Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS))
    Abstract: Endogenous growth theory postulates that innovation is one of the key drivers of technological progress and productivity growth of a country. Technological improvements stemming from firms’ innovative activities can contribute to a country’s overall productivity and export competitiveness. For innovation to flourish, it necessitates an environment that is conducive to firms conducting risky innovative activities. Studies show that public policies, including labour market policies, can influence the operating conditions and institutional structures of firms to foster innovation that leads to productivity gains. However, the literature indicates that there is mixed empirical evidence on the impact of labour market policies on firms’ incentives to innovate. This paper argues that more flexible labour market policies that do not constrain workers’ adjustments and mobility will have positive associations with a country’s technological innovation competitiveness. In addition, innovation competitiveness affects a country’s productivity and trade competitiveness. Using a balanced panel of OECD and non-OECD countries, this study offers simple empirical models to measure the relationship between labour market policies and innovation capacity; and between innovation capacity and trade competitiveness. The main findings show that countries with more flexible labour market policies have higher levels of innovation competitiveness. In addition, the paper finds evidence of a positive correlation between innovation competitiveness and trade competitiveness.
    Keywords: Labour market policies, innovation, trade, competitiveness, labour market flexibility
    JEL: F16 J08 J38 J63 O31 O38
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Thilo Klein
    Abstract: In many economic situations, market participation requires that agents form groups subject to exogenous rules. Consider a microfinance institution that decides on rules for diversifying borrower groups in terms of their exposure to income shocks. Such rules affect group repayment by influencing both who matches with whom (direct effect) and who participates in the market (participation). I develop the key trade-off for conflicting predictions of extant theoretical models and estimate both effects separately. Group formation creates an endogeneity problem, but a matching model exploits the exogenous variation from counterfactual groups. I find that while diversification has no participation effect it has a significant positive direct effect.
    Keywords: microcredit; joint liability risk; diversification; market design; stable matching; endogeneity; selection model; agriculture; Thailand
    JEL: C11 C31 C34 C36 C78 D02 D82 G21 O16 Q14
    Date: 2015–07–19
  17. By: Marie Fare (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Pepita Ould Ahmed (CESSMA - Centre d'Etudes en Sciences Sociales sur les Mondes Africains, Américains et Asiatiques - UP7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IRD (FRANCE))
    Abstract: From an analysis of the literature, this article proposes a reading of the contributions of complementary currency systems (CCS) to promote social and economics change. After a presentation of the nature and diversity of CCS, this paper analyzes the method deployed by the literature to evaluate the scope of CCS and the diversity of impact measures criteria.This article argues these new monetary arrangements are part of local economic and socio-economic dynamics, and should be seen as weapons in the struggle against social and monetary exclusion. CCS raise important questions on the emergence of a new economic order, based on new standards of production and consumption and on the role and place of money in the economy. Finally, we conclude with a return to the question of their scale, one of the challenges facing CCS.
    Date: 2014–11–14

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