nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2013‒04‒27
thirty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. A Tale of Two Crises: Indonesia’s Political Economy By Basri, Muhammad Chatib
  2. Cost and Benefit of Globalization:Lesson Learned from Indonesian History By Maddaremmeng A. Panennungi
  3. Measurements and Determinants of Multifaceted Poverty: Absolute, Relative, and Subjective Poverty in Indonesia By Dartanto, Teguh; Shigeru, Otsubo
  4. ASEAN Regional Cooperation on Competition Policy By Cassey Lee; Yoshifumi Fukunaga
  5. Development Impacts of Seasonal and Temporary Migration: A Review of Evidence from the Pacific and Southeast Asia By John Gibson; David McKenzie; Halahingano Rohorua
  6. An empirical analysis of the effectiveness of Japan's official development assistance in the development of the Asian telecommunications sector By Hatakeyama, Yuji; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  7. Are Government-Linked Corporations Crowding out Private Investment in Malaysia? By Jayant Menon; Thiam Hee Ng
  8. Institutional Development of Cross-Border Higher Education:The Case of an Evolving Malaysia-Japan Project By Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yuki, Takako; Sakata, Nozomi
  9. Industry-specific Exchange Rate Volatility and Intermediate Goods Trade in Asia By SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko; Nagendra SHRESTHA; Shajuan ZHANG
  10. Vietnam: An Emerging Economy at a CrossRoads By Quang Truong
  11. China and the Two Crises: From 1997 to 2009 By Naughton, Barry
  12. Lessons from the European Spaghetti Bowl By Baldwin, Richard
  13. An Extension of the Chaos Expansion Approximation for the Pricing of Exotic Basket Options By Hideharu Funahashi; Masaaki Kijima
  14. Leadership development through online gaming By Nuangjumnonga, Tinnawat; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  15. Cloud computing adoption and determining factors in different industries: A case study of Thailand By Keesookpun, Chutipong; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  16. A comparative analysis of soft computing techniques used to estimate missing precipitation records By Kajornrit, Jesada; Wong, Kok Wai; Fung, Chun Che
  17. Access regulation in the next generation access network environment: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Singapore from the transaction cost economics perspectives By Ho, Au Man
  18. The value of spectrum and the impact of the breakthrough for mobile data: The case of India, Sweden and Thailand By Mölleryd, Bengt G.; Markendahl, Jan
  19. Analysis about the development of mobile electronic commerce: An application of production possibility frontier model By Uesugi, Shiro; Okada, Hitoshi
  20. Export liberalization, job creation and the skill premium : evidence from the U.S.-Vietnam bilateral trade agreement By Fukase, Emiko
  21. Potential and actual FDI spillovers in global value chains : the role of foreign investor characteristics, absorptive capacity and transmission channels By Winkler, Deborah
  22. Cambodia mobile telecommunication market: Opportunities and challenges By Vong, Sokha; Lee, Duk Hee; Zo, Hangjung
  23. Impacts of Institutional Changes in Cambodia under the Pol Pot Regime By Kogure, Katsuo
  24. Foreign job opportunities and internal migration in Vietnam By Fukase, Emiko
  25. Exploring organizational adoption of cloud computing in Singapore By Tan, Margaret; Lin, Trisha T. C.
  26. Choice of Invoicing Currency: New evidence from a questionnaire survey of Japanese export firms By ITO Takatoshi; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko
  27. Foreign wage premium, gender and education : insights from Vietnam household surveys By Fukase, Emiko
  28. Taille des villes, urbanisation et spécialisations économiques; Une analyse sur micro-données exhaustives des 10 000 localités maliennes By Claire Bernard; Sandrine Mesplé-Somps; Gilles Spielvogel
  29. Gender digital divide and online participation: A cross-national analysis By Chang, Younghoon; Shahzeidi, Mehri; Kim, Hyerin; Park, Myeong-cheol
  30. Measuring food policy research capacity: Indicators and Typologies: By Babu, Suresh Chandra; Dorosh, Paul A.

  1. By: Basri, Muhammad Chatib
    Abstract: The global financial crisis caused major economic problems in many countries. Indonesia was obviously affected by this crisis; its export growth declined significantly. Nevertheless, the impact of the crisis on the Indonesian economy was relatively limited compared to other countries in the region, including Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand. This situation leads to the question of why was the impact of the global crisis on the Indonesian economy relatively limited? This was, after all, not the first time that Indonesia had experienced a financial crisis. In 1998, the Asian financial crisis had a very bad effect on Indonesia. An interesting question to ask is why the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis, which in terms of magnitude was much larger than the 1998 crisis, were relatively limited? This paper argues there are, at least, four differences between the 1998 crisis and the 2008 crisis: the origin of the crisis, the exchange rate regime, policy responses and the overall political economy situation. In addition, this paper argues that the structure of trade played an important role in the 2008 crisis. Indonesia survived the global financial crisis thanks to two factors: good policy and good luck. While highlighting these factors, this paper focuses primarily on the role of Indonesia’s domestic political economy during these two crises. Lest it leaves an unduly optimistic picture of Indonesia’s economic future, the paper closes with an assessment of several major hurdles that Indonesia must deal with in the coming years.
    Keywords: Indonesia , Asian Financial Crisis , Global Financial Crisis
    Date: 2013–03–25
  2. By: Maddaremmeng A. Panennungi (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia)
    Abstract: This paper is aimed at investigating the impact of globalization in Indonesia from long term recorded history. The methodology in this paper is focused on the literature survey with the qualitative analysis. The result shows that the presence of globalization in Indonesia tends to put the relationship between Indonesia (Nusantara or Netherland Indies) and the great power/globalizer as the Periphery-Centre (Core) relationship. It is shown that the globalizer influences Indonesia and not the other way around. The positive effect on Indonesia is globalization could increase people’s wealth and enrich Indonesia’s civilization without losing the real Indonesian culture. However, the presence of negative effect, could be very devastating, such as war and internal conflicts, in the time of clash among great powers/globalizers or in the time of changing time of influence from old great power to the new one.
    Keywords: Globalization, Indonesia
    JEL: F0 N95
    Date: 2013–04
  3. By: Dartanto, Teguh; Shigeru, Otsubo
    Abstract: The notion of ‘poverty’ is diversified and dynamic. It varies across countries with different socio-economic norms. It may also change over time even in the same society, with different stages of social and economic development. A country may be struggling with absolute poverty at the early stages of development, while it may well be more concerned with relative and/or subjective poverty as its average per-capita income increases. This article intends to conduct an exploration of multiple poverty measures by looking into the absolute, relative and subjective poverty incidence in Indonesia. Using the 2005 National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas), we observed that there was a roughly 28 percentage-point difference in the poverty headcount ratios computed by applying absolute (14.47%) and subjective (42.03%) poverty. There were virtually no correlations among the poverty rankings in the provinces of Indonesia obtained by five poverty metrics. Results of logit model and ordered logit model estimations of the possible determinants of poverty indicate that the main determinants of poverty are educational attainment, number of household members, physical assets (land and house ownership), existence of migrant workers (possible remittances), negative shocks of layoffs and/or health problems, development of public services, and the availability of road infrastructure. A higher educational attainment increases the probability of never being poor in any of the five poverty metrics by almost 11 percentage points. This study also confirmed that households having less than society’s averages in terms of the physical asset of land and consumption of durable goods and fashion tended to subjectively asses themselves as poor. The study suggests that any poverty alleviation programs should consider relative impacts among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries within each locality and across provinces.
    Keywords: Absolute Poverty , Relative Poverty , Subjective Poverty , Subjective Well-Being , Multidimensional Poverty Analysis , Indonesia
    Date: 2013–02–18
  4. By: Cassey Lee (University of Wollongong, Australia); Yoshifumi Fukunaga (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia)
    Abstract: ASEAN member states (AMSs) intend to establish the ASEAN Community by 2015. A key component of this goal is the formation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The AEC Blueprint was initiated to facilitate and monitor the implementation of the AEC during the period 2008-2015. Competition policy will play an important role in the achievement of the AEC. There has been significant progress in regional cooperation to achieve the competition policy targets listed in the AEC Blueprint. Even though only half of AMSs have implemented competition laws, regional cooperation in this area has been fairly strong. The main emphasis has been on publishing regional guidelines and a handbook on competition policy in ASEAN as well as capacity building activities. There needs to be a renewed impetus to implement national competition laws in AMSs that have not done so. There also remain significant opportunities for enforcement cooperation and pooling of resources for capacity building in competition policy in the region.
    Keywords: Competition Policy, Competition Law, ASEAN, Regional Integration, ASEAN Economic Community, AEC Blueprint
    JEL: F15 L40 L50
    Date: 2013–04
  5. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato, NIDEA and Motu); David McKenzie (World Bank, BREAD, CEPR, CReAM and IZA); Halahingano Rohorua (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Seasonal and temporary migration programs are widely used around the world, yet there is scant evidence as to their development impacts. Absent such evidence, it is difficult to evaluate whether the proliferation of temporary worker programs in recent years is a useful development. This article reviews studies that attempt to measure impacts of seasonal and temporary migration with a particular focus on evidence from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.
    Keywords: Circular migration; Development impacts; Seasonal migration; Temporary migration
    JEL: O12 J61 F22
    Date: 2013–04
  6. By: Hatakeyama, Yuji; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Jayant Menon; Thiam Hee Ng
    Abstract: Private investment in Malaysia has been sluggish since the Asian financial crisis. One explanation is that the growing presence of government-linked corporations(GLCs) has been crowding out private investment. For the first time, we provide empirical evidence on the relationship between GLC presence and private investment. We find that when GLCs are dominant in an industry, investment by private firms is significantly negatively impacted. Conversely, when GLCs do not dominate an industry, the impact on private investment is not seen. Sensitivity tests associated with varying the level of the threshold used to determine dominance confirm the robustness of the results. To revive private investment in Malaysia, government must not only redress its growing fiscal deficit, but also expedite its program of divestment.
    Keywords: Malaysia, private investment, government-linked corporations(GLCs), crowding-out
    JEL: E22 F20 F21 J78 O53
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yuki, Takako; Sakata, Nozomi
    Abstract: This paper examines institutional governance for a cross-border higher education program, focusing on the effects of introducing a new form of program. The paper analyzes the case of the Higher Education Loan Fund Project between Malaysia and Japan, in which the form of cross-border higher education has evolved from student mobility to program mobility through a twinning arrangement. Although academic staff sent from Japanese universities continued to play important roles and be involved in decision-making, the partner institution in Malaysia began to replace some of them with Malaysian teaching staff, had their initial part of the twinning program accredited as a diploma course, and used this experience to develop a fresh diploma course for engineering. Japanese universities successfully responded to the evolution of the project by adapting the existing curriculum, transferring credits and students, and developing new systems of staff training and quality assurance. By creating a consortium which has gradually become more formalized, the Japanese universities followed common procedures for placement and student support, thus reducing transaction costs. Certain universities have developed new cross-border programs by themselves. A program mobility model of cross-bordering is strengthening the governance and capacity of participating higher education institutions, but the sustainability of the program will depend on the commitment of the institutions and continued financial support by governments.
    Keywords: cross-border higher education , Malaysia , Japan , institutional governance , twinning
    Date: 2013–01–31
  9. By: SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko; Nagendra SHRESTHA; Shajuan ZHANG
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes the effect of exchange rate volatility on intra-Asian trade of intermediate goods at an industry level by constructing a new dataset of the industry-specific bilateral real exchange rate. As the final processed exports are destined for countries outside the Asian region, both the exchange rate and world demand are considered as a possible driving force in the cross-border fragmentation and processing trade. It is found that, in contrast to the recent studies, the exchange rate impact on intra-regional trade differs across industries. The exchange rate volatility has negative and significant effects only on the general machinery industry and a part of the electric machinery industry with more differentiated products, even when taking into account the world's demand for the final processed exports. These findings are supported by various kinds of exchange rate volatility in the short- and long-run. Our empirical results suggest that the different impact of the exchange rate volatility across industries is tied to the characteristics of traded goods in respective industries.
    Date: 2013–04
  10. By: Quang Truong (Emeritus Professor at Maastricht School of Management, The Netherlands. E-mail:
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the institutional structure of the business system of Vietnam. It explores the role of the state, the financial system, ownership and corporate governance, the internal structure of the firm (management), employment relations, education and skills formation, inter-company relations (networks), and social capital. It highlights the critical crossroads Vietnam is facing, after a period of steady growth, in a desperate effort to save its economy from going virtually bankrupt as a result of ideological ambiguity, cronyism, vested interests, corruption, poor governance, and the absence of stakeholders’ participation in the process of sustainable development of the country. This paper contributes to the business systems and varieties of state capitalism literatures and identifies institutional contingencies for comparative and international social science research in general.
    Keywords: Vietnam, Asia, business systems, varieties of capitalism, institutions, cronyism, vested interests, corruption, sustainable development
    JEL: O11 O53 N15
    Date: 2013–04
  11. By: Naughton, Barry
    Abstract: China appears to have successfully weathered the worst impact of both the Asian Financial Crisis (1997-98) and the Global Financial Crisis (2008-2009). Chinese leaders did respond quickly, and on occasion massively, to the challenge of external crisis. In retrospect, however, each crisis response can be seen to have involved an element of over-shooting, which was followed by domestic reformulation and retrenchment. This paper will track commonalities and differences of the two crises in three dimensions: immediate macroeconomic crisis response; institutional adaptations; and trade and exchange rate policies. The discussion will clarify that the very “success†of the response to the AFC laid the foundation for deeper economic problems relating to the GFC. In turn, the response to the GFC gave government officials and state-owned enterprises control over an even larger volume of resources, and reduced the accountability of both officials and financial institutions, changes that inevitably have softened budget constraints, reduced individual risk, and encouraged even larger investments. In consequence, the Chinese economy now faces accumulating problems from the maladaptation of domestic institutions, a maladaptation that is not unrelated to the crisis response.
    Keywords: China , Asian Financial Crisis , Global Financial Crisis , monetary policy , stimulus , economic reform
    Date: 2013–02–01
  12. By: Baldwin, Richard (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: European economic integration fascinates and inspires for the way it brought peace to a continent torn by violent and long-standing rivalries. The lessons from Europe, however, cannot be applied directly as the degree of the European Union’s supranationality is unthinkable elsewhere. This paper discusses how Europe overcame the specific problem of overlapping free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Pan-European Cumulation System which instituted common rules of origin, regional cumulation of value, and completed the full matrix of bilateral FTAs. After this, Europe had what can be thought of as a “customs union” for rules of origin.
    Keywords: european economic integration; european union; eu; europe; trade; free trade agreements; fta; regional integration; rules of origin
    JEL: F15 F20
    Date: 2013–04–24
  13. By: Hideharu Funahashi (Mizuho Securities Co. Ltd. and Tokyo Metropolitan University); Masaaki Kijima (Graduate School of Social Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University)
    Abstract: Funahashi and Kijima (2013) have proposed an approximation method based on the Wiener-Ito chaos expansion for the pricing of European-style contingent claims. In this paper, we extend the method to the multi-asset case with general local volatility structure for the pricing of exotic basket options such as Asian basket options. Through ample numerical experiments, we show that the accuracy of our approximation remains quite high even for a complex basket option with long maturity and high volatility.
    Keywords: Wiener-Ito chaos expansion, local volatility, average option, basket option, spread option, Asian basket option
    Date: 2013–04
  14. By: Nuangjumnonga, Tinnawat; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: The relationship between leadership development and multiplayer online battle arena games (MOBA) are examined using two popular games of this genre: Defense of The Ancients (DOTA) and Heroes of Newerth (HON). Similar existing research notably includes IBM's Leadership in Games and at Work: Implication for the Enterprise of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games published in 2007, positively concluding the contribution online games have towards leadership development. Close-ended surveys created based on Fred Fiedler's contingency model (1967) and Kurt Lewin's leadership model (1939) were distributed in Thailand both in written and online formats. The targeted respondent demographic is unemployed Thai game players 13 years old or above. Survey content determined the respondent's leadership style (authoritarian, democratic or laissez-faire) and game role (carry, support or ganker). Multinomial logistic regression and factor analyses determined that the 3197 eligible surveys collected shows a relation between MOBA games and leadership development. Based on the findings, it is concluded that those who are characterized as the game role carry are more likely to have the authoritarian leadership style and less likely to have laissez-faire leadership style. Those who are characterized as the game roles support and ganker are more likely to have the democratic leadership style and less likely to have authoritarian and laissez-faire leadership styles. Other demographic data such as age, income and education level are found to be statistically insignificant in influencing leadership development. The conclusions presented impacts the current available literature, which tends to present a comparatively negative view relevant to online games and individual behavior. Potential game development based on research findings may aid in the improvement of individuals' leadership capabilities. --
    Keywords: leadership style,behavior,link,online game,multiplayer online battle arena,MOBA,action real-time strategy,ARTS
    Date: 2012
  15. By: Keesookpun, Chutipong; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: The cloud computing model is a modern concept of computation that provides a number of benefits for its adopters. This online computing model has been widely used in the western world and accepted to have some business and economic impacts. This paper provides some basic knowledge about cloud computing and discusses the greatest benefit which is cost reduction in fixed ICT capital and services. With such the benefit, this study attempts to find the determining factors for cloud computing adoption in various industries and proposes some policy recommendations accordingly in order to facilitate the diffusion of the innovative computing model as well as the extensive realisation of its benefit. Thailand is selected as ground for investigation. The discrete choice model of logistic regression is selected as an econometric tool to extract the relationships of different attributes and the probability of cloud computing adoption in 206 industries. The results point out significant determining factors categorised into Internet and technology; cost; and some difficulties in ICT usage. Hence, some policy implications in order to increase the possibility of adoption include an effort to improve internet capability of employees; provide some investment incentives such as tax reduction and low-cost loans for initial set-ups of cloud computing systems; and develop reliable internet network with advanced capability and low cost of use. --
    Keywords: Cloud computing,Economic benefits of the cloud,Cloud computing adoption,Binary regression,Thai industries
    JEL: C25 D22 O31 O53
    Date: 2012
  16. By: Kajornrit, Jesada; Wong, Kok Wai; Fung, Chun Che
    Abstract: Estimation of missing precipitation records is one of the most important tasks in hydro-logical and environmental study. The efficiency of hydrological and environmental models is sub-ject to the completeness of precipitation data. This study compared some basic soft computing techniques, namely, artificial neural network, fuzzy inference system and adaptive neuro-fuzzy in-ference system as well as the conventional methods to estimate missing monthly rainfall records in the northeast region of Thailand. Four cases studies are selected to evaluate the accuracy of the es-timation models. The simultaneous rainfall data from three nearest neighbouring control stations are used to estimate missing records at the target station. The experimental results suggested that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system could be considered as a recommended technique because it provided the promising estimation results, the estimation mechanism is transparent to the users, and do not need prior knowledge to create the model. The results also showed that fuzzy inference system could provide compatible accuracy to artificial neural network.In addition, artificial neural network must be used with care becausesuch model is sensitive to irregular rainfall events. --
    Keywords: Missing Precipitation Records,Artificial Neural Network,Fuzzy Inference System,Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System,Northeast Region of Thailand
    Date: 2012
  17. By: Ho, Au Man
    Abstract: Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted two different models in the regulation of the next generation access (NGA) networks. In Hong Kong, the government has decided that access regulation will not be applied to fibre-based access networks and its strategy will be to rely on facilities-based competition to promote investment in the NGA networks. Singapore, on the other hand, has promoted access/services-based competition over a next generation broadband infrastructure subsidised by public funding and operated on an open accessbasis. This paper applies the theories of transaction cost economics (TCE) to analyse the two different regulatory models adopted in Hong Kong and Singapore for the NGA networks. Transaction cost economics is concerned with the study of governance structures. Governance structures operate within the relationship between transacting parties for the purpose of dealing with contractual hazards. Market, firms, regulation, public franchise and public ownership are alternative governance structures operating in the NGA environment. Governance structures aim to minimise transaction costs caused by contractual hazards. --
    Date: 2012
  18. By: Mölleryd, Bengt G.; Markendahl, Jan
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the marginal value of spectrum with a focus on mobile broadband and illustrated by three country cases: India, Sweden and Thailand. The paper use an engineering valuation approach, which refers to savings that can be achieved by acquiring appropriate amount of spectrum rather than to deploy additional sites, to estimate the marginal value of spectrum. It is complemented with a discounted cash flow valuation (DCF) in order to estimate the net present value of spectrum. Valuation of spectrum is a complex issue given that the value is depending upon the availability of spectrum, national spectrum regulation, competitive situation on the market and expectations about the growth of the mobile business. The paper is addressing three research questions: 1) What is the engineering value of spectrum in two country cases, 2) what is the DCF value of 3G spectrum in Thailand, and 3) what do the paid levels at spectrum auctions imply for the marginal value of spectrum. The methodology applied to calculate the engineering value is based on a comparison of different network deployment options using different amounts of spectrum. As spectrum and sites are substitutes it enables us to calculate how many additional sites that are required in order to compensate for an incremental allocation of spectrum. Moreover, the paper compare estimates of the marginal value of spectrum with prices paid at a number of spectrum auctions presented as the value per MHz per population. The contribution of the paper is the development of an approach and estimates of the marginal value for spectrum which could be of interest for regulators when setting reserve prices on spectrum. It could also be an input to corporate spectrum strategies and a contribution to the development of valuation approaches on spectrum. --
    Date: 2012
  19. By: Uesugi, Shiro; Okada, Hitoshi
    Abstract: This study aims to further develop our previous research on production possibility frontier model (PPFM). An application of model to provide analysis on the mobile commerce survey for which data was collected in Japan und Thailand is presented. PPFM looks into the consumer behaviors as the results form the perception on the relationship between Convenience and Privacy Concerns of certain electronic commerce services. From the data of consumer surveys, PPFM is expected to provide practical solution for service providers by offering useful information about what levels of trade-offs between Convenience and Privacy Concerns the service should be attained. This study provides a finding that the survey data seem to draw the oath of technology innovation PPFM. --
    Keywords: Production Possibility Frontier,mobile commerce,electronic commerce
    Date: 2012
  20. By: Fukase, Emiko
    Abstract: This paper explores how the expansion of labor-intensive manufacturing exports resulting from the United States-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in 2001 translated into wages of skilled and unskilled workers and the skill premium in Vietnam through the channel of labor demand. In order to isolate the impacts of trade shock from the effects of other market-oriented reforms, a strategy of exploiting the regional variation in difference in exposure to trade is employed. Using the data on panel individuals from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004, and addressing the issue of endogeneity, the results confirm the existence of a Stolper-Samuelson type effect. That is, those provinces more exposed to the increase in exports experienced relatively larger wage growth for unskilled workers and a decline of (or a smaller increase in) the relative wages of skilled and unskilled workers. During the period 2000-2004, the skill premium increased for Vietnam's economy as a whole in the sample of panel individuals. Thus, the Stolper-Samuelson type effect appears to have mitigated but did not outweigh the impacts of other factors that contributed to the rise in the skill premium.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Economic Theory&Research,Free Trade,Trade Policy,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–04–01
  21. By: Winkler, Deborah
    Abstract: Using newly collected survey data on direct supplier-multinational linkages in Chile, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Vietnam, this paper first evaluates whether foreign investors differ from domestic producers in terms of their potential to generate positive spillovers for local suppliers. It finds that foreign firms outperform domestic producers on several indicators, but have fewer linkages with the local economy and offer less supplier assistance, resulting in offsetting effects on the spillover potential. The paper also studies the relationship between foreign investor characteristics and linkages with the local economy as well as assistance extended to local suppliers. It finds that foreign investor characteristics matter for both. The paper also examines the role of suppliers'absorptive capacities in determining the intensity of their linkages with multinationals. The results indicate that several supplier characteristics matter, but these effects also depend on the length of the supplier relationship. Finally, the paper assesses whether assistance or requirements from a multinational influence spillovers on suppliers. The results confirm the existence of positive effects of assistance (including technical audits, joint product development, and technology licensing) on foreign direct investment spillovers, while the analysis finds no evidence of demand effects.
    Keywords: Microfinance,Foreign Direct Investment,Emerging Markets,Debt Markets,Markets and Market Access
    Date: 2013–04–01
  22. By: Vong, Sokha; Lee, Duk Hee; Zo, Hangjung
    Abstract: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has become a necessity in social and economic development and is a leading sector to enable and drive growth in other sectors in Cambodia such as education, agriculture, and health. Recently, the mobile telecom service market in Cambodia has demonstrated rapid growth, which is jumping off the fixed-line, with a penetration rate of 75.27% of the total population by the end of 2010. Despite this rapid growth rate, the mobile telecom service market in Cambodia faces a number of key challenges. There seems to be excessive competition in the mobile telecom service market due to the number of operators (eight active operators). In the short term, this market favors demand side rather than supply side by lowering prices. Consumers' welfare increases with the lower prices resulting from heavy competition. Also the dominant market players gain relatively higher profits while those of the less-dominant players have been squeezed by increasing market polarization. Furthermore, there is a lack of sector policy framework, Telecommunication Law, which means government Ad hoc regulations are implemented in the market to resolve the issues. These factors will contribute to market failure and lower market efficiency in the long run. This study examines the competitive environment of the mobile phone market in Cambodia to identify what the challenges are and how to overcome them through the involvement stakeholders in the mobile phone market in Cambodia. In addition, we criticize the current static efficiency-based market performance. We analyze various data including relevant government documents, operators' data, and materials from relevant websites. Furthermore, a survey was conducted with 150 people to examine the consumers' assessment on the experiences of mobile telecom services usage. The expected results will verify that the current static efficiency-based policy framework results in a stagnant market and is lacking sustainable driving force, which needs to be resolved in the dynamic perspective. Finally, we propose future policy framework for the dynamic efficiency enhancement in the market. --
    Keywords: Telecommunication Policy,Cambodia,Mobile Phone Market
    Date: 2012
  23. By: Kogure, Katsuo
    Abstract: This paper presents an econometric analysis of impacts of the communist revolution by the Khmer Rouge (1975-’79) in Cambodia on economic behaviors of survivors after 1979. Specifically, we compare forced marriages in the Pol Pot regime with regular marriages after its collapse, and make econometric evaluations of their educational investments for children. Our econometric results are interpreted as meaning that forced-marriage couples invested less in their children’s education than the regular-marriage couples. We consider those results, by reflecting upon social and political structures of Cambodia under and after the Pol Pot regime.
    Keywords: educational investments for children, family organizations, institutions, norms, political economy, violence
    JEL: I24 N35 O12 P26
    Date: 2013–03
  24. By: Fukase, Emiko
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of employment opportunities created by foreign-owned firms as a determinant of internal migration and destination choice using the Vietnam Migration Survey 2004 and the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey 2004. Multinomial logit and conditional logit models are estimated to study both origin and destination-specific characteristics of migrants. The paper finds that the migration response to foreign job opportunities is larger for female workers than male workers; there appears to be intermediate selection in terms of educational attainment; and migrating individuals on average tend to go to destinations with higher foreign employment opportunities, even controlling for income differentials, land differentials, and distances between sending and receiving areas.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Labor Markets,Anthropology,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement,Human Migrations&Resettlements
    Date: 2013–04–01
  25. By: Tan, Margaret; Lin, Trisha T. C.
    Abstract: Cloud computing constructs a new environment to enable resource sharing in terms of scalable infrastructures, middleware and application platforms and value-added business models. It offers the advantages of flexibility and scalability to business operations, reduction in total costs of computing, thus achieving higher return on investment. However, the technology raises pertinent concerns on security risk, data privacy, data segregation in the cloud and long-term viability of providers. Owing to the potential for cloud computing, more research is needed to understand the factors influencing its adoption. This study therefore aims to examine to what extent Singapore companies adopt cloud computing, and how organizational factors, perceived characteristics of cloud computing, and environmental factors affect the adoption. An online survey was conducted of enterprises from a wide range of industries. This paper will further contribute to the knowledge on the factors of cloud computing adoption, thus we hope to mystify the differences between the hype espoused by vendors versus what is really perceived by the organizations. --
    Keywords: cloud computing adoption, organizational factors, perceive characteristics of innovation, environmental factor.
    Date: 2012
  26. By: ITO Takatoshi; KOIBUCHI Satoshi; SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko
    Abstract: This paper is the first comprehensive research using a questionnaire survey on the choice of invoicing currency with all Japanese manufacturing firms listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Questionnaires were sent out to 920 Japanese firms in September 2009, and 227 firms responded. We present new firm-level evidence on invoicing currency by the destination and type of trading partners, with a particular emphasis on the difference between arms-length and intra-firm trades. We also conduct cross-section analysis to investigate what determines the invoicing choice of Japanese firms. Our novel findings are as follows. (1) The invoicing choice depends on whether it is an intra-firm trade or an arms-length trade. While yen invoicing tends to be chosen in arms-length trades, there is a strong tendency that invoicing in the importer's currency is used in intra-firm trades, suggesting that the parent firm in Japan assumes and manages the currency risk. In exports to Asian subsidiaries, U.S. dollar invoicing is used. (2) Firm size does matter in the choice of invoice currency. The larger (smaller) the size of the firms, the more likely they are to conduct intra-firm (arms-length, resp.) trades. (3) In terms of the number of Japanese firms, using yen invoicing is more prevalent than U.S. dollar invoicing. However, adjusting for the export value of each firm, the share of U.S. dollar invoicing is on average larger than that of yen invoicing, mainly because Japanese firms with a large volume of exports tend to have a global sales and production network where U.S. dollar invoicing is dominant, especially in the case of "triangular trade."
    Date: 2013–04
  27. By: Fukase, Emiko
    Abstract: This paper investigates the differential impacts of foreign ownership on wages for different types of workers (in terms of educational background and gender) in Vietnam using the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys of 2002 and 2004. Whereas most previous studies have compared wage levels between foreign and domestic sectors using firm-level data (thus excluding the informal sector), one advantage of using the Living Standards Surveys in this paper is that the data allow wage comparison analyses to extend to the informal wage sector. A series of Mincerian earnings equations and worker-specific fixed effects models are estimated. Several findings emerge. First, foreign firms pay higher wages relative to their domestic counterparts after controlling for workers’ personal characteristics. Second, the higher the individual workers'levels of education, the larger on average are the wage premiums for those who work for foreign firms. Third, longer hours of work in foreign firm jobs relative to working in the informal wage sector are an important component of the wage premium. Finally, unskilled women experience a larger foreign wage premium than unskilled men, reflecting the low earning opportunities for women and a higher gender gap in the informal wage sector.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Gender and Development,Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress
    Date: 2013–04–01
  28. By: Claire Bernard (EHESS, IRD, UMR DIAL); Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (DIAL, IRD, Paris); Gilles Spielvogel (UMR Développement et Société, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This paper uses exhaustive individual-level data from the Malian 1976, 1987 and 1998 censuses to analyze the urbanization process and economic specialization of cities in Mali. We first construct an exhaustive panel data set of the 10,000 Malian localities. In order to analyze urban areas that make sense from an economic point of view, we develop a consistent method to construct functional urban agglomerations, based on a density threshold for contiguous localities. Our definition of "cities" therefore abstracts from any administrative criteria. These data enable us to study the dynamics of the complete distribution of urban and rural localities from 1976 to 1998. We show that the urbanization process in Mali is mainly due to the spatial extension and population growth of Bamako, the capital city and to the demographic growth of small rural market towns. Consequently, the density of the Malian urban system is very low and urban primacy very high. We then turn to an econometric analysis of the determinants of non-agricultural employment growth between 1987 and 1998 by locality. We focus on two main factors: population density, which may induce agglomeration externalities that attract workers and firms; and the degree of specialization of economic activities that could capture industry level externalities. Controlling for a range of other characteristics like distance to the road network, administrative status, physical geography, and rainfall shocks, we show that total employment has been spreading out mainly due to the spreading out of primary employment. Primary sector dynamic is impacted by market access. Services and industry jobs cluster in cities and small towns, due mainly to public infrastructure amenities rather than urbanization externalities or sectoral externalities, the latter being not significant and the former significant but weak. _________________________________ A partir de données exhaustives des recensements maliens de la population de 1976, 1987 et 1998, cette étude analyse le processus d’urbanisation et de spécialisation économique des 10 000 localités maliennes. Grâce à un travail d’appariement minutieux, rarement entrepris même dans les pays développés, nous constituons un panel de l’ensemble des localités et nous définissons les agglomérations urbaines en fonction de leurs tailles, densités et contiguïtés. Nous montrons que le Mali est un pays où la concentration des populations s’est opérée prioritairement à Bamako et dans des petits bourgs ruraux et que son tissu urbain est très peu dense. La primatialité du système urbain est alors très élevée. L’analyse de la dynamique de l’emploi révèle que le processus d’urbanisation du Mali s’accompagne plutôt d’un processus de dispersion spatiale des emplois. Cependant, on observe que la croissance des emplois des branches secondaire et tertiaire au sein des villes et des bourgs ruraux de plus de 1 000 habitants dépend positivement de la taille des marchés. Les villes maliennes et leurs concentrations d’habitants permettent donc un dynamisme plus important de l’emploi dans les branches non agricoles. On observe que les zones d’expansion de la culture du coton sont les zones où la croissance démographique des localités est plus forte, sans pour autant que cela occasionne un dynamisme plus important de l’emploi non agricole.
    Keywords: urbanization, agglomeration, Mali,Secteur informel, marché du travail, Vietnam, crise financière internationale, politiques publiques.
    JEL: R11 R12 O18 O55
    Date: 2012–11
  29. By: Chang, Younghoon; Shahzeidi, Mehri; Kim, Hyerin; Park, Myeong-cheol
    Abstract: To achieve the information society for all, access for all is crucial. However, many countries have reported to have large gender discrepancies in online access and participation. This study empirically verified user perception data and compared the data across countries and genders to determine the differences between countries and genders. The results of surveys in Cambodia, Iran, and Korea verify that each aspect of the digital divide and online participation has a different influence on each aspect of digital access and online participation between the genders in each country. In this study, we propose measurement items of digital access and user participation in the online context. This paper also offers guidelines for online policy and business strategy for targeting users with different levels of digital access. --
    Keywords: Digital Divide,Gender Digital Divide,Access,Online Participation,Cross-national
    Date: 2012
  30. By: Babu, Suresh Chandra; Dorosh, Paul A.
    Abstract: We surveyed 30 countries to measure the capacity of their individuals, organizations, and policy process system to undertake food and agricultural policy research. Our Food Policy Research Capacity Index, constructed using measures of human capacity (PhD full-time equivalent researchers per million rural residents), human capacity productivity (publications per PhD full-time equivalent researcher), and strength of institutions (the government effectiveness pillar of the Worldwide Governance Indicators), showed substantial variation across countries, with the Republic of South Africa, Colombia, and Ghana scored far higher than countries with similarly sized rural populations such as Liberia, Laos, Burundi, and Afghanistan.
    Keywords: Capacity building; Capacity strengthening; Indicators; Food policy; Typology; Agricultural research; Policy research
    Date: 2013

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