nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2015‒01‒26
39 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Review of Experience of Social Health Insurance in Three Asian Countries: China, Thailand, and Vietnam By Talampas, Rolando G.
  2. Why Do SMEs Not Borrow More from Banks? Evidence from the People's Republic of China and Southeast Asia By Wignaraja, Ganeshan; Jinjarak, Yothin
  3. Trade Deflection arising from U.S. Antidumping Duties on Imported Shrimp By Wang, Xiaojin; Reed, Michael
  4. Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  5. Asia Bond Monitor June 2014 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  6. State of the Coral Triangle: Philippines By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  7. ADB Brief No. 22: Poverty Dimensions of the Social Protection Index: Results for Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  8. Understanding the South China Sea: An explorative cultural analysis By Evers, Hans-Dieter
  9. ADB Brief No. 21: Gender Dimensions of the Social Protection Index: Results for Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  10. Farmers’ Preferences and Attitudes Toward Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccination in Vietnam By Zhang, Haifeng; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko
  11. Natural Disasters, Household Welfare and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam By Mohamed Arouri; Adel Ben Youssef; Cuong Nguyen
  12. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion? By Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua
  13. Rice demand in Vietnam: Dietary changes and implications for policy By Hoang, Hoa; Meyers, William
  14. Competition Reform in the Philippine Rice Sector By Briones, Roehlano M.; Dela Pena, Beulah
  15. Have Indonesian rubber processors formed a cartel? Analysis of intertemporal marketing margin manipulation By Kopp, Thomas; Alamsyah, Zulkifli; Fatricia, Raja Sharah; Brümmer, Bernhard
  16. The ASEAN Economy in the Regional Context: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options By Capannelli, Giovanni
  17. Are Current Tax and Spending Regimes Sustainable in Developing Asia? By Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew
  18. Governance strategies and welfare effects: vertical integration and contracts in the catfish sector in Vietnam By Trifković, Neda
  19. Risk Aversion among Smallholder High-value Crop Farmers in the Southern Philippines By Domingo, Sonny N.; Parton, Kevin A.; Mullen, John; Jones, Randall
  20. Urban Green Growth in Dynamic Asia: A Conceptual Framework By Tadashi Matsumoto; Loïc Daudey
  21. Government Spending and Inclusive Growth in Developing Asia By Hur, Seok-Kyun
  22. Power Sharing in the Asia-Pacific By Benjamin Reilly
  23. Inequalities in Income, Labor, and Education: The Challenge of Inclusive Growth By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Dumagan, Jesus C.; Martinez, Arturo Jr.
  24. Short and long run effects of earthquakes on farm businesses in Indonesia By Menéndez, Marta; Gignoux, Jérémie
  25. Do Governance Indicators Explain Development Performance? A Cross-Country Analysis By Han, Xuehui; Khan, Haider; Zhuang, Juzhong
  26. Determinants of Farm Decision to Enter Land Diversion: The Case of Upland Farmers in Northern Thailand By Phetcharat, Chaowana; Chalermphol, Juthathip
  27. Public-Private Partnership Options toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage in the Philippine Setting By Banzon, Eduardo P.; Lucero, J.A.; Ho, B.L.; Puyat, M.E.; Quibod, E.J.; Factor, P.A.
  28. Can Florida’s citrus industry be saved while preserving the environment? An economic analysis for the bio-control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid By Alvarez, Sergio; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael
  29. Directing Remittances to Education with Soft and Hard Commitments: Evidence from a Lab-in-the-field Experiment and New Product Take-up Among Filipino Migrants in Rome By Giuseppe De Arcangelis; Majlinda Joxhe; David McKenzie; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
  30. Prospects and Challenges of Brain Gain from ASEAN Integration By Siar, Sheila V.
  31. Study to Support Improvement of the PNHA Components: Expenditures on Employer-provided Health Care and Private Schools Health Services By Racelis, Rachel H.
  32. International Comparison of Cost and Efficiency of Corn and Soybean Production By Lunik, Elizabeth; Langemeier, Michael
  33. Interim Assessment of the PhilHealth CARES Project By Baja, Emmanuel S.; Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Viray, Brent Andrew G.; Tagle, Pamela A.
  34. Dynamics of Factor Productivity Dispersions By Matthias Meier; Ariel Mecikovsky; Christian Bayer
  35. The Role of Gender in Agricultural Productivity in the Philippines: The Average Treatment Effect By Koirala, Krishna; Mishra, Ashok K.; Mohanty, Samarendu
  36. Debate on Policy Issues in the Field of Zakat on Islamic Bank Business By Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Tohirin, Achmad; Ahmad, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  37. The Environment, Trade Openness, and Domestic and Foreign Investments By Elmarzougui, Eskandar; Larue, Bruno; Tamini, Lota, D.
  38. State of the Coral Triangle: Timor-Leste By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  39. Axiomatizing Multi-Prize Contests: A Perspective from Complete Ranking of Players By Jingfeng Lu; Zhewei Wang

  1. By: Talampas, Rolando G.
    Abstract: The study assesses the experience of three Asian countries: China, Thailand, and Vietnam in the pursuit of universal health coverage (UHC) of their social health insurance schemes. It seeks to analyze a set of domains including membership fees, services, benefits, equity, among others, relative to the economic and political conditions of these countries as "push and pull" factors in achieving UHC. This paper mainly utilizes empirical studies, assessment reports, international discussions and proceedings, and individual country plans of integrating, widening, and deepening health insurance coverage with the end goal of identifying comparative areas where the Philippines might be able to benchmark itself in its UHC quest. The study adopts the UHC cube of the World Health Organization as the framework for the review. It finally submits applicable recommendations that the Philippines may consider in advancing its plans toward universal health coverage.
    Keywords: health insurance, health, social health insurance, universal health coverage
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Wignaraja, Ganeshan (Asian Development Bank Institute); Jinjarak, Yothin (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between firm characteristics and borrowing from commercial banks by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and five Southeast Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam). Analysis of microdata from enterprise surveys highlights key aspects of SME finance since the global financial crisis, including sources of credit, lender types, and collateral types. First, SMEs typically resort to internal sources rather than external finance (including borrowing from banks) and trade credit. Second, when it comes to external finance, SMEs typically use informal non-bank credit sources more than banks. Third, there is a positive and significant association between bank borrowing and certain characteristics of SMEs, notably financial audits, firm age, and export participation. Fourth, personal assets of SME owners tend to matter more as collateral for SME borrowing from banks than other collateral types. Improving credit guarantee systems, enhancing monitoring and credit scoring by banks, and widening the scope of collateral are possible ways to facilitate increased bank borrowing by SMEs.
    Keywords: credit access; firm-level survey; collateral; credit guarantees; smes
    JEL: D22 E44 F14 L16 O14
    Date: 2015–01–13
  3. By: Wang, Xiaojin; Reed, Michael
    Abstract: We empirically test whether the investigation and impositions of U.S. antidumping duties in 2004 on imported shrimp distorts a named country's exports to third markets. We constructs a panel of bilateral, disaggregated product-level data for annual trade flows of subjected shrimp between the six named countries (Brazil, China, Ecuador, India, Thailand, and Vietnam) and four major importers (EU, Indonesia, Japan, and Malaysia) between 1999 and 2010. Our results show that named countries’ trade flows were reoriented to other destination markets when U.S. anti-dumping duties were levied against their shrimp products.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Marine resources in the Coral Triangle provide food, income, and jobs to its more than 350 million residents. However, the countries bordering this species-rich area—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste—share closer links in their ecology than in their economy. Case studies explore the potential benefits of integrating these countries’ small-scale fisheries into global markets by developing opportunities for market differentiation, ensuring equitable distribution of benefits across the supply chain, and lastly, recognizing fisheries values beyond those measurable by national income accounts.
    Keywords: Marine fisheries, aquaculture, food security, coral triangle, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste
    Date: 2014–05
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Office of Regional Economic Integration, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This publication reviews recent developments in East Asian local currency bond markets along with the outlook, risks, and policy options. It covers the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations plus the People’s Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; and the Republic of Korea.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, regional cooperation, local currency bond markets, LCY, east asia, Islamic finance, US Federal Reserve, bond, bond market, sukuk kazakhstan, Islamic bond, eurozone deflation, Asia Bond Monitor 2014, ABM 2014
    Date: 2014–05
  6. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Located at the apex of the Coral Triangle, the Philippines is an integral part of this global center of marine biodiversity. Unfortunately, climate change and human activities have taken a heavy toll on the country’s coral reefs, mangrove forests, and endangered species, threatening the food security of its growing population. In response, the Philippines has embraced the goals of the Coral Triangle Initiative, adopting actions toward sustainable growth. This report describes the status of these actions and provides baseline data and information, which policy makers and project implementation agencies can use in onitoring the country’s progress in achieving sustainable development of these vital resources.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, philippines, coral triangle, marine environment, Marine Fisheries, fisheries and food security, fisheries, food security
    Date: 2014–05
  7. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of ADB's study on Social Protection Index in Asia and the Pacific from the poverty dimension perspective. The Social Protection Index is a compact, simple indicator designed to help governments assess social protection programs. The paper analyzes the impact on the poor and the nonpoor of three major categories of social protection programs: social insurance, social assistance, and the labor market. The analysis of the poverty impact of social protection programs using the SPI can help governments fine-tune their social protection programs to alleviate poverty and promote inclusive growth.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, social insurance benefits asia, social assistance programs asia, social protection programs asia, social protection index asia, labor market programs asia, poor and nonpoor social protection programs, poverty alleviation asia, poverty indicator asia, extr
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Evers, Hans-Dieter
    Abstract: The South China Sea has attracted considerable attention among politicians, journalists and scholars since it has become a contested maritime space. Most works concentrate on conflicts and negotiations to resolve the ensuing issues. In this paper, a cultural theory will be applied to stress the importance of conceptions of space found in different cultures. The South China Sea is defined as "Mediterranean." By comparing it to other maritime spaces, like the Baltic and the Mediterranean Sea, lessons will be drawn from the "longue durée" of history, as analysed by French historian Fernand Braudel and from concepts of the cultural theory of Oswald Spengler. The paper will look at the South China Sea from two perspectives. The political perspective will discuss various events that have happened due to political tensions because of territorial demarcations, fishing rights and access to natural resources. Comparing three "Mediterranean seas," I shall argue that Mediterranean seas share certain properties that give rise to tensions and even armed conflict, but also solutions to its problems. The second perspective uses macro-sociology and cultural anthropology to classify and understand actions of the general population as well as political leaders when they ascertain property rights to Mediterranean seas.
    Keywords: maritime studies, shipping,resources, conflict, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Vietnam, Philippines, history
    JEL: F0 F02 F14 N4 N45 N7 R4 Z13
    Date: 2013–09–01
  9. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings from a research project on the Social Protection Index, which assesses the extent to which gender has been incorporated in social protection programs. The Social Protection Index is a measure of central government social protection expenditures relative to all potential beneficiaries assessed against poverty line expenditures in a country. It can be disaggregated in various ways to capture the magnitude, reach, and effectiveness of social protection programs. The objective of this paper is to provide analysis on the gender dimensions of social protection in Asia and the Pacific. This analysis will help policy makers consider and incorporate gender issues in developing and expanding social protection policies, strategies, and programs.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, gender issues asia, social protection index asia, social protection programs asia, gdp asia, women's issues asia, social protection asian women, gender equality asia, asian women's access to social assistance
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Zhang, Haifeng; Kono, Hiroichi; Kubota, Satoko
    Abstract: Vietnam is a major pork producing country in Asia, but the pig farmers’ livelihood is threatened by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). Although vaccination is the most practical method of choice for PRRS control, the vaccination percentage is very low. To help inform PRRS vaccine development and policy, our research employed the choice experiment (CE) method to assess pig farmers’ attitudes toward and willingness to pay (WTP) for a PRRS vaccine. The results showed a high positive WTP value for the PRRS vaccination program in Vietnam. This study provides insight into the possibility of increasing the PRRS vaccination percentage.
    Keywords: CE, PRRS, vaccine, Vietnam, WTP, Consumer/Household Economics, Health Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2014–08
  11. By: Mohamed Arouri (Centre Clermontois de Recherche en Gestion et Management (CRCGM)); Adel Ben Youssef (University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France; GREDEG CNRS); Cuong Nguyen (National Economic University, Hanoi, Vietnam)
    Abstract: The study uses commune fixed-effect regressions to estimate the effect of natural disasters on welfare and poverty of rural households in Vietnam, and subsequently examines household and community characteristics that can strengthen resilience of households to natural disasters. We find that all the three disaster types considered in this study including storms, floods and droughts have negative effects on household income and expenditure. Access to micro-credit, internal remittances and social allowances can help households strengthen the resilience to natural disasters. Households in communes with higher expenditure mean and more equal expenditure distribution are more resilient to natural disasters.
    Keywords: Natural hazards, disasters, resilience, poverty, household welfare, Vietnam
    JEL: O12 Q54 D12
    Date: 2015–01
  12. By: Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua
    Abstract: Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative impact TPP will have on U.S. agricultural trade. Therefore, this paper examines the potential effect of TPP agreement on U.S agricultural trade using panel VAR and IRF models. A system of three VAR equations is developed for the three endogenous variables agricultural trade, real exchange rate, and the price ratio of imports to exports. In addition, the future pattern of trade is determined using the IRF curves. The lagged coefficients of agricultural trade volumes were significant in all three models implying current trade patterns are influenced by past volumes of trade. Also, the lagged price ratios have negative effect on current agricultural trade volumes as expected. Overall, the study found that a unit shock in price ratios as a result of the TPP agreement leads to a trade creation for U.S in the short run but in the long run, leads to more trade diversion than trade creation.
    Keywords: Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, Vector Autocorrelation, Impulse Response Function, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Hoang, Hoa; Meyers, William
    Abstract: In this study AIDS and QUAIDS estimators with the 2010 VHLSS household survey show that rice is a normal good at the national level with an expenditure elasticity being 0.05. In addition, rice is found to be an inferior good for urban consumers and a normal good for rural consumers with expenditure elasticities being -0.18 and 0.14, respectively. Clearly rice is in transition from a normal good to an inferior good in Vietnam. Even for rural consumers at different income levels rice is estimated to be an inferior good for high-income consumers. In addition, robust Wald test and likelihood ratio test statistics verify that QUAIDS performs better than AIDS although both models yield similar results.
    Keywords: Rice, household consumption, Vietnam, QUAIDS, AIDS, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, D12, C21, Q18,
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Briones, Roehlano M.; Dela Pena, Beulah
    Abstract: The rice sector is regulated by the National Food Authority, with imports under a statutory monopoly. Consistent with previous studies done on the rice supply chain, a rapid appraisal finds that the domestic paddy and rice supply chain is highly competitive. Entry into import business is however severely curtailed. Welfare analysis indicates that in 2013, if quantitative restrictions were eliminated and rice imports were allowed to freely enter the country, rice imports would have increased tenfold, bringing down the retail price of rice to PHP 19.80/kg from PHP 33.08/kg. Consumer surplus would have increased by PHP 178 billion, compared to a PHP 34 billion reduction in producer surplus, for a net social benefit of PHP 138 billion. This paper recommends tariffication, i.e., liberalized importation policy with moderate tariffs.
    Keywords: competition policy, Philippines, rice policy, agricultural marketing, welfare analysis
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Kopp, Thomas; Alamsyah, Zulkifli; Fatricia, Raja Sharah; Brümmer, Bernhard
    Abstract: A high level of market-power within the rubber processing industry limits the spread of the wealth generated with exports in Indonesia’s Jambi province. The market-power of the crumb rubber factories is based on a high level of concentration. With an Auto-Regressive Asymmetric Threshold Error Correction Model, we study the price transmission at these factories. The extent of the threshold effect is studied, as well as the rents that are redistributed from the farmers to the factories. This is the first paper to quantify the additional distributional consequences of intertemporal marketing margin manipulation based on cartelistic or oligopsonistic market power.
    Keywords: Intertemporal marketing margin manipulation, rubber cartel, asymmetric price transmission, threshold error correction, Indonesia, Marketing,
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Capannelli, Giovanni (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was created to address political and security issues. Over time, the economy has taken center stage and the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is going to be launched in 2015. The AEC is a milestone promoting ASEAN economic integration and centrality, but it alone is insufficient for the group to retain relevance in an increasingly multipolar world. This paper suggests that ASEAN needs an ambitious plan for economic integration beyond the AEC to achieve its economic development aspirations. As ASEAN designs its post-2015 agenda with a view to strengthening its role as a hub of Asian dynamism, its members need to adopt an appropriate policy mix including deep domestic structural reforms and bold actions to further deepen regional integration—transforming the AEC into a truly borderless economic community.
    Keywords: ASEAN; regional economic integration; development aspirations; post-2015 agenda
    JEL: F55 O53 R11
    Date: 2014–12–01
  17. By: Lee, Sang-Hyop (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Mason, Andrew (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
    Abstract: Changes in population age structure matter for public finances because the beneficiaries of public programs are primarily children and the elderly. This paper projects government spending on education, health care, and social protection in developing Asia up to 2050 using the National Transfer Accounts data set, United Nations’ population projections, and other long-range projections for real gross domestic product (GDP) to estimate likely fiscal burdens as a result of demographic changes and economic growth. The share of GDP devoted to public spending on health care and social protection will increase as demographic change and economic growth are mutually reinforcing. On the contrary, the share devoted to public spending on education will decline in Asia and the Pacific as a decline in fertility and the share of the school-age population dominates the increase in per capita benefits. The magnitude and the pattern by program, however, vary substantially as demographic change, growth, and the current level of public spending are quite different across economies. Social spending in the Republic of Korea; the People’s Republic of China; and Taipei,China is projected to more than double as a share of GDP by 2050, while it will be more modest in other areas of Asia and the Pacific.
    Keywords: fiscal projection; population aging; social welfare expenditure
    JEL: H51 H53 H68 J11
    Date: 2014–11–01
  18. By: Trifković, Neda
    Abstract: Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment on processor-owned estate farms is estimated using a maximum simulated likelihood estimator. Our results show positive welfare effects from participating in contract farming, but not from employment on processor-owned estate farms. The results imply that contract farming presents opportunities for economic growth, but additional effort is required to make the contracts more accessible to smallholders.
    Keywords: vertical coordination, catfish, maximum simulated likelihood, agri-food transformation, Vietnam, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Political Economy,
    Date: 2014–08
  19. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Parton, Kevin A.; Mullen, John; Jones, Randall
    Abstract: Several elicitation techniques were employed to gauge the attitudes to risk of smallholder high-value crop farmers in the southern Philippines. Results showed varying degrees of risk aversion, neutrality, and preference among smallholder farmers. Although some of the techniques classified distinct groups of local growers as either risk-averse or risk-preferring, the estimated risk aversion coefficients were relatively low signifying an inclination toward risk neutrality. These may partly explain the degree of openness or non-openness of smallholder farmers to cultural changes and development interventions. Variations in farmers` risk attitude classification among the different elicitation methods indicate the need for further validation studies and more definitive evaluation standards.
    Keywords: Philippines, risk attitude elicitation, farmers` risk aversion, smallholder high-value crop farming
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Tadashi Matsumoto; Loïc Daudey
    Abstract: The development of Asian cities is characterised by rapid and continuous urbanisation on an unprecedented scale, with rapid economic growth led in most places by the manufacturing industry, and rapidly increasing motorisation. The result has been escalating greenhouse gas emissions, sprawling urban development and local environmental impacts, as well as disparities in income, education levels and job opportunities in the urban population. These trends differ sharply from those in most of the OECD area and call for a green growth model that differs from those identified in previous OECD studies and that addresses the specific circumstances of Asian cities.<P> This paper proposes an analytical framework for assessing policies for green growth in rapidly growing cities in the emerging world. It builds on Cities and Green Growth: A Conceptual Framework (Hammer et al., 2011) and is adapted to the urban policy context of dynamic Asia. Its three main elements are: i) identification of the key policy strategies for urban green growth in fast-growing Asian cities, highlighting similarities to and differences from OECD cities; ii) opportunities for green growth; and iii) enabling strategies for implementing urban green growth.
    Keywords: transport, Asia, water, government policy, climate change, cities, land use, green growth, solid waste management, energy
    JEL: O18 O19 Q53 Q54 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–01–15
  21. By: Hur, Seok-Kyun (Chung-Ang University)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the effects of fiscal policy on both equity and growth, specifically whether it is possible to design fiscal spending so that it enhances equity without sacrificing economic growth and vice versa. A cross-country panel vector autoregression (PVAR) using the World Development Indicators confirms the growth effects of individual fiscal spending items as anticipated whereas distributional effects were either temporarily positive or negligible for most fiscal items. However, compared with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members, spending on public health and public education appeared to alleviate income inequality significantly in the Asian Development Bank members. This implies that fiscal expenditure policies may contribute more to inclusive growth in developing economies than in advanced ones.
    Keywords: Gini coefficient; government spending; inclusive growth; Panel Vector Autoregression
    JEL: E62 H50
    Date: 2014–11–01
  22. By: Benjamin Reilly (Murdoch University)
    Abstract: Executive power sharing has been practiced widely in the Asia-Pacific region, in both for-mal and informal ways. This paper examines the theory and practice of these various ap-proaches to the sharing or dividing of governing power across the region. I look first at the broad issues of executive structure and the distinction between presidential and parliamentary systems across the region, at the divergent approaches taken to both formal and informal practices of executive inclusion, and at the empirical relationship between these variables and broader goals of political stability. Following this, I construct an “index of power sharing” to compare the horizontal sharing of powers across the region over time. Finally, I look at the experience of vertical power sharing via measures such as federalism, devolution, and autonomy.
    Keywords: power sharing, ethnicity, parties, elections, Asia
    Date: 2014–09
  23. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Dumagan, Jesus C.; Martinez, Arturo Jr.
    Abstract: While economic growth is important for poverty reduction, the rather stellar performance of the Philippines in economic growth has still not translated into reduction of poverty. This is in large part due to issues pertaining to distribution. Inequalities in income, as well as inequities in labor and education, have provided barriers for everyone to participate in growth processes. The study looks at trends in various statistics on poverty and income distribution, and then examines how disparities in opportunities across rural/urban areas, between the sexes, and between the poorest and richest segments of society in labor and education have prevented the country from reducing poverty. It also examines why the conditional cash transfer program can provide opportunities toward more social and economic inclusiveness.
    Keywords: poverty, inequality, Philippines, inclusive growth
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Menéndez, Marta; Gignoux, Jérémie
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of earthquakes on farm business assets in rural Indonesia. Using a panel fixed effects model, we evaluate if the negative consequences of earthquakes extend beyond the immediate event into the medium and long-term. Our results suggest that rural households were able to recover in the medium-run, and even exhibit welfare gains in the long-run. Productive assets in farm businesses were on average reconstituted and even increased in the medium-run. Thus, reconstruction strategies after large earthquakes seem to provide incentives to small farm business holders to reconstitute and increase their investments.
    Keywords: natural disasters, long-term effects, recovery, farm businesses, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2014–08
  25. By: Han, Xuehui (Asian Development Bank); Khan, Haider (University of Denver); Zhuang, Juzhong (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: The central question addressed by this study is whether countries with above-average governance grew faster than countries with below-average governance. Using the World Bank’s worldwide governance indicators to measure governance performance, it examines whether a country with governance “surplus” in a given base year (1998) grew faster on average in a subsequent period (1998- 2011) than a country with governance “deficit.” Governance is defined in several dimensions, including government effectiveness, political stability, control of corruption and regulatory quality, voice and accountability, and rule of law. The study finds that government effectiveness, political stability, control of corruption and regulatory quality all have a more significant positive impact on country growth performance than voice and accountability and rule of law. Developing Asian countries with a surplus in government effectiveness, regulatory quality and corruption control are observed to grow faster than those with a deficit in these indicators—up to 2 percentage points annually, while Middle East and North African countries with a surplus in political stability, government effectiveness, and corruption control are observed to grow faster than those with a deficit in these indicators by as much as 2.5 percentage points annually. Good governance is associated with both a higher level of per capita GDP as well as higher rates of GDP growth over time. This suggests that good governance, while important in and of itself, can also help in improving a country’s economic prospects.
    Keywords: governance; development performance; Asia
    JEL: I30 O11 O53
    Date: 2014–11–01
  26. By: Phetcharat, Chaowana; Chalermphol, Juthathip
    Abstract: Mixed cropping has advantages to famers because it allows diversification for reducing risk, which caused by unfavorable weather and market price variability. This research aims to analyze and determine factors that influence farmer’s decision to transfer from growing traditional crops (a single crop such as corn and lychee) to diversified crops. The logit model was used to identify factors associated with the farmer’s decision. Models based on a face-face survey of 185 respondents from six villages in Lampang province belonging to the highland community of northern Thailand. The results showed that farmer’ decision to enter into land diversion was different in terms of farmers’ socio-economic factor such as the education level of the farmer and household debt. The government subsidy and technical assistance of the agricultural extension services also significantly influent the farmer’s decision to accept the crop diversified method.
    Keywords: land diversion, upland farmer, logit model, co-cultivation, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2015–01
  27. By: Banzon, Eduardo P.; Lucero, J.A.; Ho, B.L.; Puyat, M.E.; Quibod, E.J.; Factor, P.A.
    Abstract: Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasingly being utilized to meet development goals of many countries and there is much potential for PPPs to help address health inequities and advance universal health care (UHC). In support of these efforts, the paper defines PPPs and their role in the health system and proposes health PPP options that would support the pursuit of UHC. The objectives of this paper are to define what PPPs are and their application in the health sector. The paper presents representative case studies or models of PPP practices in health. Furthermore, it aims to provide a methodology for decisionmakers and stakeholders in developing health PPPs.
    Keywords: Philippines, health, public-private partnership (PPP), universal health coverage, public-private investment partnerships, public-private interactions, universal health care (UHC)
    Date: 2014
  28. By: Alvarez, Sergio; Solis, Daniel; Thomas, Michael
    Abstract: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is the insect vector of a fatal disease for citrus known as Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. HLB has been responsible for significant economic losses in Asia and Africa with crop losses between 30 to 100% in many production areas. In 1998, HLB was first detected in Florida and by 2005 this pest had spread to most commercial citrus groves in the State, threatening the sustainability of Florida’s Citrus industry. Since no cure for this disease is yet available, the only way to prevent HLB is to stop the ACP. Two alternative management strategies exist to control the ACP: heavy pesticide use and bio-control. In Florida, heavy use of pesticides has been the preferred strategy used by growers. This strategy is affecting Florida’s biodiversity, water quality, and important ecosystem services like pollination by honeybees. To cope with this issue the State of Florida started an ACP bio-control program in 1998 using parasitic wasps from Asia. In this study, we conduct an economic analysis of the ACP bio-control program. In doing so, we document the cost of the program, assess the private and public benefits and conduct a cost-benefit analysis under alternative scenarios.
    Keywords: Bio-control, citrus industry, Florida, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q51, Q57,
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Giuseppe De Arcangelis; Majlinda Joxhe; David McKenzie; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
    Abstract: This paper tests how migrants’ willingness to remit changes when given the ability to direct remittances to educational purposes using different forms of commitment. Variants of a dictator game in a lab-in-the-field experiment with Filipino migrants in Rome are used to examine remitting behavior under varying degrees of commitment. These range from the soft commitment of simply labeling remittances as being for education, to the hard commitment of having funds directly paid to a school and the student’s educational performance monitored. We find that the introduction of simple labeling for education raises remittances by more than 15 percent. Adding the ability to directly send this funding to the school adds only a further 2.2 percent. We randomly vary the information asymmetry between migrants and their most closely connected household, but find no significant change in the remittance response to these forms of commitment as information varies. Behavior in these games is then shown to be predictive of take-up of a new financial product called EduPay, designed to allow migrants to directly pay remittances to schools in the Philippines. We find this take-up is largely driven by a response to the ability to label remittances for education, rather than to the hard commitment feature of directly paying schools.
    JEL: C9 D19 F24 O15
    Date: 2015–01
  30. By: Siar, Sheila V.
    Abstract: This paper suggests that the ASEAN economic integration can be viewed as an opportunity for brain gain for the ASEAN member-countries. The envisaged ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) may boost both South-South and North-South movements of skilled labor as a result of the growth of cross-border education, increased mobility of professional workers with the implementation of the mutual recognition arrangements, and the possible return migration of expatriate professionals to the ASEAN region given a vibrant regional economy in the long run that can provide more competitive remuneration packages. In turn, these will facilitate knowledge exchanges and collaborations, technology transfers, economic and business linkages, investment flows, and increased remittances. However, the more advanced economies in the region will have an edge in exploiting these opportunities in the initial years of the AEC. The ASEAN integration can be a double-edged sword for member-countries that may not be able to improve their competitiveness in the long run.
    Keywords: brain gain, ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), brain drain, cross-border education, mutual recognition arrangements, return migration
    Date: 2014
  31. By: Racelis, Rachel H.
    Abstract: The expenditures for employer-provided health care in private establishments and for student health services in private schools are two components estimated in the Philippine National Health Accounts (PNHA). The basic methodology for producing the annual estimates of the two components have remained the same since the first PNHA was produced in 1994 and estimation procedures had continued to use through the years the parameters (average costs) generated from the 1993-1994 establishments and private schools surveys. The surveys on health expenditures of private establishments and private schools were conducted again in 2013-2014 as part of this study. Results from the new surveys are used to generate the updated parameters for PNHA estimation. Additionally, results from the survey provide detail on curative care provision and preventive health care activities of establishments and private schools.
    Keywords: Philippines, health, Philippine National Health Accounts, employer-provided health care, private schools health services, health accounts approach
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Lunik, Elizabeth; Langemeier, Michael
    Abstract: The objective of this paper was to examine the cost efficiency of corn and soybean production for typical farms involved in the cash crop agri benchmark network. Using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, efficiency indices were computed for 35 corn farms, representing 15 countries including Argentina, Bulgaria, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Vietnam, and South Africa. Average technical efficiency was 0.497, average allocative efficiency was 0.487, and average cost efficiency was 0.310. Efficiency indices were also found for 18 soybean farms, representing 9 countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Italy, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, and South Africa. Average technical efficiency was 0.533, average allocative efficiency was 0.553, and average cost efficiency was 0.340. Correlation analysis shows that seed input cost shares were the most correlated with cost efficiency for soybeans, while fixed capital cost shares were the most correlated with cost efficiency for corn production. OLS regression indicated that land, labor and other direct services were under-utilized for corn production, and that seed was over-utilized for soybean production.
    Keywords: corn, soybeans, efficiency, farm-level productivity, data envelopment analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, D24, Q12,
    Date: 2015–01
  33. By: Baja, Emmanuel S.; Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Viray, Brent Andrew G.; Tagle, Pamela A.
    Abstract: The PhilHealth Customer Assistance, Relations and Empowerment Staff (CARES) project was launched in 2012 to help members and their families navigate the complex Filipino health care system. The study assesses the design and quality of implementation of the PhilHealth CARES project in selected hospitals in PhilHealth`s National Capital Region (NCR). The specific objectives were: 1) understand the overall goals and objectives of the project and how these are being understood by the project managers, implementers, and staff in selected areas in NCR; 2) evaluate to what extent project objectives are being met; 3) identify the project strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as perceived by CARES managers, implementers, and staff; and 4) craft appropriate policy and programmatic responses to improve project implementation. Focus group discussions and desk review (i.e., documents and records review) were the main methods for the study. Observations and mystery client visits to four PhilHealth-accredited hospitals in NCR (private and public, Level 2 and 3) were also done. The study found there were a few critical gaps (weak technical support, discrepancies among offices in policy implementation/interpretation, problematic claiming procedures, etc.) in the execution and operation of the project which needed to be addressed so as to fully maximize the benefits of the project and ensure its sustainability not just as a project but as a program in the future.
    Keywords: service delivery, Philippines, social health insurance, patient navigation
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Matthias Meier (Universitaet Bonn); Ariel Mecikovsky (Universitaet Bonn); Christian Bayer (Universitaet Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper documents a new set of stylized facts on the joint distribution of labor and capital productivity across plants. We exploit panel data from Germany, Chile, Colombia and Indonesia and show that the basic patterns are similar in all economies. Decomposing factor productivities into high and low frequency movements, we reveal two new stylized facts. First, factor productivities are positively correlated at high frequency, while they are negatively correlated at low-frequency. Second, differences in factor productivity dispersions across countries are mostly at high frequency, while at low frequency the dissimilarity is rather small. We suggest a new structural explanation for productivity dispersions based on putty-clay technology. Our model implies the coexistence of different technologies at any point in time, which gives rise to productivity dispersions. We demonstrate that this model is able to explain our new stylized facts.
    Date: 2014
  35. By: Koirala, Krishna; Mishra, Ashok K.; Mohanty, Samarendu
    Abstract: Using average treatment effect and data from 2012 the Central Luzon Loop Survey, this study investigates the role of gender in rice production. Results indicate that female-headed farm households, despite having limited access to land, have a higher value of rice production than their male counterparts. However, there is no significant difference between net farm incomes earned by male- and female-headed farm households. Female-headed households have higher fixed costs, consequently earning less total household income. Findings from this study indicate that women are less efficient in farming, but are more likely to adopt improved seed varieties. In addition, female-headed farm households are better at controlling farming costs.
    Keywords: Gender, average treatment effect, rice, women, farm households, agricultural productivity, Farm Management, Production Economics,
    Date: 2014–12
  36. By: Ismail, Abdul Ghafar (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI)); Tohirin, Achmad (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI)); Ahmad, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI))
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss zakat for business entities, in this regards Islamic banking institutions. There is a debate on whether or not business entities are obliged to pay zakat. However a sort of consensus has been concluded that a business entities owned by Moslems should pay zakat, at least for the Moslems’ owner. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is conceptual in nature describing why business entities should pay zakat based on the rationale that business entities play a role to create value added for the welfare of the community. Should zakat be applied to gross income, gross-profit, net-profit of the business entities or only the profit attributed the Moslem owner only or else. These are the unsettled area that deserved exploring Findings – Discussion in this paper attempts to shed lights on matters pertaining zakat such as zakat chargeability, and their calculation, determination of zakat base and zakat eligibility of assets and liabilities. From practices exposed in this paper, such as Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Malaysia business zakat on the Islamic banks entities are implemented. In the first two countries zakatable items is clearly mentioned, i.e. the banks’ reserve, and retained earnings, while for Malaysia no specific items being explicitly mentioned but business zakat. Research limitation/implications – This paper proposes application of zakat on business entities, however consensus on this matter has not been established yet. Originality/values – The paper initiates a new policy issues on zakat implementation especially on the Islamic bank businesses.
    Keywords: Zakat; nisab; net wealth; Islamic bank; business entities
    Date: 2015–01–19
  37. By: Elmarzougui, Eskandar; Larue, Bruno; Tamini, Lota, D.
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the impact of growth and trade openness on the environment at the regional level. We find support for the environmental Kuznet Curve hypothesis for CO2 emissions in Africa, Asia and OECD countries. We find that the pollution haven hypothesis is supported for CO2 in Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, the former United Socialist Soviet Republic and Eastern Europe, and South America, but not for Asia, for which the pollution halo hypothesis could not be rejected. The pollution haven hypothesis is also supported for SO2 emissions in South America while the pollution halo holds for SO2 emissions in Africa. We show that local investment is contributing significantly to both CO2 and SO2 emission increases in most regions while trade openness matters only in OECD and South America.
    Keywords: CO2 and SO2 emissions, domestic investment, foreign direct investment, trade openness, ARDL
    JEL: C3 F18 F21 Q5
    Date: 2013–10
  38. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Pacific Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: One of a series of six reports on the status of marine resources in the western Pacific Ocean, the State of the Coral Triangle: Timor-Leste describes the biophysical characteristics of Timor-Leste’s coastal and marine ecosystems, the manner in which they are being exploited, the framework in place that governs their use, the socioeconomic characteristics of the communities that use them, and the environmental threats posed by the manner in which they are being used. It explains the country’s national plan of action to address these threats and improve marine resource management.
    Keywords: Coral Triangle, Marine environment, Marine fisheries, Timor-Leste
    Date: 2014–05
  39. By: Jingfeng Lu (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore); Zhewei Wang (School of Economics, Shandong University)
    Abstract: Multiple prizes are usually awarded in contests (e.g., internal promotions, school admissions, sports, etc) and players exert effort to increase their chances for winning a higher prize. A multi-prize contest model must provide each player's probabilities of winning each prize as functions of all players' efforts. We find that the key notion of "hypothetical subcontests" in Skaperdas (1996) should be appropriately interpreted and precisely defined from a ranking perspective, as well as the relevant axioms of "Subcontest Consistency" and "Independence of Irrelevant Contestants" (IIC). When there are less than four contestants (exclusive), a set of axioms properly adapted from those in Skaperdas (1996) and Clark and Riis (1998a) are sufficient and necessary for axiomatizing the widely adopted multi-prize nested lottery contest of Clark and Riis (1996a). When there are more than four contestants (inclusive), including a new axiom of "Independence of Irrelevant Ranks" (IIR) is necessary and sufficient.
    JEL: C72 D72 D74
    Date: 2015–01

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