nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒08‒19
25 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Ten Principles of Effective Tobacco Tax Policy By Caryn Bredenkamp; Roberto Magno Iglesias; Kai-Alexander Kaiser
  2. Women in the Workforce: An Unmet Potential in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  3. ADB and Civil Society Partnership: Annual Report 2013 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  4. Analyzing the impact of global financial crisis on the interconnectedness of Asian stock markets using network science By Jitendra Aswani
  5. Access to Finance: Microfinance Innovations in the People’s Republic of China By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors By Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang
  7. Determinants of Cross Regional Disparity in Financial Deepening: Evidence from Indonesian provinces By Irwan Trinugroho; Agusman Agusman; Moch Doddy Ariefianto; Darsono Darsono; Amine Tarazi
  8. Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Logistics Services By Kazuhiro Sugie; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Sébastien Miroudot; Frederic Gonzales; Dorothée Rouzet
  9. Industrial Policies and Implementation: Philippine Automotive Manufacturing as a Lens By Llanto, Gilberto M.; Ortiz, Ma. Kristina P.
  10. The Employment Effects of GVCs on Asian Countries and the Phenomenon of Value-Added Erosion By Xiao JIANG; Jose CARABALLO
  11. Perspective of CO2 capture & storage (CCS) development in Vietnam: Results from expert interviews By Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh; Minh Ha-Duong
  12. Are Comparisons Luxuries? Subjective Poverty and Positional Concerns in Indonesia By Jinan Zeidan
  13. Export Exposure and Gender Specific Work Participation in Indonesia By Tatyana Chesnokova; Jesmin Rupa; Nicholas Sim
  14. Effectiveness of Macroprudential Policies in Developing Asia: An Empirical Analysis By Lee, Minsoo; Asuncion, Ruben Carlo; Kim, Jungsuk
  15. Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam By Mohamed Arouri; Adel Ben Youssef; Cuong Nguyen-Viet
  16. Quand l'industrie mondialisée rencontre l'industrie rurale : Hanoï et ses périphéries, Vietnam By Sylvie Fanchette
  17. Former Foreign Affiliates: Cast Out and Outperformed? By Beata Javorcik; Steven Poelhekke
  18. Preschools and early childhood development in a second best world: Evidence from a scaled-up experiment in Cambodia By Adrien Bouguen; Deon Filmer; Karen Macours; Sophie Naudeau
  19. Self-help groups, savings and social capital : evidence from a field experiment in Cambodia By Ban,Radu; Gilligan,Michael J.; Rieger,Matthias
  20. Shedding light on the shadow economy : a nighttime light approach By Tanaka, Kiyoyasu; Keola, Souknilanh
  21. Overview of bamboo biomass for energy production By An Ha Truong; Thi My Anh Le
  22. The Objectives of Competition Law By Cassey LEE
  23. Fiscal Management in Myanmar By Oo, Zaw; Joelene, Cindy; Minoletti, Paul; Phyu, Phoo Pwint; Saw, Kyi Pyar Chit; Win, Ngu Wah; Porter, Ian; Oye, Mari; Smurra, Andrea
  24. Developing Myanmar’s Finance Sector to Support Rapid, Inclusive, and Sustainable Economic Growth By Nehru, Vikram
  25. Re-examining the Middle-Income Trap Hypothesis: What to Reject and What to Revive? By Han , Xuehui; Wei, Shang-Jin

  1. By: Caryn Bredenkamp; Roberto Magno Iglesias; Kai-Alexander Kaiser
    Abstract: This brief provides guidance in the design of effective tobacco tax policies in countries such as the emerging ASEAN economies, where tax administration and enforcement capacity may not be as strong as in OECD countries. It focuses on tobacco, but many of the principles are equally applicable to other excise taxes, such as alcohol. While bearing in mind that policy advice should always be tailored to context, these principles have wide applicability across countries. The brief is illustrated with examples from the 2012 Philippines tobacco and alcohol ‘sin tax’ reform and draws on the experience of World Bank teams in providing technical assistance to tobacco tax reforms in the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia.
    Keywords: expenditure, market analysis, good, tax” reform, excise taxes, price increases, barrier, valuation, surveillance, interest, income, future, future price, market prices internal revenue, laws, law enforcement, tax increases, health effects, government revenues, demand, indexation, political economy, revenues, incomes, stress, health, tax rates, pricing, nutrition, market, price, tax, middle-income country, inflation, serial numbers, enforcement, taxation, knowledge, alcohol tax, market share, tobacco taxes, technical assistance, share, smoking, discounts, products, tax administration, revenue, tax policy, warehouses, tax reform, return, strategy, tax revenues, implementation, brand, prices, sin tax, finance, tax structure, tax policies, tobacco tax, taxes, tax reforms
    Date: 2015–06
  2. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Despite economic growth, decreasing fertility rates, and rising education levels, women in Asia are on average 70% less likely than men to be in the labor force, with the country-to-country percentage varying anywhere from 3% to 80%. Results of a new simulation model suggest that closing the gender gap could generate a 30% increase in the per capita income of a hypothetical average Asian economy in one generation. This report discusses the reasons behind the continuing gap in the labor force participation rate between women and men in Asia and the Pacific, the impact of this gap on economic growth, and policy lessons drawn from specific country experiences in the region and elsewhere in the world. The channels of gender inequality are so complex that policy interventions must go beyond economics to effectively address them. Such a multidimensional approach to reducing gender inequality could unleash a nation’s full potential for inclusive growth and development.
    Keywords: gender equality, gender equity; female labor force participation; economic growth, labor force participation rate, Asia and the Pacific, women in Asia, gender gap, gender wage gap, economic empowerment, employment quotas, job matching, flexible work arrangement
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) values contribution from civil society organizations (CSOs) to country-level and global development efforts. This report provides highlights of ADB and CSOs working together to overcome the region’s development challenges. A selected sample of projects from across Asia and the Pacific are represented as examples of how CSOs contribute to development. Throughout ADB, civil society focal points cooperate with the Nongovernment Organization and Civil Society Center—housed in the Regional and Sustainable Development Department—to ensure quality engagement with CSOs. Partners who contribute to development project success include government agencies, civil society, and ADB project officers.
    Keywords: civil society, NGO Center, nongovernment organizations, civil society organizations, annual report, participation, partnership
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Jitendra Aswani (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: As importance of Asian Stock Markets (ASM) has increased after the globalization, it is become significant to know how this network of ASM behaves on the onset of financial crises. For this study, the Global Financial Crisis is considered whose origin was in the developed country, US, unlike the Asian crisis of 1997. To evaluate the impact of financial crisis on the ASM, network theory is used as a tool here. Network modeling of stock markets is useful as it can help to avert the spillover of crises by preventing the stock markets which are highly connected in the network. In this empirical work, weekly indices data from 2000-2013 for fifteen stock markets is used, which is further partitioned into three periods: pre, during and post crisis. This study shows how 13 important stock markets in Asia namely, India, Bangladesh, Philippines, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Pakistan, South Korea and Thailand are connected to each other and how India, Japan, Hong Kong and Korea stock market appeared as the systemically important stock markets from them. Introduction of the US stock market into this network gives insight how the US stock market might had connected to systemically important markets which resulted into spread of crisis in the Asian region. Furthermore, using Kruskal algorithm spread of contagion is explained like how it first hit the Hong Kong stock market and from there it proceeds to the other systemic important stock markets like a virus. Addition to that, we quantified the network behavior in the form of metrics such as adjacency matrix, clustering coefficient, degree of nodes and Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), and on the basis of these some of the important questions like which stock markets are highly connected in Asia which if affected can induce the crises in the other stock markets of region are answered. This study can be used for the portfolio optimization as well as for policy making for which network analysis should be conducted on a regular basis.
    Keywords: Financial Crisis, Stock Markets, Networks, Minimum Spanning Tree
    JEL: C45 G1 G11 G15 P34
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (East Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (East Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has adopted a more market-oriented approach by promoting rural microfinance, pursuing bottom-up innovations such as group lending, various forms of guarantees, new financial products based on purchase orders and insurance policies, and better incentives for agriculture funding from financial institutions. In 2009, the PRC sought the assistance of the Asian Development Bank to study how to optimize policy choices in rural finance using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. This report presents the findings of that rural microfinance study, including valuable lessons learned from several pilot microlending programs conducted in selected provinces in the PRC. It then analyzes outstanding issues in the country’s rural and microfinance markets that need to be addressed more vigorously.
    Keywords: People's Republic of China, Microfinance, Rural Finance, Financial Innovation, Rural Financial Market, Rural Financial Institution, Rural Financial Supervision, MSE Finance, Rural Financing Difficulty, Chanyeyuan, Value Chain, Cooperative Financing, Mutual Aid Fund, Microfinance Development, Agriculture Loan, Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang
    Abstract: The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balance of embodied carbon. We find that: (1) Embodied carbon in global trade increases at about 3% per year since 1995 World Trade Organization founded, and East Asia tends to burden more from the net increase of the balance of embodied carbon. (2) China¡¯s export has the largest and increasing outflow of carbon burden, USA's import the largest and increasing inflow of carbon burden, and Finland¡¯s export and import have the decreasing carbon burden. (3) The global trade structure tends to be not so much carbon-intensive. BRIIAT (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, Australia and Turkey) has the largest embodied carbon intensity in export (about 7.35 kg/$) while NAFTA (the United States, Canada and Mexico) the largest embodied carbon intensity in import (about 10.32 kg/$). (4) There existed some inclination of embodied carbon flows including neighbors-centered outflows and country-centered inflows.
    Keywords: Embodied carbon flow, International trade, Spatial-temporal variations, Input-output analysis
    JEL: Q54 Q40
    Date: 2014–09–16
  7. By: Irwan Trinugroho (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - unilim - Université de Limoges - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Agusman Agusman (bank indonesia - bank indonesia); Moch Doddy Ariefianto (Indonesia Deposit Insurance Corporation); Darsono Darsono (Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - unilim - Université de Limoges - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of financial deepening across regions in Indonesia after the institutional reforms which brought the country to become more decentralized. Using provincial-level data for 33 provinces from 2004 to 2010, we find that poor local governance significantly impedes financial deepening. Our results also conclude that in the socioeconomically less developed regions, the level of financial deepening is lower than that of more developed regions. Various policy implications are provided. Even though decentralization has been implemented, regional disparity in the form of financial deepening still exists. Improving local governance should be imposed to facilitate favorable business environment. Moreover, regulators have to reconsider regulations that have constrained bank lending.
    Date: 2015–02–10
  8. By: Kazuhiro Sugie; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Sébastien Miroudot; Frederic Gonzales; Dorothée Rouzet
    Abstract: This paper presents the services trade restrictiveness indices (STRIs) for logistics services. The STRIs are composite indices taking values between zero and one, zero representing an open market and one a market completely closed to foreign services providers. The indices are calculated for 40 countries, the 34 OECD members and Brazil, the People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. The STRIs capture de jure restrictions. This report presents the first vintage of indicators for logistics services and captures regulations in force in 2014. The scores range from 0.08 to 1 for cargo-handling services, 0.04 to 1 for storage and warehouse services, 0.02 to 0.58 for freight transport agency services and 0.03 to 1 for customs brokerage services. It is observed that the regulatory profile differs across countries. In cargo-handling and storage and warehouse services, one country reserves all services provision to a statutory monopoly while another country reserves cargo-handling to a monopoly at port. Freight transport agency has the lowest average score among four subsectors while restrictions on foreign entry, restrictions on the movement of people and regulatory transparency significantly contribute to the results. One country is completely closed to foreign participation in customs brokerage services. The paper presents the list of measures included in the indices, the scoring and weighting system for calculating the indices and an analysis of the results.
    Keywords: logistics services, services trade, services trade restrictions, regulation
    JEL: F13 F14 K33 L87 L89 L91
    Date: 2015–08–04
  9. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.; Ortiz, Ma. Kristina P.
    Abstract: Philippine industrial policies such as those bearing on the manufacturing sector are a critical element of the country's development strategy. Manufacturing creates opportunities for higher value addition and extensive employment owing to forward and backward linkages with other sectors of the economy, and linkage to regional production networks, which has become a key factor in the growth of major ASEAN countries. This paper discusses Philippine industrial policy reforms and implementation over the period 1973-2014 through the lens of the automotive manufacturing industry. It discusses the factors that will facilitate or hinder the process of reforms and implementation under the new approach to the development of the automotive manufacturing industry. Information externalities and coordination failure seem to constitute the major challenges to the sector. Under the Philippine New Industrial Policy, a more nuanced set of targeted interventions is employed to achieve envisaged policy goals. Weak state capacity for implementing the reforms and the lack of political will could stand in the way of successful policy implementation. The recent economic performance of the country builds the case for intensifying the policy reform process. While there are no easy pathways in the reform process, successful implementation of the new industrial policy will also be conditional on the political leadership and bureaucratic capacity across a number of government agencies. Credible leadership and ownership by bureaucrats as well as other stakeholders, while necessary, are not a sufficient condition for the success of reform efforts. Equally important is the buy-in or ownership of those reform efforts by the polity.
    Keywords: Philippines, industrial policy, automotive manufacturing industry, policy reforms, regional production network, industry roadmaps
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Xiao JIANG (Denison University, Granville); Jose CARABALLO (University of Puerto Rico at Cayey)
    Abstract: This paper first conducts a multi-regional input-output analysis to estimate the employment outcomes of global value chain (GVC) participation in the form of trading intermediates inputs for the six Asian economies included in the World Input-Output Database. This paper then tries to study the phenomenon of “value-added erosion”, characterised by the decline of the sectoral shares of domestic value-added in a country’s exports as the country becomes more integrated into GVCs. The variables of interest, namely, the degree of value-added erosion, the share of domestic intermediates in exports, and the amount of foreign high-skilled labour embodied in a country’s exports, were all estimated using the multi-regional input-output model. Using these results as well as other control variables, we conduct a panel data co-integration analysis to explain and assess the likelihood of value-added erosion and its possible determinants. The injection of foreign highskilled labour was found to be an important factor in a country’s sectoral decline of domestic value-added share while participating in GVCs.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains, Employment, Value-added, Asia
    JEL: D57 C23
    Date: 2015–08
  11. By: Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS); Minh Ha-Duong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes expert opinions regarding crucial factors that may influence Vietnam’s future use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) based on face-to-face interviews in December 2013 with 16 CCS-related experts from the Vietnamese government, research institutes, universities and the energy industrial sector. This study finds that financial incentives and climate policy are the most important factors for the development of CCS technologies in Vietnam in the next two decades. Financial incentives involve direct subsidies from the government, such as tax exemptions for land use and the importation of CCS-related equipment. In addition, all the experts agree that international financial support is important to initiate a large deployment of CCS technologies in Vietnam by implementing demonstrative/pilot projects to prove CCS’s working efficiency.
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Jinan Zeidan (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix-Marseille Université)
    Abstract: We explore (i) the usual determinants of happiness in Indonesia, with a special focus on the role of various measures of absolute income; (ii) the presence of relativistic concerns or positive external effects in shaping attitudes to subjective well-being; and (iii) whether this potential effect changes sign with income level. Additional evidence offered by our investigation relates to the effect of past income levels as well as to that of aspirations. In line with other literature from poor contexts, we find that the subjective well-being of Indonesians is positively affected by the comparison with the income of people around them. This positive influence is unambiguously more important for the poor than for the rich. This pattern is consistent through different measures of well-being and holds also when accounting for past income levels, and lagged income expectations.
    Date: 2015–02
  13. By: Tatyana Chesnokova; Jesmin Rupa; Nicholas Sim (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: The paper examines if exports have unequal influence on the work decisions of men and women using household panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey. We construct a novel measure – the export exposure index – which allows us to estimate the relationship between exports and the work decisions of individuals even after controlling for household and province-year fixed effects. Our regression analysis shows that an increase in exports does not have a statistically significant effect on men, but encourages women to allocate time away from paid employment towards unpaid house or family work. These results are consistent with our simple theoretical model which predicts that the relative increase in spousal income (following an increase in export exposure) strengthens females' comparative advantage in unpaid housework and allows them to devote more time to home production.
    Keywords: Exports, Gender, Labor Force Participation.
    JEL: O12
    Date: 2015–07
  14. By: Lee, Minsoo (Asian Development Bank); Asuncion, Ruben Carlo (Asian Development Bank); Kim, Jungsuk (Sogang University)
    Abstract: The global financial crisis highlighted the need for national bank supervisory authorities to improve surveillance systems and to detect early on the buildup of macroeconomic risks that could threaten the entire financial system. This paper presents an empirical framework for analyzing how effective macroprudential policies control credit growth, leverage growth, and housing price appreciation. Two significant findings emerge. Broadly, macroprudential policies can indeed promote financial stability in Asia. More specifically, different types of macroprudential policies are more effective against different types of macroeconomic risks.
    Keywords: developing Asia; financial stability; macroprudential policy
    JEL: G01 G28 L51
    Date: 2015–07–01
  15. By: Mohamed Arouri (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - UO - Université d'Orléans - CNRS); Adel Ben Youssef (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Cuong Nguyen-Viet (Chercheur Indépendant)
    Abstract: The study usescommune fixed-effect regressions to estimate the effect of natural disasters on household welfare and poverty, and subsequently examines household and community characteristics that can strengthen resilience of households to natural disasters. We find that all the three disaster types considered in this study including storms, floods and droughts have negative effects on household income and expenditure. Access to micro-credit, internal remittances and social allowances can help households strengthen the resilience to natural disasters. Households in communes with higher expenditure mean and more equal expenditure distribution are more resilient to natural disasters.
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Sylvie Fanchette (CEPED - Centre population et développement - INED - Institut national d'études démographiques - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - UPD5 - Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5)
    Abstract: Dans le delta du fleuve Rouge densément peuplé (1 230 habitants/km 2 en 2009) du nord Vietnam, la population rurale a, depuis plusieurs siècles, développé des activités artisanales et industrielles en lien avec la riziculture inondée très intensive. Des villages de métier artisanaux se sont spécialisés dans une large gamme de produits destinés aux marchés national et international et occupent 18 % du total de la population économiquement active (PEA) rurale. Organisés en clusters 1 , un millier de villages se sont modernisés et diversifiés, depuis l'ouverture économique des années 1980. Ils polarisent, une main-d'oeuvre de plusieurs milliers d'actifs, localement ou au niveau interprovincial. Cependant, de nombreux facteurs freinent leur expansion, notamment l'accès aux terres dans un contexte de spéculation et de libéralisation foncière liée à la métropolisation d'une capitale en plein rattrapage urbain, la concurrence exacerbée avec la Chine et les entreprises du secteur formel et, enfin, la nécessaire adaptation aux normes de production internationale pour intégrer les marchés de l'export [Fanchette, 2011]. Depuis la fin des années 1980, après 30 ans de collectivisme, l'État a entrepris de relancer son économie en pleine crise. Le Doi Moi ou Renouveau témoigne de sa volonté d'intégrer le marché international, de stimuler l'initiative privée et de décollectiviser les moyens de production, même si les terres agricoles restent sous son contrôle. Pour attirer les capitaux étrangers dans l'industrie et dans le secteur immobilier, l'État effectue en plusieurs étapes de nombreuses réformes foncières, administratives et sociales, et abandonne sa politique d'accompagnement de la petite entreprise industrielle, pourtant plus grande consommatrice de main-d'oeuvre locale. À l'ombre de la Chine, un de ses partenaires privilégiés, le Vietnam possède des atouts attractifs pour les investisseurs : une main-d'oeuvre peu chère et des politiques foncières favorables. Des parcs industriels sont édifiés sur de grandes portions de rizières et contribuent largement à la production industrielle de la région (40 % dans le cas de la province de Hanoi). Par ailleurs, en août 2008, le gouvernement vietnamien décide d'étendre les limites administratives de la province capitale en annexant la province occidentale de Ha Tây, et d'encadrer son développement par un schéma directeur ambitieux à l'horizon 2030 pour qu'elle se hisse au niveau des grandes métropoles d'Asie. Le secteur industriel embauche de plus en plus d'actifs dans le delta du fleuve Rouge, et notamment dans la province de Hanoi élargie : 28,3 % de la population économiquement active (+15 ans) y travaille, soit
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Beata Javorcik; Steven Poelhekke
    Abstract: The literature has documented a positive effect of foreign ownership on firm performance. But is this effect due to a one-time knowledge transfer or does it rely on continuous injections of knowledge? To shed light on this question we focus on divestments, that is, foreign affiliates that are sold to local owners. To establish a causal effect of the ownership change we combine a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score matching. We use plant-level panel data from the Indonesian Census of Manufacturing covering the period 1990-2009. We consider 157 cases of divestment, where a large set of plant characteristics is available two years before and three years after the ownership change and for which observationally similar control plants exist. The results indicate that divestment is associated with a drop in total factor productivity accompanied by a decline in output, markups as well as export and import intensity. The findings are consistent with the benefits of foreign ownership being driven by continuous supply of headquarter services from the foreign parent.
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2015–06–16
  18. By: Adrien Bouguen (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Deon Filmer (Banque Mondiale - Centre de recherche de la Banque Mondiale - Banque Mondiale); Karen Macours (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Sophie Naudeau (Banque Mondiale - Centre de recherche de la Banque Mondiale - Banque Mondiale)
    Abstract: Interventions targeting early childhood development, such as investment in preschools, are often seen as promising mechanisms to increase human capital and to reduce the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. This paper presents results from a randomized evaluation of a large scale preschool construction program in Cambodia, and indicates a cautionary tale. The overall impact of the program on a wide set of children’s early childhood outcomes was small and not statistically significant, and for the cohort with highest exposure the program led to a negative impact on early childhood cognition. Moreover, for this group, the intervention increased inequality as the negative impacts are largest for children of poorer and less educated parents. The results can be explained by the frequent occurrence of underage enrollment in primary school in the absence of preschools, stricter enforcement of the minimum age for primary school entry after the intervention, substitution between primary and preschool following intervention, and difference in demand responses of more and less educated parents to the new preschools. These results indicate that the design of ECD interventions needs to start from a good understanding of parental and teacher decisions pre-program. More generally, they show how implementation and demand-side constraints might not only limit positive impacts, but could even lead to perverse effects of early childhood interventions.
    Date: 2014–10
  19. By: Ban,Radu; Gilligan,Michael J.; Rieger,Matthias
    Abstract: This paper studies how self-help groups?village-based organizations designed to encourage savings, household production and social cohesion among the poor?can promote economic and social capital. The paper uses survey data and a wide array of social capital measures to assess the impact of a pilot program that was randomly rolled out in rural villages in Cambodia. The study finds that the program encouraged savings and associations via self-help groups. However it did not improve social capital measured by household and network surveys and lab activities that gauge trust, trustworthiness and the willingness to contribute to public goods. The findings contradict recent work that has found significant positive impacts of such groups on social capital. This paper evaluates community-wide impacts while most previous studies focus on program participants. In addition, the empirical strategy is based on a broader array of social capital measures, including behavioral indicators, suggesting that finding impacts of such programs on social capital is sensitive to the measurement strategy.
    Date: 2015–07–29
  20. By: Tanaka, Kiyoyasu; Keola, Souknilanh
    Abstract: Measuring the shadow economy is inherently difficult, but critical for understanding economic development. Using census data on formal and informal sectors in Cambodia, we document that 96.6% of non-farm establishments do not formally register with the government, and their sales accounted for 76.6% of total sales in 2011. We estimate a relationship between nighttime light and sales across regions separately for formal and informal firms for 2011, and estimate their past sales from changes in nighttime light for 1993-2010. Both formal and informal firms increased their estimated sales, and the share of informal sales increased from 68.8% in 1993 to 76.6% in 2011, suggesting that the informal sector increased quantitatively in both absolute and relative terms throughout the economic development of the Cambodian economy.
    Keywords: Cambodia, Employment, Informal sector, Informal employment, Satellite data
    JEL: E26 H26 O17
    Date: 2015–08
  21. By: An Ha Truong (USTH - UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF HANOI, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM)); Thi My Anh Le (USTH - UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF HANOI, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM))
    Abstract: Bamboo biomass energy has great potential to be an alternative for fossil fuel. Bamboo biomass can be processed in various ways (thermal or biochemical conversion) to produce different energy products (charcoal, syngas and biofuels), which can be substitutions for existing fossil fuel products. Bamboo biomass has both advantages and drawbacks in comparison to other energy sources. It has better fuel characteristics than most biomass feed stocks and suitable for both thermal and biochemical pathways. The drawbacks of bamboo biomass includes establishment, logistic and land occupation. It can also impose negative impacts to environment if not well-managed, therefore, selection of bamboo as an energy dedicated feed stocks need to be evaluate carefully to avoid or minimized any possible risks. Bamboo biomass alone cannot fulfill all the demand for energy. It needs to combine with other sources to best exploit their potential and provide sustainable energy supply.
    Date: 2014–07
  22. By: Cassey LEE (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore)
    Abstract: This essay examines the nature of competition law objectives by visiting some of the theoretical and philosophical foundations underlying competition law. The key objectives of competition law are welfare, efficiency, and free and fair competition. There are distributive dimensions in competition law that are related to different notions of welfare (consumer surplus and producer surplus). The different types of efficiencies are subject to trade-offs – within a given time (allocative versus productive) and inter-temporally (static versus dynamic). Theoretical, conceptual, and philosophical frameworks also influence competition law objectives.
    Keywords: Competition, Competition Law
    JEL: K21 L40
    Date: 2015–08
  23. By: Oo, Zaw (Myanmar Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Joelene, Cindy (Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Minoletti, Paul (Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Phyu, Phoo Pwint (Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Saw, Kyi Pyar Chit (Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Win, Ngu Wah (Development Resource Institute-Centre for Economic and Social Development); Porter, Ian (International Growth Centre); Oye, Mari (International Growth Centre); Smurra, Andrea (International Growth Centre)
    Abstract: Past governments in Myanmar presided over a system generally characterized by weak fiscal management, but this has recently changed with the present government restoring a measure of fiscal discipline, reorienting fiscal priorities, and establishing a clear set of fiscal objectives in the Framework for Economic and Social Reforms (FESR), which was finalized in June 2013. The Government of Myanmar now has to prioritize how best to implement these fiscal objectives while strengthening long-run fiscal discipline. This paper provides a broad range of recommendations on how this can be achieved, using analysis of Myanmar's present and past fiscal situation alongside insights provided by the experience of other countries.
    Keywords: budget and expenditure framework; fiscal policy; Myanmar; public financial management; resource mobilization
    JEL: E62 H61 H72 O23
    Date: 2015–06–01
  24. By: Nehru, Vikram (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace)
    Abstract: The finance sector is the lifeblood of any economy and its smooth functioning is central to rapid and inclusive economic growth. A well-functioning financial system must intermediate efficiently between savers and borrowers; manage risks prudently; provide a wide variety of financial services to firms, farms, and households; mobilize savings effectively; identify and lend for sound investments; remain robust in the face of shocks; and ensure that access to finance is available to all. This paper presents broad outlines of a reform strategy to develop a stable and efficient finance sector that supports rapid and inclusive growth in Myanmar.
    Keywords: access to finance; finance sector; inclusive growth; Myanmar; savings mobilization
    JEL: E44 G21 G23 G28
    Date: 2015–04–01
  25. By: Han , Xuehui (Asian Development Bank); Wei, Shang-Jin (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Why do some economies grow faster than others? Do economies in the middle-income range face especially difficult challenges producing consistent growth? Using a transition matrix analysis on decade-level growth rates, we find that the data clearly reject the idea that middle-income economies either have a high absolute probability of being stuck where they are or have a higher relative probability of being stuck than the low- or high-income groups. In this sense, the notion of a “middle-income trap” is not supported by the data. However, economies in a given income range have different fundamentals and policies, and relative growth across economies may depend on these variables. Since development economists and practitioners have proposed a long list of variables that could affect growth, we employ a recently developed nonparametric classification technique (conditional inference tree and random forest) to decipher the relevance and relative importance of various growth determinants. We find that the list of variables that can help distinguish fast- and slow-growing economies is relatively short, and varies by income groups. For low-income economies, favorable demographics, macroeconomic stability, good education system, and good transport infrastructure appear to be the most important separating variables. For middle-income economies, favorable demographics, macroeconomic stability, sound global economic environment, and openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) appear to be the key discriminatory variables. This framework also yields conditions under which economies in the low- and middle-income range are trapped or even move backward.
    Keywords: conditional inference regression tree; economic growth; growth determinants; infrastructure; middle-income trap
    JEL: C14 C30 F01 O11 O43
    Date: 2015–07–01

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