nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2014‒11‒17
24 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. New Evidence on the Gender Wage Gap in Indonesia By Taniguchi, Kiyoshi; Tuwo, Alika
  2. Trade linkages and the globalisation of inflation in Asia and the Pacific By Raphael Anton Auer; Aaron Mehrotra
  3. Portfolio Diversification Benefits of Islamic Stocks and Malaysia’s Major Trading Partners:MGARCH-DCC and Wavelet Correlation Approaches By Rahim, Adam Mohamed; Masih, Mansur
  4. Assessing the Political Impacts of a Conditional Cash Transfer: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in Indonesia. By Julia, Tobias; Sumarto, Sudarno; Moody, Habib
  5. The Impact of Debt on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Indonesia By Swastika, Purti; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Mansur
  6. The Dynamics of Conflict in Southern Thailand By Engvall, Anders; Andersson, Magnus
  7. Interdependent Happiness:Cultural Happiness under the East Asian Cultural Mandate By Hitokoto, Hidefumi
  8. Determinants of poverty among ethnic minorities in the Northwest region, Vietnam By Quang Tran, Tuyen; Hong Nguyen, Son; Van Vu, Huong; Quoc Nguyen, Viet
  9. Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures: A Summary Report By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  10. Fiscal Policy and Growth in Developing Asia By Abdon, Arnelyn May; Estrada, Gemma Esther; Lee, Minsoo; Park, Donghyun
  11. Partnering for Development: Donor Report 2013 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  12. Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Distribution Services By Asako Ueno; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Iza Lejárraga; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Sébastien Miroudot; Frederic Gonzales; Dorothée Rouzet
  13. Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Computer and Related Services By Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Frédéric Gonzales; Iza Lejárraga; Sébastien Miroudot; Asako Ueno; Dorothée Rouzet
  14. Vietnam: 2014 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Press Release; and Statement by the Executive Director for Vietnam By International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
  15. Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Legal and Accounting Services By Massimo Geloso Grosso; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Frédéric Gonzales; Iza Lejárraga; Sébastien Miroudot; Asako Ueno; Dorothée Rouzet
  16. The Harsh Reality of Pursuing Innovations: Emerging Market Perspectives By Quan Hoang Vuong
  17. Ex-post Risk Management Among Rural Filipino Farm Households By Murata, Akira; Miyazaki, Suguru
  18. Conspicuous Consumption and Peer Effects among the Poor: Evidence From a Field Experiment By Christopher P Roth
  19. Working for Human Security:JICA’s Experience By Tsunekawa, Keiichi; Murotani, Ryutaro
  20. Assessing Impact in the Greater Mekong Subregion: An Analysis of Regional Cooperation Projects By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  21. Global trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies of business software piracy: benchmarking IPRs harmonization By Asongu, Simplice A; Andrés, Antonio R.
  22. Diet quality, child health, and food policies in developing countries By Bhargava, Alok
  23. The linkage between bank net interest margins and non-interest income : The case of the Cambodian Banking industry By vithyea, You
  24. Intergenerational games with dynamic externalities and climate change experiments By Katerina Sherstyuk; Nori Tarui; Majah-Leah V. Ravago

  1. By: Taniguchi, Kiyoshi (Asian Development Bank); Tuwo, Alika (World Bank, Jakarta Country Office)
    Abstract: Indonesia has been experiencing impressive economic growth and rapid urbanization in recent years. However, urbanization could affect income inequality through people’s movement from rural to urban areas. Using the 2010 National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas) in Indonesia, this study examines how monthly wages are distributed between male and female workers and tests whether a wage gap exists between them. Regression results reveal that urbanization tends to benefit male workers more favorably, in terms of monthly wages, than female workers. The wage gap tends to be wider among younger workers, particularly among those who are underemployed and severely underemployed. It is also greater among public sector workers than those in the private sector. Gender wage gap in Indonesia is mainly due to gender discrimination. An act to equalize opportunity and wages among workers, especially in the public sector, is proposed.
    Keywords: gender; wage distribution; gender wage gap; Indonesia; urbanization; inclusive growth; migration
    JEL: E24 J16 J31 R23
    Date: 2014–10–28
  2. By: Raphael Anton Auer; Aaron Mehrotra
    Abstract: Some observers argue that increased real integration has led to greater co-movement of prices internationally. We examine the evidence for cross-border price spillovers among economies participating in the pan-Asian cross-border production networks. Starting with country-level data, we find that both producer price and consumer price inflation rates move more closely together between those Asian economies that trade more with one another, ie that share a higher degree of trade intensity. Next, using a novel data set based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), we examine the importance of the supply chain for cross-border price spillovers at the sectoral level. We document the increasing importance of imported intermediate inputs for economies in the Asia-Pacific region and examine the impact on domestic producer prices of changes in costs of imported intermediate inputs. Our results suggest that real integration through the supply chain matters for domestic price dynamics in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Keywords: globalisation, inflation, Asian manufacturing supply chain, price spillovers
    JEL: E31 F4 F14 F15
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Rahim, Adam Mohamed; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: Previous studies have investigated the interdependence of Malaysian stock market with its major trading partners without taking into account the time-varying correlations and different investment horizons of the investors. The main objective of this paper is to study the extent to which the Malaysian Shari’ah (Islamic) investors can benefit from portfolio diversification with the Shari’ah indices of its major trading partners (China, Singapore, Japan, United States and Thailand). The recent Multivariate GARCH Dynamic Conditional Correlation, the Continuous Wavelet Transform and the Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform are applied. Findings tend to indicate that the Malaysian Shari’ah investors who have allocated their investments in major trading partners like China and Singapore may not reap great diversification benefits for almost all investment horizons but may reap moderate benefits arising from Thailand and Japan up to the investment horizons of 32-64 days and longer. The evidence suggests that the portfolio diversification benefits are greater if the Malaysian Shari’ah investors invest in the US Shari’ah stock index excepting the long investment horizons. The stock holding periods exceeding 32 to 64 days contain minimal benefits of portfolio diversification. As an implication, the Malaysian Shari’ah investors should carry out the reassessment of their stock exposures and investment horizons more frequently.
    Keywords: Shari’ah (Islamic) stock indices, Diversification benefits, Trading partners, M-GARCH, Wavelet analysis, MODWT, CWT
    JEL: C22 C58 G11 G15
    Date: 2014–09–26
  4. By: Julia, Tobias; Sumarto, Sudarno; Moody, Habib
    Abstract: Several developing nations, including Indonesia, have experimented with conditional cash transfers (CCTs) to poor households during recent years. Since 2007, Indonesia has been carrying out a randomized CCT pilot program (PNPM Generasi) in 1,625 villages where funds are disbursed to communities rather than households, and local councils allocate the funds to public projects following community input. In this paper, we explore political outcomes associated with the program, including electoral rewards for incumbents, and political participation. By comparing regions receiving the program with a control group, we estimate the CCT’s effects on political behavior in the 2009 elections for President and the national legislative assembly, and we also explore its effects on local politics. We find that the CCT program increases vote shares for legislative candidates from the incumbent president’s party, improves households’ satisfaction with district-level government administrative services, and decreases competition among presidential candidates as measured by the Herfindahl- Hirschman Index (HHI). We do not find conclusive evidence to support the hypothesis that the program increases votes for the incumbent President, and we find no evidence that the program significantly increases voter turnout or affects village-level politics.
    Keywords: Conditional Cash Transfer, Political behavior, Indonesia
    JEL: H3 H42 I3
    Date: 2014–02–03
  5. By: Swastika, Purti; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: The paper is the first attempt to analyse the impact of debt on economic growth in the context of Indonesia by combining the application of wavelet and non-linear techniques. Our results tend to indicate that there are complex lead-lag dynamic interactions between external debt-to-GDP ratio and GDP growth. Debt is shown to be inversely related with economic growth in a shorter scale, while it is not in the longer scale. Nonetheless, positive contribution of debt on economic growth is very restricted as it only occurs as the country stops borrowing more debt. Perhaps, this result confirms that Indonesia is one of the examples of "debt intolerance" countries. Therefore, our recommendation to the policy makers would be for a shift to risk-sharing system which shields the economy from any adversity resulting from interest-bearing system and hence spurs the economic growth
    Keywords: Debt Intolerance, Economic Growth, Indonesia, Wavelet Coherence, Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform, Non-Linear Hansen Threshold. _____________________________________
    JEL: C22 C58 E44 G12
    Date: 2013–08–20
  6. By: Engvall, Anders (Stockholm China Economic Research Institute); Andersson, Magnus (Malmö University)
    Abstract: The prolonged insurgency in Southern Thailand has claimed thousands of victims since the outbreak of major violence in 2004. Drawing on a unique data-set covering all violent incidents since 2004, a hot spot analysis shows that the bulk of the violence is concentrated in clusters of sub-districts forming hotbeds of conflict. Drivers of conflict are identified through a comparative analysis of the hotspots of violence with less violent areas. The analysis shows that identity manifested in language use and religious practices influence the prevalence and patterns of violence instead of international borders, infrastructure, and physical geography.
    Keywords: Economics of conflict; Thailand; Southeast Asia; Spatial analysis
    JEL: C21 D74
    Date: 2014–10–02
  7. By: Hitokoto, Hidefumi
    Abstract: In order to examine how socio-economic status might undermine cultural happiness shared among East Asian cultural members, the concept of interdependent happiness - harmony with others, quiescence, and ordinariness - was measured using representative adults from Thailand living in both rural and urban areas. This study draws on the previous studies which show culturally shared understandings of the self as being relational and contextual among East Asians. I argue here that among Thai people, who live by traditional Buddhist practices and are experiencing rapid economic development, those with a high socio-economic status - who earn more money, are educated for a longer period of time, and hold administrative positions - would prove to have lowered interdependent happiness. The results of the study support this claim and while objective socio-economic status showed negative correlation with the interdependent happiness, it showed a negligible correlation with general happiness. These results provide the basis for the argument that within East Asian countries increased objective socio-economic status might undermine East Asian cultural well-being.
    Keywords: interdependent happiness , cultural well-being , socio-economic status , Thailand culture
    Date: 2014–07–02
  8. By: Quang Tran, Tuyen; Hong Nguyen, Son; Van Vu, Huong; Quoc Nguyen, Viet
    Abstract: This paper investigates both community and household determinants of poverty among ethnic minorities in the Northwest region, Vietnam. Results of a fractional logit and a logit model show that some household factors such as fixed assets, education, land and off-farm employment have a reducing effect on both poverty intensity and incidence. Furthermore, some commune characteristics were found to be closely linked to poverty. Notably, the presence of means of transportation and post offices reduces both the poverty intensity and incidence. However, other commune and household factors affect only the poverty incidence or intensity, but not both. This suggests that previous studies that focused only on the determinants of poverty incidence using a logit/probit approach might not adequately evaluate or even ignored the impact of some factors on the poverty intensity. We draw both socio-economic household and commune level implications for poverty alleviation in the study area.
    Keywords: shortfall, poverty incidence, poverty gap, poverty intensity, logit, fractional logit, national target program.
    JEL: I32 J15 O12
    Date: 2014–09–19
  9. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Economics and Research Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This report presents the summary results of purchasing power parities (PPP) in the 2011 International Comparison Program in Asia and the Pacific and background information on the concepts that underpin the results. The PPPs are disaggregated by major economic aggregates which enable robust cross-country comparison as they include variables such as per capita real gross domestic product; real per capita actual final consumption expenditure for measures of economic well-being; gross fixed capital formation reflecting investment; and price level indexes showing relative cost of living by country.
    Keywords: International Comparison Program, ICP, 2011 ICP, Purchasing Power Parity, PPP, benchmark PPP, Asia and the Pacific, real expenditures, gross domestic product, GDP, national accounts, NA, price level index, PLI, reference currency, base country, big mac index, cross-country comparison, nominal GDP, real GDP, basic heading, GDP aggregates, GDP per capita, per capita expenditures, household final consumption expenditures, government final consumption expenditures, actual final consumption by household, gross fixed capital formation, consumer price index, CPI, country-product-dummy, CPD, EKS, linking asia and the pacific, exchange rates, market exchange rates, price indices, prices, poverty
    Date: 2014–04
  10. By: Abdon, Arnelyn May; Estrada, Gemma Esther (Asian Development Bank); Lee, Minsoo (Asian Development Bank); Park, Donghyun (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: In this paper we empirically explore the relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in developing Asia. The region’s overall level of taxes and government spending are substantially lower than those prevailing in advanced economies. Nevertheless, there are conceptual grounds why fiscal policy, including the composition of taxes and government spending, can have a significant effect on growth, as our empirical analysis shows. In line with economic theory, property taxes have a more benign impact on growth than direct taxes, and spending more on education has a sizable positive impact on growth.
    Keywords: fiscal policy; growth; taxation; government spending; Asia
    JEL: H20 H50
    Date: 2014–10–01
  11. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Office of Cofinancing Operations, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This publication targets current and prospective official development partners in loan and grant operations of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It highlights the importance of partnerships, and particularly emphasizes results achieved. Examples of projects from ADB developing member countries illustrate the effectiveness of partnerships and how they improve the lives of the poor. The report covers the wide range of financing options available to partners seeking to expand their commitment to developing Asia and the Pacific and to support ADB’s core areas of operations under its long-term strategic framework, Strategy 2020.
    Keywords: Financing Partnership, Development Partners, Millennium Development Goals, Developing Member Country, Trust Funds, Public–Private Partnership, Technical Assistance, Strategy 2020, Cofinancing Arrangements, Loan Cofinancing, Grant Cofinancing, Country Partnership Strategy, Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Asako Ueno; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Iza Lejárraga; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Sébastien Miroudot; Frederic Gonzales; Dorothée Rouzet
    Abstract: This paper presents the services trade restrictiveness indices (STRIs) for distribution services. The STRIs are composite indices taking values between zero and one, zero representing an open market and one a market completely closed to foreign services providers. The indices are calculated for 40 countries, the 34 OECD members and Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. The STRIs capture de jure restrictions. This report presents the first vintage of indicators for distribution services and captures regulations in force in 2013. The scores range between 0.02 and 0.40, with a sample average of 0.13. It is observed that the regulatory profile differs across countries. Restrictions on foreign ownership and other market entry conditions significantly contribute to the results for almost half of the countries covered by the STRI. The paper presents the list of measures included in the indices, the scoring and weighting system for calculating the indices and an analysis of the results.
    Keywords: services trade, distribution services, services trade restrictions, regulation
    JEL: F13 F14 K33 L81
    Date: 2014–11–04
  13. By: Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Massimo Geloso Grosso; Frédéric Gonzales; Iza Lejárraga; Sébastien Miroudot; Asako Ueno; Dorothée Rouzet
    Abstract: This paper presents the services trade restrictiveness indices (STRIs) for computer services. The STRIs are composite indices taking values between zero and one, zero representing an open market and one a market completely closed to foreign services providers. The indices are calculated for 40 countries, the 34 OECD members and Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. The STRIs capture de jure restrictions. This report presents the first vintage of indicators for computer services and captures regulations in force in 2013. The scores range between 0.08 and 0.34, with a sample average of 0.18. Explicit barriers to trade in computer services are rare, but the sector is subject to a number of economy-wide restrictions facing all sectors. Among these, restrictions on movement of people (mode 4 in GATS terminology) make the largest contribution to the index value, followed by regulatory transparency issues. The paper presents the list of measures included in the indices, the scoring and weighting system for calculating the indices and an analysis of the results.
    Keywords: services trade, services trade restrictions, computer services, regulation
    JEL: F13 F14 K33 L86
    Date: 2014–11–04
  14. By: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
    Abstract: KEY ISSUES Context. Economic performance has improved over the last year. The recovery is taking hold, although domestic activity remains weak, in part constrained by weak banks and inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Inflation has declined, the current account remains in large surplus, and international reserves have increased. The authorities place a priority on preserving macroeconomic stability, tackling banking sector vulnerabilities, and reforming SOEs, though implementation has been gradual in some key areas. Outlook and risks. Growth is projected to recover gradually over the coming years, with the current account returning to a deficit and inflation contained. On current policies, public debt is projected to reach 60 percent of GDP. Risks include weaker trading partner growth, geopolitical tensions, slow structural reforms, and delayed fiscal consolidation. Early conclusion to key trade negotiations would be growth-positive. Fiscal policy. Deficits have been sizable and rising public debt requires attention. A medium-term growth-friendly consolidation is recommended, based on enhancing revenue and rationalizing unproductive expenditures while preserving crucial social and capital spending. This would ensure public debt sustainability with space to address contingent liabilities from banking sector and SOE restructuring. Monetary and exchange rate policy. The current monetary policy stance is appropriate. Greater exchange rate flexibility would help buffer external shocks, facilitate improved reserve adequacy, and help lay the groundwork for shifting toward using inflation as a nominal anchor over the medium term. Banking sector reform. Several policy measures have been taken recently, but the overall gradual approach will likely continue constraining credit growth and keep the system susceptible to shocks and significant asset deterioration. A more expeditious recognition of nonperforming loans, bank restructuring and orderly resolution would support robust credit creation and macro-financial stability. State-owned enterprise reform. Progress is being made. Implementing restructuring plans and accelerating equitization would help ensure more efficient resource allocation, strengthen banks, and deliver higher future growth. Reform should also focus on strengthening corporate governance and ensuring a level playing field.
    Keywords: Article IV consultation reports;Economic growth;Public debt;Fiscal policy;Fiscal reforms;Public enterprises;Monetary policy;Bank restructuring;Bank reforms;Economic indicators;Debt sustainability analysis;Staff Reports;Press releases;Vietnam;
    Date: 2014–10–16
  15. By: Massimo Geloso Grosso; Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås; Frédéric Gonzales; Iza Lejárraga; Sébastien Miroudot; Asako Ueno; Dorothée Rouzet
    Abstract: This paper presents the services trade restrictiveness indices (STRIs) for the regulated professions of legal and accounting services. The STRIs are composite indices taking values between zero and one, zero representing an open market and one a market completely closed to foreign services providers. The indices are calculated for 40 countries, the 34 OECD members and Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa. This report presents the first vintage of indicators for legal and accounting services and captures de jure regulations in force in 2013. The STRI supports the view that legal and accounting services are subject to a relatively high level of regulation. Restrictiveness for legal services ranges from 0.11 to 0.73, with an average of 0.31. Accounting and auditing services show an average of 0.3 and STRI values ranging from 0.13 to 1. The results provide useful policy insights, particularly in order to identify priorities for reform at the national and international levels. Notably, in the case of legal and accounting services, easing a few prominent restrictions could result in a significantly more liberal and competitive market environment.
    Keywords: services trade, legal services, auditing services, services trade restrictions, regulation, accounting services
    JEL: F13 F14 K33 L84
    Date: 2014–11–04
  16. By: Quan Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: This short conference paper serves as a distillation of a keynote address delivered at the the Second National Conference on Management and Higher Education Trends & Strategies for Management & Administration hosted by Bangkok-based Stamford International University (Thailand) on November 1, 2014.Innovation is discussed as the heart of entrepreneurial processes occurring in today's capitalist economic systems, including transition economies like China and Vietnam, which underscores economic competitiveness of firms and economies. But the innovation effort and process also face dilemma of "entrepreneurial curse of innovation". Advantages and disadvantages are weighed for a more balanced view, especially in the context of outnumbering SMEs and given existence of pitfalls and traps along the innovation path of development. Toward the end, the value of the market is once again stressed amid the concern of subjective assumption and illusion about availability of market opportunities in the mind of innovators, which may contrast totally with the dismal outcome the actual market realities may show ex post.
    Keywords: innovation; emerging markets; capitalist economic system; entrepreneurial process
    JEL: L26 O32 P17 P23
    Date: 2014–11–05
  17. By: Murata, Akira; Miyazaki, Suguru
    Abstract: This study investigated the factors affecting the choice of coping strategies by rural Filipino farm households in the face of both covariate (or systemic) and idiosyncratic shocks. The study, conducted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency Research Institute (JICA-RI) in 2010, surveyed farm households in villages from three provinces in the Philippines. Using a multivariate probit model, the effects of shock attributes (i.e. coverage, intensity, and frequency), as well as both household and village characteristics were analyzed. The study found that in general, rural farm households rely mainly on the strategy of dissaving/selling assets regardless of shock attributes. However, in the face of idiosyncratic shocks, there is a greater probability that these households would count on borrowing/transfer as a coping option, while in the case of more frequent covariate shocks, they are more likely to reallocate labor. The findings from this study suggest the importance of the following factors in mitigating vulnerability and enhancing resilience: helping the farmers diversify sources of income and redistributing land ownership, improving agricultural infrastructure, and developing social insurance and social networks. For that purpose, there is a need for continuous agrarian reform including support for improvements in the agricultural infrastructure as well as for the further development of social protection.
    Keywords: Risk , vulnerability , coping strategies , covariate and idiosyncratic shocks , Philippines
    Date: 2014–03–04
  18. By: Christopher P Roth
    Abstract: I use a randomised conditional cash transfer program from Indonesia to provide evidence on peer effects in consumption of poor households. I combine this with consumption visibility data from Indonesia to examine whether peer effects in consumption differ by a good’s visibility. In line with a model of conspicuous consumption, I find that the expenditure share of visible (nonvisible) goods rises (falls) for untreated households in treated sub-districts, whose reference group visible consumption is exogenously increased. Finally, I provide evidence on the mechanisms underlying the estimated spillovers using data on social interactions and social punishment norms. In line with Veblen’s (1899) claim that conspicuous consumption is more prevalent in societies with less social capital, I show that the peer effects in visible goods are larger in villages and for households with lower levels of social activities.
    Keywords: Conspicuous Consumption, Peer Effects, Relative Concerns, Spillovers,Social Interactions, Social Norms
    JEL: D12 C21 I38
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Tsunekawa, Keiichi; Murotani, Ryutaro
    Abstract: This paper reviews the experiences of the government of Japan to incorporate the human security concept as one of basic principles of its ODA policy, and JICA’s activities to operationalize the human security principle. It then examines the challenges and problems JICA has faced in its human-security-oriented field operations. More specifically, it analyzes four cases – Myanmar, the Philippines, Afghanistan, and Sudan – by focusing on the two major challenges: (1) possible contradictions between state security and human security, and (2) special difficulties in the pursuit of comprehensive empowerment to cope with downside risks. On the first point, JICA has tried to persuade the reluctant governments to accept human-security-oriented activities as measures that can eventually contribute to strengthening state security. To cope with down side risks, JICA has supported comprehensive empowerment of individuals, communities, and public organizations to enhance their preparedness against various risks, but there still remains a challenge because comprehensive empowerment is a formidable task that requires cooperative efforts by many actors. To do so, shaping a common understanding of the human security agenda will be necessary.
    Keywords: human security , Japan , state security , downside risk , empowerment , peace-building
    Date: 2013–12–17
  20. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Cooperation among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries has intensified in recent years. By the end of 2012, the program had mobilized $15.5 billion in investment projects and $311 million in technical assistance (TA), of which ADB’s support amounted to $5.5 billion for investments and $108.2 million for TA. This study summarizes a recent major initiative to assess the initial impact of ADB-supported projects under the GMS Program. As part of this exercise, a range of representative projects in the road transport, health, tourism, and energy sectors were selected for detailed analysis, and research institutes working with international consultants assessed their socioeconomic impact.
    Keywords: economic cooperation, strategic framework, Greater Mekong Subregion, Communicable Disease Control, Employment Opportunities, transport, tourism, GMS Economic Cooperation Program, health, infrastructure, Economic Corridor, road transport, energy sectors, Regional Cooperation
    Date: 2014–04
  21. By: Asongu, Simplice A; Andrés, Antonio R.
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine global trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies of software piracy to ease the benchmarking of current efforts towards harmonizing the standards and enforcements of Intellectual Property Rights (henceforth IPRs) protection worldwide. Our empirical exercise is based on 15 different panel regressions, which together consists of 99 countries. The richness of the dataset allows us to disaggregate countries into fundamental characteristics of business software piracy based on income-levels (high-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income and low-income), legal-origins (English common-law, French civil-law, German civil-law and, Scandinavian civil-law) and, regional proximity (South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, East Asia & the Pacific, Middle East & North Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean and, Sub-Saharan Africa). Our main finding suggest that, a genuine timeframe for standardizing IPRs laws in the fight against software piracy is most feasible within a horizon of 4.3 to 10.4 years. In other words, full (100%) convergence within the specified timeframe will mean the enforcements of IPRs regimes without distinction of nationality or locality within identified fundamental characteristics of software piracy. The absence of convergence (in absolute and conditional terms) for the World panel indicates that, blanket policies may not be effective unless they are contingent on the prevailing trajectories, dynamics and tendencies of software piracy. Policy implications and caveats are also discussed.
    Keywords: Piracy; Business Software; Software piracy; Intellectual Property Rights; Panel data; Convergence
    JEL: F42 K42 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2014–06–15
  22. By: Bhargava, Alok
    Abstract: Although the importance of diet quality for improving child health is widely recognized, the roles of environmental factors and the absorption of nutrients for children's physical growth and morbidity have not been adequately integrated into a policy framework. Moreover, nutrient intakes gradually affect child health, so it is helpful to use alternative tools to evaluate short-term interventions versus long-term food policies. This article emphasizes the role of diet quality reflected in the intake of nutrients such as protein, calcium, and iron for children's physical growth. Vitamins A and C are important for reducing morbidity. Children's growth and morbidity affect their cognitive development, which is critical for the future supply of skilled labor and economic growth. Evidence on these issues from countries such as Bangladesh, India, Kenya, the Philippines, and Tanzania is summarized. The supply of nutritious foods is appraised from the viewpoint of improving diet quality. Finally, the roles of educational campaigns and indirect taxes on unhealthy processed foods consumed by the affluent in developing countries are discussed.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Food&Beverage Industry,Nutrition,Early Child and Children's Health,Population Policies
    Date: 2014–10–01
  23. By: vithyea, You
    Abstract: This research paper studies the relationship between bank net interest margin (NIM) and non-interest income (NII) using Cambodian banking data. The research focuses on the contribution of the NII, which is the non-traditional banking activity, to the banking profitability. The analysis runs a three-stage least square system to handle the NIM and NII employing 28 banks data from 2004-2010. For the growing period, there is a trade-off between interest margin and non-interest income. It is argued that banks increase non-traditional activities associates with the reduction in net interest margin and vice-versa. This paper also finds that the non-traditional activities have positive causal effect on net interest margin in the post financial crisis period.
    Keywords: Bank interest margin, non-interest income, Cambodian banking, bank risk
    JEL: G2 G21
    Date: 2014–06
  24. By: Katerina Sherstyuk (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Nori Tarui (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Majah-Leah V. Ravago (University of the Philippines Diliman)
    Abstract: Dynamic externalities are at the core of many long-term environmental problems, from species preservation to climate change mitigation. We use laboratory experiments to compare welfare outcomes and underlying behavior in games with dynamic externalities under two distinct settings: traditionally studied games with infinitely-lived decision makers, and more realistic intergenerational games. We show that if decision makers change across generations, resolving dynamic externalities becomes more challenging for two distinct reasons. First, decision makers' actions may be short-sighted due to their limited incentives to care about the future generations' welfare. Second, even when the incentives are perfectly aligned across generations, increased strategic uncertainty of an intergenerational setting may lead to an increased inconsistency of own actions and beliefs about the others, making own actions more myopic. Intergenerational learning through history and advice from previous generations may improve dynamic efficiency, but may also lead to persistent myopic bias.
    Keywords: economic experiments, dynamic externalities, intergenerational games, climate change
    Date: 2014–11

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