nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2014‒11‒01
twenty-one papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Economic Implications of Deeper South Asian–Southeast Asian Integration : A CGE Approach By Ganeshan Wignaraja; Peter Morgan; Michael Plummer; Fan Zhai
  2. Does Urbanization Help Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas? Evidence from Vietnam By Mohamed El Hedi Arouri; Adel Ben Youssef; Cuong Nguyen-Viet
  3. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation By Lucas, Nigel
  4. Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Bangladesh Country Study By Rahman, Mustafizur; Moazzem, Khondaker Golam; Chowdhury, Mehruna Islam; Sehrin, Farzana
  5. Financing Post-2015 Development Challenges: Who are the Front-runners in the Asia and Pacific Region? By Mukhopadhyay, Hiranya; Arao, Rosa Mia
  6. Becoming a major hub in the distribution of wine: Hong Kong as a gate to Asian markets By Yui-Yip LAU; Adolf KY NG; David GUERRERO
  7. The Export Sector of Natural Rubber in Thailand: 1970-1986 Creation Date: 1991 By S. Kiripat
  8. Trade-off Relationship between Energy Intensity-thus energy demand-and Income Level: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications for ASEAN and East Asia Countries By Han PHOUMIN; Fukunari KIMURA
  9. Floods and spillovers: Households after the 2011 great flood in Thailand By Noy, Ilan; Patel, Pooja
  10. The Production, Distribution, and Performance of Physicians, Nurses, and Midwives in Indonesia: An Update By Ian Anderson; Andreasta Meliala; Puti Marzoeki; Edo Pambudi
  11. Global Imbalances, Risk, and the Great Recession By Martin Evans
  12. Synopsis: 2014 Global Hunger Index: The challenge of hidden hunger By von Grebmer, Klaus; Saltzman, Amy; Birol, Ekin; Wiesman, Doris; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Menon, Purnima; Thompson, Jennifer; Sonntag, Andrea
  13. Does Commercial Microfinance Belong to the Financial Sector? Lessons from the Stock Market By Marie Briere; Ariane Szafarz
  14. Car License Auction: Theory and Experimental Evidence By Lijia Tan; Lijia Wei
  15. The Effect of Index Futures Trading on Volatility: Three Markets for Chinese Stocks By Martin T. Bohl; Jeanne Diesteldorf; Pierre L. Siklos
  16. Education and Human Capital Development to Strengthen R & D Capacity in ASEAN By Tereso S. Tullao, Jr.; Christopher James Cabuay
  17. Does diversity of bank board members affect performance and risk? Evidence from an emerging market By Bowo Setiyono; Amine Tarazi
  19. Foreign nurse importation to the United States and the supply of native registered nurses By Cortes, Patricia; Pan, Jessica
  20. Multiscale Adaptive Inference on Conditional Moment Inequalities By Timothy B. Armstrong; Hock Peng Chan
  21. A CHaracterization of Single-Peaked Preferences via Random Social Choice Functions By Shurojit Chatterji; Arunava Sen; Huaxia Zeng

  1. By: Ganeshan Wignaraja (Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)); Peter Morgan; Michael Plummer; Fan Zhai
    Abstract: South and Southeast Asian economic integration via increased trade flows has been increasing significantly over the past 2 decades, but the level of trade continues to be relatively low. This underperformance has been due to both policy-related variables—relatively high tariff and non-tariff barriers—and high trade costs due to inefficient “hard†and “soft†infrastructure (costly transport links and problems related to trade facilitation). The goal of this study is to estimate the potential gains from South Asian–Southeast Asian economic integration using an advanced computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The paper estimates the potential gains to be large, particularly for South Asia, assuming that the policy- and infrastructure-related variables that increase trade costs are reduced via economic cooperation and investment in connectivity. As Myanmar is a key inter-regional bridge and has recently launched ambitious, outward-oriented policy reforms, the prospects for making progress in these areas are strong. If the two regions succeed in dropping inter-regional tariffs, reducing non-tariff barriers by 50%, and decreasing South Asian–Southeast Asian trade costs by 15%—which this paper suggests is ambitious but attainable—welfare in South Asia and Southeast Asia would rise by 8.9% and 6.4% of gross domestic product, respectively, by 2030 relative to the baseline. These gains would be driven by rising exports and competitiveness, particularly for South Asia, whose exports would rise by two thirds (64% relative to the baseline). Hence, the paper concludes that improvements in connectivity would justify a high level of investment. Moreover, it supports a two-track approach to integration in South Asia, i.e., deepening intra-regional cooperation together with building links to Southeast Asia.
    Keywords: South Asian–Southeast Asian Integration, CGE approach, intra-regional cooperation, South Asia, Southeast Asia
    JEL: C68 F12 F13 F15 F17
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Mohamed El Hedi Arouri (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans); Adel Ben Youssef (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR7321 - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS)); Cuong Nguyen-Viet (Chercheur Indépendant - Aucune)
    Abstract: Urbanization and poverty have a two-way relationship. Using fixed-effects regression andpanel data from household surveys, we estimate the effect of urbanization on welfare andpoverty of rural households in Vietnam. We find that urbanization tends to increaselandlessness of rural households and to reduce their farm income. However, urbanizationhelps rural households increase their wages and non-farm incomes. As a result, totalincome and consumption expenditure of rural households tend to be increased withurbanization. Then we find that urbanization also helps rural households decrease theexpenditure poverty rate, albeit at a small magnitude.
    Keywords: urbanization; household welfare; rural poverty; impact evaluation; household surveys; Vietnam, Asia
    Date: 2014–09–25
  3. By: Lucas, Nigel
    Abstract: Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on common policies, and (iii) developing subregional markets in electricity and gas. The priorities of the knowledge base should be energy efficiency and renewable energy; in many cases it will be advantageous to work further toward harmonized policies. In the long term, the biggest impact of regional cooperation on national energy security will be creating regional networks; developing subregional markets will likely be the most effective approach. An Asian infrastructure cell at the Asian Development Bank could identify technically feasible projects of Asian interest and determine country support; serve as the secretariat for an Asian infrastructure fund; further monitor the development of subregional markets in electricity and gas; and encourage a harmonized approach through facilitating information exchanges, dialogues, and regional agreements.
    Keywords: energy security; regional cooperation; energy sustainability; renewable energy; Asia and the Pacific
    JEL: F10 F15 Q40 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2014–09–01
  4. By: Rahman, Mustafizur (Asian Development Bank Institute); Moazzem, Khondaker Golam (Asian Development Bank Institute); Chowdhury, Mehruna Islam (Asian Development Bank Institute); Sehrin, Farzana (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Economic integration is being inhibited by the poor state of transport connectivity between Bangladesh, and South Asia and Southeast Asia. This study reviews connectivity initiatives of Bangladesh and the two neighboring regions and proposes ways to deepen regional and interregional connectivity. Since the early 1990s, as a consequence of trade-led growth strategy, South Asia and Southeast Asia have emerged as important economic partners of Bangladesh both in terms of export destination and import sourcing. However, constraints "at the border" and "behind the border" have tended to undermine the prospects of reaping the benefits accruing from closer economic cooperation. There is now an increasing realization among policymakers in Bangladesh of the importance of transport integration as an effective tool for market integration and also for attracting efficiency-enhancing and market-seeking investment. This changed perspective has been reflected in Bangladesh's long-term development policies. This study identifies cross-border initiatives with Bangladesh's involvement particularly at the bilateral, subregional, and regional levels. Some of these initiatives are also integrated with Asia-wide broader connectivity particularly through the Asian Highway and Trans Asian Railway initiatives. Ongoing initiatives include construction and upgrading of multi-lane highways and railways, road and rail bridges, procurement of locomotives and wagons, and construction of internal container river ports. However, progress has been slow and cross-border transit still remains an unaddressed issue. A consensus among the concerned countries is needed with regard to standard operating procedures, harmonization of standards and customs procedures, and service charges and user fees for transit facilities. Additionally, significant investment will be required for trade facilitation and to upgrade border trade facilities at land ports, inland waterways, and sea ports. The study identifies five key areas where concrete action from major stakeholders is required: (i) mobilizing the necessary funds for building physical infrastructure; (ii) identifying and sequencing of priorities; (iii) cross-border coordination; (iv) building human resources to manage cross-border mega projects; and (v) building supply-side capacities to benefit from connectivity-driven regional market opportunities.
    Keywords: trade facilitation; cross-border movement of goods; vehicles; investments and services; regional connectivity
    JEL: F15 R42
    Date: 2014–09–26
  5. By: Mukhopadhyay, Hiranya (Asian Development Bank); Arao, Rosa Mia
    Abstract: Adequate fiscal flexibility is a prerequisite for meeting the post-2015 development challenges. This paper proposes a composite fiscal flexibility index. Based on several important fiscal parameters, the index will identify countries in the Asia and Pacific region that are well-poised to meet the enhanced development financing requirements.
    Keywords: post-2015 development agenda; development financing; fiscal flexibility; Asia and the Pacific
    JEL: H51 H52 H53 H61
    Date: 2014–10–01
  6. By: Yui-Yip LAU (Division of Business, Hong Kong Community College, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University - -); Adolf KY NG (Department of Supply Chain Management, I.H. Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba - -); David GUERRERO (IFSTTAR/AME/SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - IFSTTAR - PRES Université Paris-Est)
    Abstract: This paper examines the conditions of emergence of a hub in the distribution of wine. We illustrate this through a detailed discussion of wine distribution in Eastern Asia and an examination of the case of Hong Kong as an emerging regional wine hub. Indeed, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government has imposed zero import tax on wine since June 2008. Since then, the city has attracted a large volume of wine from foreign countries and established a wine bond warehouse in the Asia-Pacific. In total, only 16% of the wine has served for local Hong Kong consumption, with 84% being transshipped to Macau and Mainland China. Well positioned at the heart of Chinese business diaspora with good global connections, Hong Kong is currently capturing important value from wine trade. But its position may be threatened by competing hubs (i.e. Singapore), if these are able to adapt to the needs of the rapidly changing market of wine. To analyze this situation, this paper uses the concept of agility, explaining how market knowledge, flexibility and responsiveness are key elements for regional competitiveness.
    Date: 2014–01–01
  7. By: S. Kiripat
  8. By: Han PHOUMIN (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); Fukunari KIMURA (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA))
    Abstract: This study has been motivated by the recent shift of energy demand’s gravity to Asia due to decades of robust and stable economic growth in the region. Said economic growth has correspondingly led to increases in per capita income in emerging economies in ASEAN and East Asia. Past empirical studies showed that energy intensity –thus energy demand-- tends to grow at an early stage of development. However, curbing the energy intensity remains central to green growth policy. Thus, this study formulates the hypothesis on whether energy intensity – thereby energy demand -- starts to fall as a country becomes richer. Based on this hypothesis, this study aims to investigate: (i) the non-monotonic relationship between energy demand and income levels in selected ASEAN and East Asia countries; (ii) the short- and long-run association of energy demand with price and income level; and (iii) the country performance in curbing the energy intensity. The study employs panel data model, pool-OLS, and historical time series data of individual countries with Vector Error Correction Model (ECM) for the analysis of the above objectives. The findings have suggested three major implications. One, it found that energy intensity --thus energy demand -- has a trade-off relationship with income level which contributes to the theory of energy demand. Two, energy demand has a trade-off relationship with income level, albeit the fact that each country has a different threshold level, implying that whatever the level of per capita income a particular country has, that country can curb energy intensity if it has the right policies in place. And three, countries with persistently increasing energy intensity will need to look into their energy efficiency policies more aggressively to ensure that structural changes in the economy do keep the energy efficiency policy to its core.
    Keywords: energy demand, energy intensity, income, price, energy efficiency, trade-off or threshold, ASEAN and East Asia
    JEL: C30 Q40 Q49
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Noy, Ilan; Patel, Pooja
    Abstract: In 2011, Thailand experienced its worst flooding in decades; it caused widespread damages, and a considerable loss of life. Using data from the Thai Household Socio-Economic Survey (THSES), this paper analyses its economic impacts. In the 2012 THSES, households answered a set of questions on the extent of flooding they experienced in the 12 months prior. As the same households are followed over time, the timing of the survey and its panel structure allows us to analyse household welfare before and after the flood, for both affected households and for those who were not directly flooded. We can thus measure the true impact of the disaster on income, expenditure, assets, debt and savings levels as well as labour market outcomes. We analyse flood impacts across different socio-economic groups and livelihoods, and identify spillover effects on those households that were not directly affected by the flooding.
    Keywords: Disaster, Flood, Thailand, Economic impact,
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Ian Anderson; Andreasta Meliala; Puti Marzoeki; Edo Pambudi
    Abstract: Indonesia launched the national health insurance program - Jaminan Kesehatan National (JKN), on January 1, 2014, and aims to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2019. Achieving UHC means not only increasing the number of people covered but also expanding the benefits package and ensuring financial protection. Although the JKN benefits package is comprehensive, a key challenge related to the capacity to deliver the promised services is ensuring the availability, distribution, and quality of human resources for health (HRH). Of Indonesia?s 33 provinces, 29 do not have the WHO recommended ratio of 1 physician per 1,000 population, although Indonesia regularly produces 6,000 to 7,000 new physicians annually. The shortage of nurses in hospitals and health centers (puskesmas) is noticeable despite the large number of graduates. The government?s health worker contract policy (PTT [Pegawai Tidak Tetap]) was the main policy lever to improve the distribution of physicians and midwives; it offered a shorter contract and higher monetary benefits for rural and remote postings. Nevertheless, evolution of the policy over more than two decades of implementation indicates that the outcome has not been totally satisfactory and that distribution problems remain. Physician maldistribution has been particularly affected by the number and concentration of hospitals in urban areas, as well as by government?s policy of allowing dual practice. Aside from HRH production and distribution figures, key information on the quality of Indonesian physicians, nurses, and midwives is limited. The latest data from the 2007 Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) vignettes, which measured diagnostic and treatment ability, showed low average scores across these three integral health worker categories. Indonesia is addressing the quality issue by improving the quality assurance system of health professional education through school accreditation and graduate certification and by strengthening health professional registration and recertification systems. With these issues in mind, if Indonesia is to attain UHC by 2019, significant and concerted effort to improve the availability, distribution, and quality of human resources for health is required.
    Keywords: access to health care, access to health services, allocative efficiency, anesthesia, antenatal care, back pain, basic health services, birth complications, budgetary ... See More + esources, burden of disease, Center for Health, certification, child mortality, cities, citizens, cleanliness, clinics, communicable diseases, Community Health, contract arrangements, cost-effectiveness, deaths, debt, Decision making, delivery of health services, demand for health, demographic transition, dentistry, developing countries, diabetes, disability, disasters, doctors, economic growth, employment, employment opportunities, epidemiological transition, epidemiology, essential care, essential drugs, expenditures, families, financial incentive, financial incentives, financial protection, freedom of choice, gender equity, general practitioners, glucose, government policies, gross national income, growth in population, health budgets, health care demand, health care financing, health care professionals, health centers, health costs, Health Coverage, Health data, health expenditure, health expenditure Per capita, health facilities, health financing, health information, health information systems, health insurance coverage, health insurance program, Health Organization, health outcomes, health professionals, health promotion, health providers, health resources, health risks, health sector, health sector workers, Health Service, health service delivery, Health Service Management, health service providers, health services, Health Specialist, health spending, health system, HEALTH WORKERS, health workforce, Home Affairs, hospital, hospital beds, hospital sector, hospitals, household level, human resources, ill health, illness, immunization, impact evaluations, implications for health, income, income countries, inequities, Infant, Infant mortality, Infant mortality rate, injuries, insurance coverage, International Community, international comparisons, iron, labor market, labor markets, large population, leading causes, leading causes of death, life expectancy, Life expectancy at birth, live births, Local governments, low income, maternal death, maternal deaths, maternal health, maternal health outcomes, maternal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, maternal nutrition, medical care, medical doctors, Medical Education, medical fees, medical school, medical specialists, medical staff, medical support, midwife, midwifery, MIDWIVES, Millennium Development Goals, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, mortality, mother, national health, national health insurance, national level, Natural disasters, nature of health, needs assessment, Neonatal Mortality, newborn, newborns, number of people, nurse, NURSES, Nursing, Nutrition, obstetric services, patient, patients, pediatrics, Pharmacists, PHO, physician, PHYSICIANS, pocket payments, policy decisions, policy development, POLICY IMPLICATIONS, policy lever, policy makers, population growth, population structure, Pregnant women, premature death, prenatal care, primary care, primary health care, private hospitals, private sector, private sectors, private services, progress, Public expenditure, public health, public health care, Public health expenditure, public health providers, public hospitals, public sector, public services, pull factor, Purchasing Power, Purchasing Power Parity, quality assurance, quality of care, quality of services, reducing maternal mortality, referral system, respect, richer countries, rural areas, sanitation, scarce resources, service provision, skill level, social insurance, social insurance system, socialization, surgery, Sustainable Development, traditional healers, training opportunities, tuberculosis, Under-five mortality, urban areas, urban bias, WORKERS, World Health Organization
    Date: 2014–09
  11. By: Martin Evans (Department of Economics, Georgetown University)
    Abstract: This paper describes a new analytical framework for the quantitative assessment of international external positions. The framework links each country's current net foreign asset position to its current trade flows, forecasts of future trade flows, and expectations concerning future returns on foreign assets and liabilities in an environment where countries cannot run Ponzi schemes or exploit arbitrage opportunities in world financial markets. It provides guidance on how external positions should be measured in the data, and on how the sustainability of a country's current position can be assessed. To illustrate its usefulness, I study the external positions of 12 countries (Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, The United States and The United Kingdom) between 1970 and 2011. In particular, I examine how changes in the perceived risk associated with future returns across world financial markets contributed to evolution of external positions before the 2008 financial crisis, and during the ensuing Great Recession.
    Keywords: Global Imbalances, Foreign Asset Positions, Current Accounts, International Debt, International Solvency, Great Recession
    JEL: F31 F32 F34
    Date: 2013–11–04
  12. By: von Grebmer, Klaus; Saltzman, Amy; Birol, Ekin; Wiesman, Doris; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Menon, Purnima; Thompson, Jennifer; Sonntag, Andrea
    Abstract: The 2014 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report the ninth in an annual series presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 1990, but still has far to go, with levels of hunger remaining alarming or extremely alarming in 16 countries. This years report focuses on a critical aspect of hunger that is often overlooked: hidden hunger. Also known as micronutrient deficiency, hidden hunger affects more than an estimated 2 billion people globally. The repercussions of these vitamin and mineral deficiencies are both serious and long lasting. Where hidden hunger has taken root, it not only prevents people from surviving and thriving as productive members of society, it also holds countries back in a cycle of poor nutrition, poor health, lost productivity, persistent poverty, and reduced economic growth.
    Keywords: Africa South of Sahara; Caribbean; CIS; Commonwealth of Independent States; South Asia; Southeast Asia; Latin America; Developing countries; Middle East; North Africa; OECD countries; India; East Africa; East Asia; Eastern Europe; Food availability; food crises; food crisis; food prices; food security; Global Hunger Index; GHI; Gross income; indicators; Children; Land; Land degradation; Nutrition; Malnutrition; Undernutrition; Hunger; Micronutrients; Mortality; Natural resources; Climate change; Data; Policies; Poverty; property rights; smallholders; Stress; Sustainable development; sustainable livelihoods; transition economies; Underweight; Water; resilience; natural disasters; disaster relief; environmental disasters; emergencies; environmental shocks; environmental risks; nutritive value; vitamin deficiencies; mineral deficiencies; nutrition security
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Marie Briere; Ariane Szafarz
    Abstract: This paper is the first to draw a global picture of worldwide microfinance equity by taking full advantage of daily quoted prices. We revisit previous findings showing that investors should consider microfinance as a self-standing sector. Our results are threefold. First, microfinance has become less risky and more closely correlated with the financial sector. This convergence is associated with a decline in the proportion of women borrowers. Second, microfinance and finance shares have equivalent currency exposure. Last, introducing a self-standing microfinance sector presents few diversification benefits. This paper confirms that microfinance has changed dramatically during the last decade.
    Keywords: Microfinance; South Africa; Kenya; Indonesia; Bangladesh; Mexico
    JEL: G10 G15 O16 G21
    Date: 2014–10–09
  14. By: Lijia Tan (The Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics and MOE Key Laboratory in Econometrics, Xiamen University); Lijia Wei (School of Economics and Management, Wuhan University)
    Abstract: In Singapore and many Chinese cities, tens of thousands of people participate in car license auctions each month. In a car license auction, many car licenses are sold but each participant can only bid for one license. We examine the theoretical properties of three auction formats: Shanghai auction, Guangzhou auction, and Singapore auction. Our main results are that (1) No equilibrium of the Shanghai auction can guarantee an efficient allocation, (2) the Singapore auction allocates objects efficiently if and only if a unique market clearing price does not exist, and (3) the Guangzhou auction is efficient if bidders are symmetric. The experimental evidence confirms our theoretical prediction. Our experiment also shows that the learning effects over time are quite different among these auction formats.
    Keywords: Auction; Car License; Laboratory Experiment
    JEL: C92 D02 D04 D44
    Date: 2014–09–02
  15. By: Martin T. Bohl; Jeanne Diesteldorf; Pierre L. Siklos
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the introduction of Chinese stock index futures had an impact on the volatility of the underlying spot market. To this end, we estimate several Generalized Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models and compare our findings for mainland China with Chinese index futures traded in Singapore and Hong Kong. Our results indicate that Chinese index futures decrease spot market volatility all three spot markets considered. In contrast, we do not obtain the same results for the companion index futures markets in Hong Kong and Singapore. China’s stock market is relatively young and largely dominated by private retail investors. Nevertheless, our evidence is favorable to the stabilization hypothesis usually confirmed in mature markets.
    Keywords: Chinese Stock Markets, Index Futures, Volatility Spillovers
    JEL: G10 G14 G15 G18
    Date: 2014–10
  16. By: Tereso S. Tullao, Jr. (De La Salle University); Christopher James Cabuay (De La Salle University)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief raises some policy issues regarding the capacity of the ASEAN region’s education system in producing knowledge capital as it looks into the opportunities and challenges faced by the sector. This is critical for ASEAN to enable it to attain its quest to be a base for innovation. Among the issues that ASEAN has to confront in achieving this goal relate to the development of financing schemes for various types of education, improvement in the level of investments in research and development, and revisit of the way teaching is conducted in the 21st century, especially in certain disciplines crucial to engendering innovation for growth and development.
    Date: 2014–01
  17. By: Bowo Setiyono (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - Université de Limoges : EA1088 - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - Université de Limoges : EA1088 - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: This study investigates the influence of background diversity of bank board members on performance and risk. Using data from Indonesian banks from 2001 to 2011 covering 4200 individual year observations and 21 ethnic groups, we estimate the degree of diversity by considering various aspects (gender, citizenship, age, experience, tenure, ethnicity, nationality, education level and type) and find significant impacts on bank performance. On the whole, diversity is in general positively associated with performance except when it relates to ethnicity. It not only reduces performance per se but also increases risk. Female presence and professional diversity reduce risk but nationality and ethnicity diversities are associated with higher risk. Education diversity generally leads to higher income volatility and leverage risk. Our results are generally robust to various alternative performance measures, including risk adjusted returns, and estimation methods.
    Keywords: Bank Board; Performance; Risk, Diversity; Ethnicity; Emerging Market
    Date: 2014–09–04
  18. By: Adhi Baskara Ekananda (University of Indonesia, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Cause-related marketing (CRM) has been applied by various brands, both in enhancing consumers’ perception of the brand social concern, and to generate more sales. There are two delivery patterns for CRM: conventional and social alliance (Liu and Ko, 2010). The conventional pattern is done by the company exclusively. Meanwhile, in the social alliance pattern, marketer creates a partnership with a non-profit organization. Although the main aim of CRM is to improve the corporate image, it was proven that company can increase its profit by applying CRM (Krishna and Rajan, 2009). CRM focuses on a distinct cause that can be related to the corporation or their product. The distinctiveness can be established by considering the cause-brand fit (Bigne-Alcaniz et al., 2012; Myers et al., 2012). The CRM program that tied to a particular brand is possible to strengthen the brand social image. The main purpose of this working paper is to examine consumer willingness to participate in the marketer’s CRM program based on the partner-fit and the cause-brand fit. The study will manipulate four conditions in applying CRM program, which employing experiment approach. The design of study will be 2 (partner: brand-partner fit vs. brand-partner not fit) X 2 (cause: product-related vs. non product-related) between subject. The expected practical contribution from this working paper is to offer alternative considerations for applying CRM program that will give a stronger preference from consumer.
    Date: 2013–09
  19. By: Cortes, Patricia (Boston University); Pan, Jessica (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Importing foreign nurses has been used as a strategy to ease nursing shortages in the United States. The effectiveness of this policy critically depends on the long-run response of native-born nurses. We examine how the immigration of foreign-born registered nurses (RNs) affects the occupational choice and long-run employment decisions of native RNs. Using a variety of empirical strategies that exploit the geographical distribution of immigrant nurses across U.S. cities, we find evidence of large displacement effects—over a 10-year period, for every foreign nurse that migrates to a city, between one and two fewer native nurses are employed in that city. We find similar results at the state level using data on individuals taking the nursing board exam—an increase in the flow of foreign nurses significantly reduces the number of natives sitting for licensure exams in the states that are more dependent on foreign-born nurses compared to those states that are less dependent on foreign nurses. Using data on self-reported workplace satisfaction among a sample of California nurses, we find evidence suggesting that some of the displacement effects could be driven by a decline in the perceived quality of the workplace environment.
    JEL: J44 J61
    Date: 2014–07–31
  20. By: Timothy B. Armstrong (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Hock Peng Chan (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: This paper considers inference for conditional moment inequality models using a multiscale statistic. We derive the asymptotic distribution of this test statistic and use the result to propose feasible critical values that have a simple analytic formula, and to prove the asymptotic validity of a modified bootstrap procedure. The asymptotic distribution is extreme value, and the proof uses new techniques to overcome several technical obstacles. The test detects local alternatives that approach the identified set at the best rate in a broad class of models, and is adaptive to the smoothness properties of the data generating process. Our results also have implications for the use of moment selection procedures in this setting. We provide a monte carlo study and an empirical illustration to inference in a regression model with endogenously censored and missing data.
    Keywords: Moment inequalities, Set inference, Adaptive inference
    JEL: C01 C14 C34
    Date: 2013–01
  21. By: Shurojit Chatterji (School of Economics, Singapore Management University, Singapore, 178903); Arunava Sen (Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.); Huaxia Zeng (School of Economics, Singapore Management University, Singapore, 178903)
    Abstract: The paper proves the following result: every path-connected domain of preferences that admits a strategy-proof, unanimous, tops-only random social choice function satisfying a compromise property, is single-peaked. Conversely, every single-peaked domain admits a random social choice function satisfying these properties. Single-peakedness is dened with respect to arbitrary trees. We also show that a maximal domain that admits a strategy-proof, unanimous, tops-only random social choice function satisfying a stronger version of the compromise property, is single-peaked on a line. A converse to this result also holds. The paper provides justication of the salience of single-peaked preferences and evidence in favour of the Gul conjecture (Barbera (2010)).
    Keywords: Random Social Choice Functions, Strategy-proofness, Compromise, Single- peaked Preferences
    JEL: D71
    Date: 2014–09

This nep-sea issue is ©2014 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.