nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
34 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Universalizing Human Rights: The ASEAN Way By William J. Jones
  2. The Effect of Trilemma toward Economic Growth of Newly Industrialized Economy in Southeast Asia By Ahmad Mikail Zaini; Kenny Devita Indraswari
  3. Hinduism transformed or Preserved? A Case study of Hindu Diaspora in Thailand By Ruchi Agarwal
  5. Talent Engagement and Development in Penang's Electronics Manufacturing Industry By Kar Ling LEE
  6. Level of phobia towards Islam among non-muslim Students of Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia By Azizah Hussin; Nawi@Mohd Nawi Ismail; Mohd Zamri Ali
  7. The different impact of conventional interest rates on Islamic stock market, Islamic banking and Islamic insurance: evidence from Malaysia By Othman, Arshad Nuval; Masih, Mansur
  8. Participation of Women Farmers in Rice Farming and Food Security Of Farmers Household in Swamp Land-Indonesia By Yulian Junaidi
  9. Bank-Specific and Industry-Characteristic Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability: Empirical Study for Indonesia By Abdul Manap Pulungan; Ahmad Erani Yustika
  10. Landscape of HEI and Quality Challenges in AEC 2015 By Shawyun Teay
  11. Are investments in islamic REITs susceptible to forex uncertainty: wavelet analysis By Mokhtar, Maznita; Masih, Mansur
  12. A Possible OTOP Project for Poverty Reduction: the experience of lower northern region in Thailand By Ratchanee Mukhjang
  13. How External Environment and Internal Organization contribute in Commitment to Change? (Study at organizational change in state owned organizations in Indonesia) By Wustari Mangundjaya; Budi Soetjipto
  14. The Regional Distribution of Foreign Direct Investment in Thailand: A Partial Stock Adjustment Provincial-Level Model By Bhagaporn Wattanadumrong
  15. The Indigenous Forest Navigational System among the Penan Community of Sarawak, Malaysia By Badaruddin Mohamed; Tarmiji Masron
  16. Welfare State and Global Financial Crisis: A Case Study of South Korea By Jiyoung Bae
  18. Modelling of distributional impacts of energy subsidy reforms: an illustration with Indonesia By Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Lorenza Campagnolo; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
  19. Tax Agents Perceptions of the Corporate Taxpayers’ Compliance Costs under the Self-assessment System By Noor Sharoja Sapiei
  20. English Learning Strategies Employed by Thai Students: A Case Study at Prince Songkla University, Pattani Campus By Bordin Waelateh; Nurul Husna Paramal
  21. The influence of displaced commercial risk on bank profitability in Islamic banking institutions By Noraziah Che Arshad; Roza Hazli Zakaria; Ahmad Azam Sulaiman @ Mohamad
  22. The Importance of Policy to promote Transparency in E-Government projects using Technology Acceptance Model By Daim Mahanum; Yuserrie Zainuddin; M.D. Rozaida
  23. Hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the student teacher in professional experience By Payao Lakateb
  24. Risky Income or Lumpy Investments? Evidence on Two Theories of Under-Specialization By Shenoy, Ajay
  25. East German Socialism and the Khmer Rouge Revolution: Insights from the GDR’s Diplomatic Archives By Christian Oesterheld
  26. Children's Own Time Use and its Effect on Skill Formation By Liyousew Gebremedhin Borga
  27. Foreign exchange intervention: strategies and effectiveness By Nuttathum Chutasripanich; James Yetman
  28. Now Everyone can Measure Grammar Ability through the Use of Grammar Assessment System By Abdul Rashid Mohamed
  29. Revisiting the Muslim Feminists’ Discourse on Gender Equality By Adibah Muhtar; Akmaliza Abdullah; Siti Suhaila Ihwani
  30. Crowd behaviour in a ritual based mass gathering and reliability of scale measurement By Noraida Abdul Ghani; Zulkarnain Ahmad Hatta; Intan Hashimah Mohd Hashim; Jasni Sulong; Nor Diana Mohd Mahudin; Shukran Abd Rahman; Zarina Mat Saad
  31. Software piracy and scientific publications: knowledge economy evidence from Africa By Asongu, Simplice
  32. Understanding the reasoning pattern of Islamic jurists’ views on the status of ar-rahn (Islamic pawn broking) contract and its ruling By Dziauddin Sharif; Amir Shaharuddin; Nurul Aini Muhamed
  33. Severe Air Pollution and Labor Productivity By Li, Teng; Liu, Haoming; Salvo, Alberto
  34. Bonus caps, deferrals and bankers' risk-taking By Jokivuolle, Esa; Keppo, Jussi; Yuan , Xuchuan

  1. By: William J. Jones (Mahidol University International College)
    Abstract: The Asian Values debate sparked by highly influential former Prime Ministers Mahathir bin Mohammad of Malaysia and Lee Kwan Yew of Singapore in the 1980’s and 1990’s sought to challenge and perhaps discredit the dominant “Western†human rights discourse by providing a viable alternative to western universalism steeped in cultural relativism and regional particularism. The literature surrounding the Asian Values debate generally notes its decline in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis of the late 1990’s and takes for granted that this strain of thought is no longer relevant without providing evidence for such a wide ranging claim. Not only have scholars and regional analyst decided to no longer focus on Asian Values but some insiders such as Villanueva have gone so far as to declare Asian Values dead. It is my argument that Asian Values is still present and can be proven by analyzing ASEAN legal texts such as the ASEAN Charter, ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights Terms of Reference as well as internal negotiation dynamics surrounding the AHRD. Some ASEAN states in their internal negotiations surrounding the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration demonstrated a continued discourse of "Asian Values" which while no longer being mainstream is indeed still prevalent and influential in the region.
    Keywords: ASEAN, AICHR, Human Rights Southeast Asia, Asian Values, ASEAN Values, ASEAN Way
    JEL: F50 N96
    Date: 2014–06
  2. By: Ahmad Mikail Zaini (International Islamic University Malaysia); Kenny Devita Indraswari (International Islamic University Malaysia)
    Abstract: Southeast Asia is a growing region in terms of its economic activities characterized by its high economic growth, integration toward global economy and high capital accumulation. Nevertheless, Asian financial crisis in 1997 has disturbed the achievement of some newly industrialized countries (NICs) and has changed some of their macroeconomic policies orientation. This experience has disenchanted Southeast Asian countries to be more concerned about the effect of global financial fragility to its own domestic economy. For instance, they began to impose, at certain degree, capital mobility restriction and managing exchange rate stability. With regard to this issue, this paper examines the effect of monetary independence, capital control and exchange rate stability toward economic growth of NICs in Southeast Asia. However, most of the articles regarding to trilemma did not come up with proper quantitative approach in assessing the degree of capital control, monetary independence, and exchange rate stability policy imposed by several countries. Therefore, we applied Aizenman , Chinn, and Ito index in measuring monetary independence, exchange rate stability, financial openness or capital control. We used balance panel data from 1990 to 2011 of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Philippine as representation of NICs in Southeast Asia. We estimated economic growth as our dependent variable with several factor such as openness and inflation, beside trilemma variable, as our main variables. We followed panel data procedure in our estimation. By applying Chow test, LM test, and Hausman test the evidence exhibits that fixed effect specification is preferable in this model. The result of the estimation shows that financial openness index and monetary independence index are negatively significant toward economic growth. In another hand, higher exchange rate stability is positively affected economic growth although it was not statistically significant. Based on this evidence we can infer that managing capital mobility or imposing capital control at some degree are preferable rather than implementing monetary independence and implementing exchange rate stability for enhancing economic growth since three of them cannot be applied at the same time. Besides, Inflation is positively significant in determining economic growth while trade openness is not statistically significant in determining economic growth.
    Keywords: the effect of trilemma; economic growth; Southeast Asia; panel data; fixed effect.
    JEL: F31 F32 F36
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Ruchi Agarwal (Mahidol University International College)
    Abstract: In this paper I would like to argue that Hinduism is vague and broad and thus leaves a lot of room for changes. Hindus preserve their local traditions and make amendments depending on the situation in the host country. The paper attempts to study the Hindu Diasporic community in Thailand, a country with strong Hindu presence. The main focus is on the transformations Hinduism has gone through over time in a country sharing a long history of over 2000 years of trade links with India and a strong influence of Hinduism still evident today. Although the Hindu diasporic community constitutes only a small fraction of the total population of Thailand, the evidences of strong Hindu influences on the religious beliefs, ceremonies, arts, and scriptures on Thai culture makes the case of Hindu diaspora in Thailand an interesting one to study. Hindu diaspora is an important group contributing immensely to the local environment and has been understudied in the past. The paper aims to fill this gap by presenting Thailand as a home away from home for the Hindu diaspora. Hinduism has gone through several transformations in this country however important elements, central to the traditional Hindu beliefs remain unchanged. The paper will be divided into three parts: history of Hinduism and its presence in Southeast Asia; the transformation in Hindu beliefs in a foreign land; and the extent to which traditions have been preserved among the diasporic community.
    Keywords: Beliefs, Diaspora, Hinduism, Thailand, Traditions
    JEL: Z12
    Date: 2014–06
    Abstract: Agrimarine-Based Tourism (ABT) serves as an advantage and opportunity for developing tourism in the archipelagic countries like Indonesia. The agrimarine-based tourism in Indonesia is hugely rich in potential thanks to thousands of small islands with amazing tourist attractions, which are supported by the agricultural and marine products as the supporting resources for tourism development. To make the best use of the huge potential, the stakeholders' partnership plays an important role by integrating their influences and interests into a specific goal. Unfortunately, such a strategic role is rarely well implemented in various tourist destinations. Based on a two months field research in Eastern Indonesia, this paper explains the factors influencing the weakness of ABT stakeholders' partnership, which, among others, are the inability to define the their own strategic role and function, no firm and consistent policy direction, low commitment to common goals, misperception about the targeted ABT development, and no regulation which brings a common interest in ABT development. The study pointed out that the stakeholders have been aware of these factors as the weak points for accelerating ABT development. Further, the linkage of ABT stakeholders’ role and function was explored as the basis for preparing the program of each stakeholder and the promotional regulation for ABT development. Keywords: stakeholders, partnership, agrimarine, tourism, Indonesia
    Keywords: stakeholders, partnership, agro-marine, tourism, Indonesia
    JEL: H70 L83
    Date: 2014–05
  5. By: Kar Ling LEE (INTI International College, Penang, Malaysia (Laureate International Universities))
    Abstract: Penang’s Free Industrial Zone (FIZ) was first established in 1972 and has since been recognize as one of South East Asia’s most powerful electronics manufacturing hub that also boost other supporting industries such as the logistics and freight industry. Despite strong and rising manufacturing countries such as China, Vietnam and Philippines making an impact in the Asia region, Penang’s electronics manufacturing industry remained strong and unfazed. However, the state’s effort to become a high-income manufacturing industry comes with a heavy price especially in dealing with Talent Management issues that has been engulfing Penang’s electronics manufacturing industry. This research examines various talent management factors affecting Penang’s electronics manufacturing industry, with a specific focus on talent engagement and development which are the two (2) key factors affecting most of Penang’s electronics manufacturing companies today. The purpose of the above two (2) focal areas is due to past researches which provided the impetus for this research or study. The findings provided the indication that talent engagement is very critical for talent retention and for effective talent management within Penang’s electronics manufacturing industry, although in general, many young talents also look towards talent development as a key factor in determining whether to remain with the organization. However, talent development is viewed within a broader perspective of talent engagement as found in this research. These are two (2) critical areas of talent management as talents worldwide are become more scare and thus, there is a need for progressive and expanding business organizations to manage their talents, and more importantly, to retain key talents within the company in order to spur growth, expansion, and for comparative advantage within the industry.
    Keywords: Talent management; Talent engagement; talent development; electronics manufacturing industry
    JEL: J62 J24
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Azizah Hussin (Kelantan University of Malaysia); Nawi@Mohd Nawi Ismail (Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Beg Berkunci No 01,); Mohd Zamri Ali (SK Lepan Jaya Gua Musang Kelantan)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the level of phobia among non-muslim students of Educational Institution in Malaysia. In this paper, the history of islamophobia is also discussed briefly. Islamofobia is not a new issues in the world. It’s already exist since the emergence of Islam (religion of Allah). Almost all the prophets, during their time faced rebellion and revolt from those who were against Islam. But the resistance towards the prophets were different based on the races, skills (given by Allah) and current situation. Almighty to Allah, all the problems, obstacles and resistance had been handled and settled wisely by the prophets. Anti Islam or islamophobia happened in the past and it is still there even today. Islamophobia increased after the terrific event in “September 11, 2001”. Most of the muslims from western countries were treated badly. Fortunately, in Malaysia non-muslims live comfortabily and in harmony. But then, there are certain cases of islamophobia happen. Nevertheless, it is not serious. This paper analyses islamophobia among non-muslim students in Educational Institution. The purpose of this paper is to find out the level of islamophobhia among them. As for this paper, the level of phobia is categorized into three levels. The first stage is fear, second is hatred and third is threat. The three categories which have been analysed has been defined before by Zafar Iqbal (2010), Ponyting & Mason (2007) and Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2005). Malaysia is an Islamic Country and majority are muslims. So, knowing the level of phobia among non-muslim is very important to maintain the harmony and peaceful relationship among all races in Malaysia. The researched has been carried out by 250 set of questionaires to non-muslim students to know their level of phobia towards Islam. The data analysed using SPSS method and the result will be discussed in presentation and full paper.
    Keywords: Phobia, islamophobia, non-muslim, jihad, hudud, poligami
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2014–05
  7. By: Othman, Arshad Nuval; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: This paper seeks to close the gap of the lack of empirical evidence surrounding the different impact of conventional interest rates on Islamic finance components – Islamic stock markets, Islamic banking and Islamic insurance (called takaful). Such evidence remains imperative in order for the Islamic finance system to formulate effective countermeasures against changes in conventional interest rates. Using Malaysia as a case in point, this paper employs time-series techniques to establish long-run and causal relationships among an Islamic stock market, an Islamic bank stock, an Islamic insurance company stock, the overnight conventional interbank money market rate and several control variables. Results suggest the distinct interaction of each Islamic finance component with conventional interest rates – the positive long-run relationship and bidirectional causality between Islamic stock markets and conventional interest rates, the negative long-run relationship and bidirectional causality between Islamic banking and conventional interest rates, and the negative long-run relationship and unidirectional causality from Islamic insurance to conventional interest rates. Policymakers should remain concerned primarily with the impact of conventional interest rates on Islamic stock markets and Islamic banking due to the negative income gap of Islamic banks which expose the Islamic finance system to higher financial risk. Thus, policymakers should incentivize Islamic banks to convert the negative income gap into a positive income gap through imposing higher capital requirements on fixed-rate nominal assets.
    Keywords: Islamic stock market, Islamic banking, Islamic insurance, interest rates, Granger-causality
    JEL: C22 C58 E44
    Date: 2014–07–10
  8. By: Yulian Junaidi (Sriwijaya University)
    Abstract: Swamp land have great potential to be a strategic choice for the development of agricultural production area to the front of the face of increasingly complex challenges, especially to compensate for shrinkage of arable land and an increase in production demand, including food security. During this time, swamp land have been used for agricultural production areas, such as used for rice farming. Rice farming is the main livelihood for the people living in the swamp lands to earn income for their household. With the increased income earned through farming activities outside the farm and household food needs are met daily, so as to improve household food security. Associated with household income and resilience can not be separated from the contribution and participation of women. Women have employment opportunities that can generate additional income for their household, which in turn can improve household food security. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the level of participation of women farmers in rice farming in swamp land, (2) assess the condition of the level of household food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land seen from Share of Food Expenditure (PPP) and (3) analyze relationship with the level of participation wanitatani household level food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land. This research was conducted in Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the level of participation of women farmers in rice usatani in the high category. The level of household food security of women farmers in the rice swamp land, which is 69 percent food secure and 31 percent food vulnerable. From the results of the research can be seen also that there is a positive relationship between the participation of women farmers in rice farming with the level of their household food security.
    Keywords: participation, women farmers, food security, rice, swamp
    Date: 2014–10
  9. By: Abdul Manap Pulungan (Supervisory Board of Bank Indonesia); Ahmad Erani Yustika (Supervisory Board of Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: This study discusses the influence of a series of bank-specific factors such as CAR (Capital Adequacy Ratio), OEOI (Operations Expences to Operations Income), NPL (Non Performing Loan), and FBI (Fee-based Income) on ROA as a profitability proxy. Also studied whether commercial banks probability affected by the concentration (Structure Conduct Performance, SCP) or efficiency (Efficiency Hypothesis, HE). Share of Third Party Funds (STPF) is variable proxy of SCP, while the OEOI proxy of HE. By using panel data procedures of the 111 commercial banks during 2005 to 2011, this research concludes that CAR and FBI have significant effect with positive sign on ROA, while OEIO and NPL significant with negative sign. STPF does not significantly affect on ROA so SCP theory as a proxy for the concentration is rejected, on the other hand, this research accepts the HE theory that focuses on the efficiency.
    Keywords: profitability; structure conduct performance; efficiency hypothesis
    JEL: E50
    Date: 2014–10
  10. By: Shawyun Teay (King Saud University)
    Abstract: AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) 2015 envisaged the goal of regional economic integration of the 10 ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nation) economies by December 2013, under 4 main pillars of which it claims to have achieved 73.6% of its targets. MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) and ADB (Asian Development Bank) statistics, researches and reports painted a different picture of the awareness, degree of readiness, and its socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural in the ASEAN members. This paper aims to look at the overall AEC 2015 country’s readiness; potential socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural factors can affect education and quality in the HEIs (Higher Education Institutions) in the wake of AEC 2015. While recognizing that many international bodies have covered the issues, challenges and made recommendations at the macro levels for national actions and development, this paper also looks at the micro level of the institutional internal and external processes and people that can contribute to laying stronger foundations at the forefronts of 1) for students’ values and conscientious reforms; 2) institutional values and conscientious reforms; 3) the institutional balancing of its sustainability through planning and quality management; and 4) Societal Responsibility. These are discussed from the “moral and values†aspects of the mitigations of the socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural issues that each individual HEI can contribute to building the “character and moral foundations future generation of leaders through the HEI processes and peopleâ€.
    Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015, socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural readiness, education and quality in HEI, character and moral foundations of HEI processes and people,
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Mokhtar, Maznita; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Since its debut into the islamic capital markets landscape in 2005, islamic Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) have not shown significant progress in attracting foreign investment, limiting their potential as the ideal asset class for the Shariah compliant investor. It was suggested that a stronger local currency (Ringgit Malaysia) would encourage foreign investors to acquire Malaysian REITs as a hedge against the rising inflation that follows economic growth. This paper aims to examine the relationship between Islamic Malaysian REITs (islamic MREITs) returns and foreign exchange fluctuations. We apply the Maximum Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT), using wavelet function of symmlet 8, as well as the wavelet coherency based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to understand the relationships sought in time dimension as well as frequency dimension. Our contribution includes a fresh perspective on the under-researched islamic REITs class of assets, as well as a multi-scale analysis of their relationship with foreign exchange movements. Our findings show that forex returns is not significantly related to the islamic REITs‟ returns, even though results show that it is significantly related to the REITs market index return. However, a fundamental long term relationship between islamic REITs and the foreign exchange does exist. There is evidence that the MREIT market leads the forex for a short period during the crisis recovery. Ultimately, the islamic REITs are not susceptible to forex uncertainty, implying that REIT managers need to enhance investment interests by other means.
    Keywords: MODWT, REIT, i-REIT, MREIT, foreign exchange (forex), frequency, wavelet, correlation, coherence, lead-lag, contagion
    JEL: C22 C58 G2
    Date: 2013–08–15
  12. By: Ratchanee Mukhjang (Naresuan University)
    Abstract: OTOP initiative is the most challenging project to alleviate poverty of Thai people in rural areas by the following reasons :it is the heritage capital and the poor can do because of only small amount of money for running the business. There are a number of studies on OTOP Project , but most of them are presented with a case study and descriptive approach. The research question of this work involves the economic impact on workers working under the scheme. In this study, the research hypothesis is that the average income for workers exceeds U.S.$ 456.25 per year which is the line of curiosity established by the World Bank. On site surveys were conducted in 2012 in the whole nine provinces in the lower northern in Thailand. Primary data was obtained from questionnaire and interview by using the stratified random sampling technique with a sample size of 169. The questionnaire was prepared for workers working for the OTOP project focusing on the financial status of them. The results also revealed that the cost share distributed to workers was 25,279.3 baht; Furthermore, most of the workers were female who participated the project as the second job. The majority of them were 40 years of age and 88% of them were married. The educational background of the workers showed that 106 respondents (62.72%)finished primary school education . With the inferential statistics, the author had the statistical significant at 0.01 to conclude that the average additional income increased above the poverty line. Furthermore, we could be 95% confident that the interval 22,318.25 baht to 28,240.33 baht contained the mean annual income cost for labor. Therefore, this study explored the huge positive impact on the economic well being of the workers. So, the scheme like OTOP might be helpful for poverty reduction in Thailand.
    Keywords: OTOP Project, China, lower northern region and income
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Wustari Mangundjaya (Faculty of Psychology Universitas Indonesia); Budi Soetjipto (Faculty of Economics Universitas Indonesia)
    Abstract: The success of organizational change was influenced by many factors, and some of them are the conditions of external environments and internal organization. This study is trying to identify the role and contribution of employee’s perception about external environment and internal organization in relations with commitment to change. The study was conducted at financial state owned organizations with 539 respondents, using Organizational Trust and Organizational Task Environment as data collection tools. The study revealed that both perceptions of employee’s about external environment and internal organization, (organizational trust), have positive and significant correlation and contributions in commitment to change. The results also showed that organizational trust have more contribution to commitment to change, compares to organizational task environment. The implications of the study can be used to strengthen the understanding about the process of organizational change, through increasing employee’s commitment by boosting the two variables, namely organizational trust, and positive perceptions about external environments, especially organizational trust. This study also important in change management, as it was understood from the previous research that leader and its leadership style is important in the success of organizational change, however in this study it showed that as organizational trust is the important variable.
    Keywords: perceptions of external environment, internal organization, organizational trust, commitment to change.
    JEL: L20 L29
    Date: 2014–05
  14. By: Bhagaporn Wattanadumrong (Naresuan University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses Regional Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Thailand which is to identify using a panel dataset for 76 provinces over the period 1985-2012. The work is considered to develop a partial stock adjustment model which shows that there are some variations existing in the equilibrium FDI stocks of the regions of Thailand between 1985 and 2012, whereas it appears that there is a convergence among zones in each region of the country as can be seen in the deviation of actual FDI stock from equilibrium stock over time. A partial stock adjustment model is then developed following Chen and Kwan (2000) to help investigate the level of regional convergence in capital stocks arising from FDI. The model implies that investment authorities should implement policies to potentially FDI stocks either by production zones or clusters orientations.
    Keywords: Regional foreign direct investment; production zones; cluster orientations
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2014–10
  15. By: Badaruddin Mohamed (Universiti Sains Malaysia); Tarmiji Masron (Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: The Penans, one of the indigenous communities in the Malaysian state of Sarawak (Borneo) used to live the nomadic lives. Today, many have settled down in villages along riverbanks, and resorted to do small farming. Despite this, they still venture into the jungle to gather jungle produces and hunting. They have developed a close and personal relationship with the jungle. Their lifestyle also requires them to equip themselves with deep knowledge of the jungle. Their journey into the jungle can be between few days to few months. The group usually consists of two or more people. The deep rainforests may form various challenges to Penans, thus they have developed a unique sign system, called ‘oro’ to help them navigating the dense forest. This indigenous system also leaves signs to fellow trekkers to locate them if any untoward incidence occurs. This paper shares some of these unique practices and symbols used by the Penans people in navigating the forests which form part and parcel of their lives. It gives insights of the “oro†and how the knowledge being transferred from one generation to the next. The concept of tacit knowledge refers to knowledge possessed only by an individual and difficult to communicate to others via words and symbols. While much of these knowledge are taught theoretically in classrooms, the teaching and learning among the Penans of Sarawak often take place in-situ, impromptu and unconscious. The knowledge exchanges usually take place between older and younger generation onsite, experienced and eventually transferred.
    Keywords: Oro, Indigenous Knowledge, Traveling Culture, Knowledge Transfer, Malaysia, local wisdom
    JEL: D83
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Jiyoung Bae (University of Osnabrueck)
    Abstract: This research project examines how and to what extent the 1997 Asian financial crisis influenced the development of Korean welfare state system. Korea's success in overcoming the Asian financial crisis shows that Korea perceived and reconstructed structural problems very quickly. The national debate ignited by the crisis was not only important in restructuring of the economy but also in expansion of social policies. This counters the neo-liberal assertion that market-driven globalisation renders social policy marginal in economic development. Why Korea was able to develop a welfare state system unlike other East Asian countries, which simultaneously faced the financial crisis? In explaining the development of welfare states in Europe, scholars assume that industrialisation, democratisation, and, in particular, growing labour movements and leftist political parties as crucial factors. In a similar vein, scholars sought to explain the reason for the slow development of social policies and limited welfare systems in East Asia in spite of rapid modernisation and democratisation. It was generally accepted that East Asian social policies were primarily driven by the dynamics of development policies and political legitimacy, particularly in Korea where the foundations of a welfare system were established under military regimes. In that case, how can the development of the welfare state system in Korea be explained? I argue that the welfare state system in Korea is an outcome of an interaction among various factors including mainly democratisation and industrialisation as a basis to the welfare state, the Asian financial crisis as a turning point from residual to institutional welfare systems, rise of neo-liberalism as a dominant ideology, and the effects of global governance by the IMF and the World Bank. The democratic transition and intervention of the IMF and the World Bank contributed to substantial policy reforms leading to a welfare system. In addition, civic and labor movement played important roles in setting the policy agenda for the system. Due to these internal and external factors in conjunction with the Asian financial crisis, Korea developed a welfare state system unlike other countries affected by the crisis. The development of the welfare state system in Korea shows that Asian countries could respond to economic challenges and opportunities in different ways.
    Keywords: global financial crisis, welfare state, industrialisation, democratisation, labor and civic movements, neo-liberalism and South Korea
    Date: 2014–10
  17. By: Andreas Totu (Universiti Malaysia Sabah); Halina Sendera Mohd Yakin (Universiti Malaysia Sabah)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationships between television (TV) advertising and patterns of food choice among children. This relationship is crucial in understanding the intricate interplay among several interrelated variables such as TV viewing, preference for certain foods and the problem of obesity. Specifically, the study investigates the degree of recognition of adverts and patterns of food choice among lean, overweight and obese children. This study uses an experimental test, but the assessment of the effects of advertisements was undertaken through questionnaires. There were 50 participants involved in the experiment. The outcomes of the study indicate that TV advertisements make a substantial contribution to what food a child chooses. Although there were some variations in terms of responses between age groups and gender, generally, children seemed likely to choose fast foods after treatment. Further analyses were performed which revealed that media, particularly TV advertising, appear to contribute significantly in terms of influencing children to choose fast food, followed by taste. The study also seems to suggest that there is a strong correlation between the weight of a child and food choice. In short, children who were inclined to choose fast foods tended to be overweight or obese.
    Keywords: TV advertising, food choice, obesity, children, Malaysia
    JEL: M37 L66
    Date: 2014–05
  18. By: Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Lorenza Campagnolo; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
    Abstract: This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020. The energy subsidy estimates used as inputs to this modelling analysis are those calculated by the International Energy Agency, using a synthetic indicator known as “price gaps”. The analysis relies on simulations made with an extended version of the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. The phase out of energy consumption subsidies was simulated under three stylised redistribution schemes: direct payment on a per household basis, support to labour incomes, and subsidies on food products. The modelling results in this report indicate that if Indonesia were to remove its fossil fuel and electricity consumption subsidies, it would record real GDP gains of 0.4% to 0.7% in 2020, according to the redistribution scheme envisaged. The redistribution through direct payment on a per household basis performs best in terms of GDP gains. The aggregate gains for consumers in terms of welfare are higher, ranging from 0.8% to 1.6% in 2020. Both GDP and welfare gains arise from a more efficient allocation of resources across sectors resulting from phasing out energy subsidies. Meanwhile, a redistribution scheme through food subsidies tends to create other inefficiencies. The simulations show that the redistribution scheme ultimately matters in determining the overall distributional performance of the reform. Cash transfers, and to a lesser extent food subsidies, can make the reform more attractive for poorer households and reduce poverty. Mechanisms that compensate households via payments proportional to labour income are, on the contrary, more beneficial to higher income households and increase poverty. This is because households with informal labour earnings, which are not eligible for these payments, are more represented among the poor. The analysis also shows that phasing out energy subsidies is projected to reduce Indonesian CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by 10.8% to 12.6% and GHG emissions by 7.9% to 8.3%, in 2020 in the various scenarios, with respect to the baseline. These emission reductions exclude emissions from deforestation, which are large but highly uncertain and for which the model cannot make reliable projections.<BR>Ce rapport élabore un cadre analytique qui évalue les effets macroéconomiques, environnementaux et redistributifs des réformes des subventions énergétiques. Il applique ce cadre au cas de l’Indonésie afin d’étudier les conséquences dans ce pays d’une suppression progressive de toutes les subventions à la consommation d’énergie entre 2012 et 2020. Les estimations des subventions à l’énergie sur lesquelles se base cette analyse par modélisation sont celles calculées par l’Agence internationale de l’énergie, à l’aide d’un indicateur synthétique appelé « différentiel de prix ». L’analyse repose sur des simulations réalisées avec une version enrichie du modèle ENV-Linkages de l’OCDE, modèle dynamique d’équilibre général calculable (EGC) mondial. La suppression des subventions à la consommation d’énergie a été simulée en retenant trois types de dispositifs de redistribution : un paiement direct au niveau des ménages, un soutien aux revenus du travail et des subventions aux produits alimentaires. Les résultats de la modélisation réalisée dans ce rapport indiquent que si l’Indonésie venait à supprimer ses subventions à la consommation des combustibles fossiles et d’électricité, elle enregistrerait des gains de PIB réel de 0.4 % à 0.7 % en 2020, selon le dispositif de redistribution retenu. La redistribution sous forme de paiements directs au niveau des ménages donne les meilleurs résultats en termes de gains de PIB. Le gain global pour les consommateurs en termes de bien-être est plus élevé, allant de 0.8 % à 1.6 % en 2020. Les gains en matière de PIB et de bien-être sont obtenus grâce à une répartition des ressources entre les secteurs de façon plus efficiente à la suite de l’élimination des subventions énergétiques. Dans l’intervalle, un dispositif de redistribution sous forme de subventions alimentaires tend à créer d’autres inefficacités, qui compensent en partie les avantages macroéconomiques de la suppression des subventions à la consommation d’énergie. Les simulations montrent aussi qu’à terme, le dispositif de redistribution joue un rôle en déterminant l’effet redistributif global de la réforme. Les transferts monétaires, et dans une moindre mesure les subventions alimentaires, peuvent rendre la réforme plus profitable pour les ménages pauvres et faire reculer la pauvreté. À l’inverse, les mécanismes qui compensent les ménages à l’aide de paiements proportionnels aux revenus du travail bénéficient davantage aux ménages à revenu élevé et accroissent la pauvreté. En effet, les ménages qui reçoivent des revenus du travail dans le secteur informel et qui ne peuvent prétendre à ces paiements, sont plus nombreux chez les pauvres. L’analyse montre aussi que d’après les prévisions, la suppression des subventions énergétiques en Indonésie devrait réduire les émissions de CO2 dues à la combustion des énergies fossiles de 10.8 % à 12.6 % et les émissions de GES de 7.9 % à 8.3 % en 2020 selon les différents scénarios, par rapport au scénario de référence. Ces réductions d’émissions ne tiennent pas compte des émissions dues à la déforestation, qui sont élevées mais restent très mal connues, et au sujet desquelles le modèle ne peut pas faire de projections fiables.
    Keywords: computable and other applied general equilibrium models, Indonesia, distributional impact, households’ heterogeneity, fossil fuel subsidy reforms, hétérogénéité des ménages, réforme des subventions aux énergies fossiles, effets distributifs, Indonésie, modèle d’équilibre général calculable
    JEL: C68 H23 O53
    Date: 2015–03–27
  19. By: Noor Sharoja Sapiei (University of Malaya)
    Abstract: Reforms and changes in tax laws may affect the level of complexity in the tax system and increase taxpayer compliance costs burden. In Malaysia, the introduction of Self-assessment System (SAS) imposes greater accountability in terms of computational, recordkeeping and filing requirements upon taxpayers. The increase in taxpayer obligations coupled with higher possibility of audit may require taxpayers to seek assistance from tax agents to handle tax matters on their behalf. In spite of the expanding role of tax agents in tax reporting under the SAS, very little research has been directed at examining their views and perceptions. This study, therefore, evaluates the compliance costs of corporate taxpayers from the perspective of tax agents.
    Keywords: Tax Compliance Costs, Self-assessment System, Tax Agents, Corporate Taxpayers, Corporate Income Tax
    JEL: H26 M29 M49
    Date: 2014–05
  20. By: Bordin Waelateh (Prince of Songkla University); Nurul Husna Paramal (Prince of Songkla University)
    Abstract: As elsewhere, Thailand, in the globalized world, English has gained an important role in different areas of life over the last decades. It is taught as an official second language in all elementary and many secondary schools and also in universities. Unfortunately, although Thai students spend a lot of time learning English, both in schools hours and after school tutorial classes, college graduates today cannot use English to communicate effectively in the real world.The purpose of this study aimed to investigate the English learning strategies among Thai university students. The study employed a survey design which involved administering questionnaires of rating scales by using Oxford (1990) Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) to measure language learning strategies. The study also used interview questions as part of data collection to investigate how ecological system influence learning English from twenty five students of Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus, Thailand. The research design of this study was a qualitative study focusing on in-depth interview session while questionnaires were the supplementary to explain the general language learning preferences. The result of this study revealed that most Thai students adopted cognitive strategy in learning ranging from repeating to analyzing expressions to summarizing. Also, they learned in transferring expressions from Thai language which is a mother tongue to English. The learners constructed a formal model in their minds based on analysis and comparison, created general rules and then revised the rules when any new information is available. Listening to music and watching soundtrack movies and clips were among the major activities employed by the students.
    Keywords: Learning strategy, EFL, language acquisition, cognition
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2014–05
  21. By: Noraziah Che Arshad (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Roza Hazli Zakaria (University of Malaya); Ahmad Azam Sulaiman @ Mohamad (University of Malaya)
    Abstract: Islamic banks are exposed to a unique risk such as Displaced Commercial Risk (DCR). DCR arises from the assets managed on behalf of the investment account holders which may be borne by the Islamic bank’s own capital, when the Islamic banks forgo part or all of its share of profits on the investment account holders funds, in order to increase the return to the investment account holders. In a dual banking system, DCR could be a threat to the Islamic banks given the competition of fixed and higher return from the conventional banks. However, DCR would not be a threat to Islamic banks if their account holders choose Islamic banks due to religious obligatory factor. Pertaining to this issue, this paper aims to examine whether DCR is a threat to Islamic banks’ profitability in the case of Malaysia. For that purpose, a model is set up to estimate bank profitability. The model includes other bank specific characteristics and macroeconomic variables as control variables to avoid omitted variables bias. We find that DCR is one of the factor that affects bank profitability, at least in the case of Malaysian Islamic banks. This empirical evidence implies that Islamic banks operating in a dual banking system are affected by displaced commercial risk. Hence, it should be one of the banks’ risk management concern.
    Keywords: Islamic Banks; Return On Assets; Displaced Commercial Risk; Bank Profitability; Investment Account Holders; Profit Sharing Investment Account.
    JEL: C23 E30 G21
    Date: 2014–05
  22. By: Daim Mahanum (Universiti Malaysia Pahang); Yuserrie Zainuddin (Universiti Malaysia Pahang); M.D. Rozaida (Universiti Malaysia Pahang)
    Abstract: This paper describes the importance of government policy and how it is translated into practice to promote transparency in e-government projects. E-procurement is Government to Business (G2B) relationship. It is part of the E-Government projects also known as end to end web based application and electronic procurement solution system which enables Federal Government agencies and suppliers to procure products and services online. One of the weaknesses and irregularities found in implementing the procurement is when it was not managed according to established regulation and it gives the Government a bad impression as well as the public service in the eye of the public, the political parties and investors when these weaknesses are reported by the media. Prior to the weaknesses, the level of transparency should be increased in Government procurement by committing best practices. This study examines from users’ and supplier’s perspective by using framework to test the relationships between procurement policies, perceived ease of use, perceives usefulness and transparency. To achieve the objective of the study; a well-structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from 100 e-procurement projects known as primary sources. Hierarchical regression analysis will be used to analyse the data. Based on the findings, the framework will then be used and reviewed as a direction to other e-government projects in Malaysia.
    Keywords: policy, transparency, e-procurement, perceived ease of use, perceives usefulness
    Date: 2014–05
  23. By: Payao Lakateb (Prince of Songkla University)
    Abstract: This research attempts to explore how the student teacher conceptualizes teaching, being a teacher through their professional experiences. This study used hermeneutic phenomenology as a research approaches to explored perceptions and lived experience of student teachers in Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. The study focus on student teacher’ self-perception of notions of practice, good teaching and a good teacher. Key Informants in this study were 5 student teachers who are in during professional experience placements. Their transcripts were individually analyzed in order to extract themes. The qualitative data obtained were analyzed according to van Manen (1990). This study found that student teacher perception and feelings were three themes of meaning of motivation to become a teacher. 1) being a teacher as a learning experience and social support 2) teacher professional socialization as a subconscious process whereby persons internalize behavioral norms and standards and form a sense of identity and commitment to a professional field 3) being a teacher is related to a model of good teacher. The meaning of being a teacher were three themes such as intellectual content, intentional fulfillment for student and treat them with love and compassion.
    Keywords: hermeneutic phenomenology, student teacher, professional experience.
    Date: 2014–05
  24. By: Shenoy, Ajay
    Abstract: Why do the poor have so many economic activities? According to one theory the poor do not specialize because relying on one income source is risky. I test the theory by measuring the response of Thai rice farmers to conditional volatility in the international rice price. Households expecting a harvest take on 1 extra activity when the volatility rises by 21 percent. I confirm the decrease in specialization costs households foregone revenue. I find no evidence to back a second theory in which households under-specialize because they cannot afford lumpy business investments.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, risk, financial market imperfections, specialization, investment, Thailand
    Date: 2014–09–13
  25. By: Christian Oesterheld (Mahidol University International College)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes East German perceptions of the Khmer Rouge revolution, particularly its ideological tenants vis-à-vis other communist and socialist currents, as well as developments of the movement’s diplomat relations before and during its exercise of power. The German Democratic Republic’s diplomatic archives for the period of Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1979), the Khmer Rouge’s extremist utopia, have recently become publicly accessible. The archival holdings provide a wide-ranging collection of internal assessments, official propaganda materials, diplomatic cables and minutes of ambassadorial meetings, as well as communication between the GDR’s diplomatic corps and its Ministry of Foreign Affairs. My analysis of these thus far unknown materials suggests that, initially, East Germany – exemplary also for other regimes of the Soviet block – pursued a delusive hope of integrating the Khmer Rouge into a worldwide socialist brotherhood, with some, if skeptical, praise for the daring policies of Democratic Kampuchea’s early phase. Two years into the regime, however, a sharp decline in the European socialist euphoria towards Khmer Rouge style communism can be noted, accelerated by growing tensions between Democratic Kampuchea and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam which ultimately led to the Third Indochina War. At the same time, the GDR’s diplomatic archives provide irritated accounts for the Khmer Rouge’s heightened interest in developing diplomatic relations with the Third World and western nations.The wide range of archival documents analyzed here helps to foster a more differentiated understanding of intra-ideological debates in socialist and communist countries during a critical phase of the Cold War and contributes further to the hitherto fragmentary assessment of the Khmer Rouge’s ideology.
    Keywords: Khmer Rouge ; Democratic Kampuchea ; East Germany ; Diplomatic Relations ; Ideology
    Date: 2014–06
  26. By: Liyousew Gebremedhin Borga
    Abstract: Using time-use data from a longitudinal survey (covering Ethiopia, India and Vietnam), the present study examines how the amount of time children spend on different activities impacts their acquisition of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Modeling the skill formation production function of children and extending the set of inputs to include the child's own time inputs, the study finds that child involvement in work activities such as domestic chores and paid activities are associated with a reduction in both cognitive and non-cognitive achievements. The results imply that there is an indirect adverse effect of child work on skill development through the reduction of hours of study. The results are consistent across all the study countries and for both young children and adolescents. These results are also robust to a variety of specification checks.
    Keywords: time-use; skill formation; cognitive and non-cognitive ability;
    JEL: J13 J22 J24
    Date: 2015–03
  27. By: Nuttathum Chutasripanich; James Yetman
    Abstract: Foreign exchange intervention has been actively used as a policy tool in many economies in Asia and elsewhere. In this paper, we examine two intervention rules (leaning against exchange rate misalignment and leaning against the wind), utilised with varying degrees of transparency, based on a simple model with three kinds of agents: fundamentalists, speculators and the central bank. We assess the effectiveness of these rules against five criteria: stabilising the exchange rate, reducing current account imbalances, discouraging speculation, minimising reserves volatility and limiting intervention costs. Overall we find no dominant intervention strategy. Intervention that reduces exchange rate volatility, for example, also reduces the risks of speculation, creating a feedback loop and potentially leading to high levels of speculation, reserves volatility and intervention costs. These intervention costs will be especially large when exchange rate movements are driven by interest rate shocks, although some degree of opaqueness can help to reduce them. Survey evidence from BIS (2005, 2013) indicates that central banks follow a range of different strategies when intervening in foreign exchange rates. Given the trade-offs that different strategies entail in our model, this is not surprising.
    Keywords: foreign exchange intervention; exchange rates; speculation
    Date: 2015–03
  28. By: Abdul Rashid Mohamed (Universiti Sains Malaysia)
    Abstract: This paper describes an initiative to systematically gauge English as Second Language (ESL) learners' grammar proficiency. Grammar Assessment System was developed with the goal to determine learners' grammar proficiency and placing learners in their respective grammar proficiency levels. The novelty of the Grammar Assessment System is in the three notable elements, Grammar Test, Grammar Matrix and Grammar Descriptor. The purpose of the Grammar Test is to measure learners’ grammar proficiency levels while the Grammar Matrix is used to categorise and place learners in the precise grammar proficiency levels. Subsequently, the Grammar Descriptors provides descriptions of learners' grammar proficiency. ESL teachers can make use of the information generated by the Grammar Assessment System to systematically plan remedial and enrichment activities for learners. The main objective of this study is to construct a generic grammar proficiency test instrument (that transcends from Year 7 to Year 11) which is valid, reliable and practical that can discriminate and sort students into specific grammar proficiency categories. After developing, piloting and calibrating a prototype grammar proficiency test in a school (where respondents consisted of Year 7 to Year 11 students aged between 13 to 17 years old) the researcher proceeded to develop the "cut-score" to establish the "Bands" of performers. The tested instrument was then administered on Year 10 students in Penang and the data gathered was analysed and benchmarked to set indicators (Exceed Standard, Meet Standard, Below Standard and Academic Warning). These indicators point to the students' grammar proficiency.118 Year 10 students in a sub-urban secondary school participated in this study.The findings of this study however, showed that the majority of the students are in Band 2 (28.6%) (Academic Warning), 31.9% are in Band 3 (Academic Warning) while 26.4% are in Band 4 (Below Standard). Only 7.7% of the Year 10 students are in Band 5 (Meet Standard) whereas 5.5% are in Band 6 (Exceed Standard). The study’s value lies in its capacity to provide practising teachers with a set of indicators to gain accurate information with regards to their students’ grammar proficiency and consequently plan grammar lessons tailored to the needs of the students.
    Keywords: Grammar Assessment System, Grammar Test, Grammar Matrix, Grammar Descriptor
    Date: 2014–06
  29. By: Adibah Muhtar (UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA (UTM)); Akmaliza Abdullah (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia); Siti Suhaila Ihwani (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
    Abstract: The concept of gender deals with women's and men's place in society and social expectations from them. Gender relations vary from society to society and they are shaped in historical process. Gender equality, concisely defined as equal rights, opportunities and treatment between men and women, is yet an on-going contentious concept among Muslim feminists and women activists. Of late, gender studies have garnered a large number of interests from researchers across the globe, not to mention the Muslim World. The awareness of gender and Feminism in Muslim societies emerged by end of 19th century, namely in Middle East countries like Egypt, Turkey and Iran. Initially, Muslim women’s movement had been focusing on claiming women’s rights in public sector particularly in education, along with the Nationalism campaigns. However, as the Muslim feminist scholarship expands and grows, the discourse is shifted to contending Islamic Law pertaining women, attempting to reinterpret and re-read Islamic sources, and eventually reconstruct the Shari’ah or Islamic Law.The Muslims by and large are looking into this debatable notion from three standpoints. First, those who advocate total equality between men and women in every spheres of life, regardless of the differences in the natures and traits between both parties, physically and psychologically. Second, at the opposing end those who deny much of women’s rights and inevitably practice bias towards women in their customs and traditions, which subsequently create some kind of defensive and rebellious reactions from women. Third, those who advocate the moderate approach in dealing with gender issues, and seeking for the best appealing viewpoint by highlighting the ‘complementary idea’ in men-women relation. Hence, this paper attempts to revisit the trajectory of Muslim feminists and put forward the discursive notion of gender equality among Muslim scholarships, accentuating the various perspectives and approaches in dealing with it. It proposes that even though gender is not specifically discussed as a distinctive theme in Islam by early Muslim scholars, it nevertheless allocates distinctive status, rights and opportunities for women, corresponding to their distinctive natures and traits.
    Keywords: Muslim feminist, woman, gender, equality, feminism
    Date: 2014–05
  30. By: Noraida Abdul Ghani (Universiti Sains Malaysia); Zulkarnain Ahmad Hatta (Universiti Sains Malaysia); Intan Hashimah Mohd Hashim (Universiti Sains Malaysia); Jasni Sulong (Universiti Sains Malaysia); Nor Diana Mohd Mahudin (International Islamic University Malaysia); Shukran Abd Rahman (International Islamic University Malaysia); Zarina Mat Saad (Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Hajj is an annual mass gathering of Muslim pilgrims in Mecca. The understanding of crowd behaviour during this ritual based mass gathering from the psychosocial perspective is inadequately highlighted in the literature. Based on the initial interviews with pilgrims, three main components of crowd behaviour were identified: observable crowd behaviour, emotion and cognitive. This paper reports on the subscales identified and the reliability of the questionnaires that were developed and pilot-tested to measure the three components. The subjects of the survey included 203 respondents during pre-Hajj training at three different locations in the country. Using explanatory factor analysis with principle axes factoring, 7 subscales of observable crowd behaviour components, 5 subscales of emotion components and 4 subscales of cognitive components were identified. Subscales of observable crowd behaviour included aggressive behaviour, coping behaviour, defensive behaviour, avoidance behaviour, protective behaviour, tolerant behaviour and hazardous behaviour. Subscales of emotion included positive emotion, negative emotion, positive comfortable emotion, negative comfortable emotion and positive spiritual emotion. The four subscales of cognitive included spiritual thoughts, negative thoughts of others, thoughts on Hajj Management and thoughts of safety. Using internal consistency method (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient), all subscales have acceptable reliabilities except for protective, tolerant and hazardous behaviours. Majority of the subscales have spearmen correlation values below 0.3 suggesting substantial independence of the subscales. The results of the study contribute to the enhancement of the dimensions of the behaviour of pilgrims in a ritual based crowd. However, further research is warranted with the scale in order to improve its reliability and to test its validity.
    Keywords: Crowd behaviour, scale meaurement, reliability, validity
    Date: 2014–06
  31. By: Asongu, Simplice
    Abstract: This paper is an extension of the debate on the nexus between the strength of IPRs and prospects for knowledge economy. It assesses the relationships between software piracy and scientific publications in African countries for which data is available. The findings which reveal a positive nexus are broadly consistent with the school of thought postulating that, the East Asian miracle has been largely due to weaker IPRs regimes at the early stages of development. As a policy implication, less stringent IPRs regimes on scientific-related software (at least in the short-run) will substantially boost contributions to and dissemination of knowledge through scientific and technical publications in Africa. IPRs laws (treaties) on scientific-oriented software should be strengthened in tandem with progress in: scientific and technical publications and; knowledge spillovers essential for economic growth and development. More policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Publications; Piracy; Intellectual property rights; Governance; Africa
    JEL: A20 F42 O34 O38 O55
    Date: 2014–08–11
  32. By: Dziauddin Sharif (Islamic Science University of Malaysia); Amir Shaharuddin (Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia); Nurul Aini Muhamed (Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia)
    Abstract: According to Islamic jurisprudence, ar-rahn can be described as the detention of the pledge to the creditor or the seller in securing his debt or fulfilling his right. However, Muslim jurists differed in determining the nature of ar-rahnu contract. The ḤanafÄ«, ShÄfiÊ¿Ä« and ḤanbalÄ« jurists viewed ar-rahnu as a charitable (tabarruÊ¿ ) contract wheareas the Maliki jurists considered it as a form of an exchangeable (muÊ¿Äwaá¸Ät). These differences originated from the different interpretation of the verse 2: 283 in the Qur’an. Using the taxonomical classification’s approach founded by Rosch (1976), this paper examines the pattern of reasoning adopted by the jurists of main schols of Islamic jurisprudence. Rosch’s model is chosen as it can assist the researcher to categorize the aspects of discussion between the ar-rahn’s nature, conditions (shurÅ«á¹­) and rulings (ḥukm). While the model consists of superordinate and subordinate relationships, the paper enhances the conceptual framework of rahn into the discussion of conditions and rulings. Thus, the harmonized effort of taxonomical classification is been developed to discuss the related rulings of expanded discussion resulted from the status of ar-rahn either a form of charity or an exchange contract. The finding shows that MÄlikÄ« and ShÄfiÊ¿i were seen to be the most consistent schools in holding their stance about ar-rahn’s nature. The consistency can be identified through the examination of ar-rahn’s rulings that matched with their original position. It is also found that the rulings of MÄlikÄ« jurists are more lenient about the stipulation of conditions in the contract while ShÄfiÊ¿i stood otherwise.
    Keywords: Reasoning pattern, ar-rahn (Islamic Pawn Broking), Ruling
    JEL: B30 G21
    Date: 2014–05
  33. By: Li, Teng (National University of Singapore); Liu, Haoming (National University of Singapore); Salvo, Alberto (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We examine day-to-day fluctuations in worker-level output over 15 months for a panel of 98 manufacturing workers at a plant located in an industrial city in Hebei province, north China. Long-term workers earn piece-rate wages, with no base pay or minimum pay, for homogeneous tasks performed over fixed 8-hour shifts. Over the sample period, ambient fine-particle (PM2.5) mass concentrations measured at an outdoor air monitor located 2 km from the plant ranged between 10 and 773 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3, 8-hour means), variation that is an order of magnitude larger than what is observed in the rich world today. We document large reductions in productivity, of the order of 15%, over the first 200 µg/m3 rise in PM2.5 concentrations, with the drop leveling off for further increases in fine-particle pollution. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that labor productivity across 190 Chinese cities could rise by on average 4% per year were the distributions of hourly PM2.5 truncated at 25 µg/m3. We also find reduced product quality as pollution rises. Our model allows for selection into work attendance, though we do not find particle pollution to be a meaningful determinant of non-attendance, which is very low in our labor setting. Subsequent research should verify the external validity of our findings.
    Keywords: air pollution, labor productivity, labor supply, PM2.5, environmental damage
    JEL: J24 Q52
    Date: 2015–03
  34. By: Jokivuolle, Esa (Bank of Finland Research); Keppo, Jussi (NUS Business School and Risk Management Institute National University of Singapore); Yuan , Xuchuan (Risk Management Institute National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We model a banker's future bonuses as a series of call options on the bank's profits and show that bonus caps and deferrals reduce risk-taking. However, the banker's optimal risk-taking also depends on the costs of risk-taking. We calibrate the model to US banking data and show that lengthening the standard one-year bonus payment interval has no material impact, whereas capping the bonus at the level of the base salary substantially reduces the bankers’ risk-taking. Our results suggest that the European Union's bonus cap reduces risk-taking whereas bonus clawbacks as prescribed in the Dodd-Frank Act appear to be ineffective.
    Keywords: banking; bonuses; regulation; compensation; Dodd-Frank Act
    JEL: G01 G21 G28 J33 M52
    Date: 2015–03–04

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