nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2011‒10‒15
25 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Knowledge cluster formation as a science policy: lessons learned By Evers, Hans-Dieter
  2. Adopting Contractors’ Risk Management (CIRIM) Framework using Multi Dimensional Theories By Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana; Mohammad , Mohammad Fadhil
  3. Looking East, looking West: Penang as a knowledge hub By Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter
  4. Exports and economic growth in Indonesia's fishery sub-sector: Cointegration and error-correction models By Indra Nurcahyo Sjarif; Koji Kotani; Ching-Yang Lin
  5. Contractors’ Approaches to Risk Management at the Construction Phase in Malaysia By Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Adnan , Hamimah; Che Haron, Roziha
  6. Economic Effects of Oil and Food Price Shocks in Asia and Pacific Countries: An Application of SVAR Model By Alom, Fardous
  7. Productivity, Technical and Efficiency Change in Singapore's Services Sector, 2005 to 2008 By Boon Lee
  8. Fruit and vegatable consumption in Malaysia: a count system approach By Yen, Steven T.; Tan, Andrew K.G.
  9. Distribution Trade Sector Output and Productivity Performance: A Case Study of Singapore and Hong Kong 2001-2008 By Boon Lee
  10. Determinants of Land Use Change Dynamics in the Margins of Protected Forest Areas: Evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia By Reetz, Sunny W. H.; Brummer, Bernhard
  11. Public-private partnerships and GLOBALGAP standard adoption: evidence from small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand By Kersting, Sarah; Wollni, Meike
  12. A Bayesian Total Factor Productivity Analysis of Tropical Agricultural Systems in Central-Western Africa And South-East Asia By Tonini, Axel; Matus, Silvia Saravia; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
  13. South-South FDI and Development in East Asia By Lipsey, Robert E.; Sjöholm, Fredrik
  14. Dynamic Social Accounting Matrix (DySAM): Concept, Methodology and Simulation Outcomes – The case of Indonesia and Mozambique By Christoph Ernst; Jorge Alarcon; P.D. Sharma
  15. South-South FDI and Development in East Asia By Lipsey, Robert E.; Sjöholm, Fredrik
  16. Contractors’ Strategic Approaches to Risk Assessment Techniques at Project Planning Stage By Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana
  17. Seeking Opportunities from New Patterns in Global Trade By Gonzalo Castro
  18. On Australia’s foreign economic relations By Kümpel, Arndt
  19. Measuring Systemic Importance of Financial Institutions: An Extreme Value Theory Approach By Toni Gravelle; Fuchun Li
  20. Learning style differences between Japan and Thailand: A case of Japanese multinationals By Yoshitaka Yamazaki; Thitiwat Attrapreyangkul
  21. An integrated planning-simulation-architecture approach for logistics sharing management: A case study in Northern Thailand and Southern China By Pree Thiengburanathum; Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu; Yacine Ouzrout; Nopasit Chakpitak; Abdelaziz Bouras
  22. New Zealand's Preferential Trading Arrangements: Implications for the New Zealand Dairy Industry By Howard, Sam; Gow, Hamish R.; Ozer-Balli, Hatice
  23. The governance of Singapore’s knowledge clusters: off shore marine business and waterhub By Menkhoff, Thomas; Evers, Hans-Dieter
  24. The Political Economy of Decentralization in Thailand - Does Decentralization Allow for Peasant Participation? By Dufhues, Thomas; Theesfeld, Insa; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Munkung, Nuchanata
  25. Education and Conflict Recovery: The Case of Timor Leste By Patricia Justino; Marinella Leone; Paola Salardi

  1. By: Evers, Hans-Dieter
    Abstract: Regional science policy aims at the creation of productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination, K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. The following paper will look at Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam and their path towards a Knowledge-based economy. All governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. Some evidence on the current state of knowledge cluster formation is provided. If the formation of a knowledge cluster has been the government policy, what has been the result? Is there an epistemic landscape of knowledge clusters? Has the main knowledge cluster really materialised? Data collected from websites, directories, government publications and expert interviews have enabled us to construct the epistemic landscape of Peninsular Malaysia and the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Several knowledge clusters of a high density of knowledge producing institutions and their knowledge workers have been identified and described. An analysis of the knowledge output, measured in terms of scientific publications, patents and trademarks show that knowledge clusters have, indeed, been productive as predicted by cluster theory, though the internal working of clusters require further explanation.
    Keywords: Science policy; knowledge and development; knowledge-based economy; knowledge clusters; knowledge corridors; Malaysia; Vietnam
    JEL: J38 R58 O1 G38 D83 D8 D78 E61 O3 A14
    Date: 2011–09–20
  2. By: Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana; Mohammad , Mohammad Fadhil
    Abstract: In general, many contractors in Malaysia are found to have a limited expertise in developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate project risks. Consequently, this has led contractors struggling to complete the project on schedule, within the client’s budget and quality parameters. This was proven by the current issues on the delayed projects reported in the Ninth Malaysian Plan. Currently in Malaysia, there is no existing risk management framework specifically designed for contractors. Thus, the idea of introducing CIRIM among the Malaysian contractors is a proactive approach to achieve better project objectives. This paper therefore proposes to introduce the CIRIM framework to be adopted by the Malaysian contractors. The research methodology applied in the main research includes literature reviews, questionnaires and interviews. It is found that although there are some forms of risk management systems being used in the Malaysian construction industry, most of them are not well structured, documented and implemented in a formal manner. Therefore, the idea of establishing the CIRIM framework among Malaysian contractors is paramount and justified.
    Keywords: Keywords: Risk Management; Contractors; CIRIM; Construction; Malaysia
    JEL: N6 L7
    Date: 2011–09–25
  3. By: Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter
    Abstract: Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooperation has increased considerably between 1970 and 2010, but that there has also been a remarkable shift from European, Australian and American partners to East Asian and to South Asian partners. The latter will be analysed in greater detail to show the development of Penang as an increasingly important Asian knowledge hub. One of the highlighted results of our paper will be the increasing importance of research ties across the Indian Ocean.
    Keywords: Knowledge; knowledge for development; science policy; economic development; knowledge clusters; research output; Malaysia; India; China; ASEAN
    JEL: O1 D8 A14
    Date: 2011–09–20
  4. By: Indra Nurcahyo Sjarif (International University of Japan); Koji Kotani (International University of Japan); Ching-Yang Lin (International University of Japan)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the causal relationship between fishery's exports and its economic growth in Indonesia by utilizing cointegration and error-correction models. Using annual data from 1969 to 2005, we find the evidence that there exist the long-run relationship as well as bi-directional causality between exports and economic growth in Indonesia's fishery sub-sector. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research that examine this issue focusing on a natural resource based industry, and the results shed light on the role of agriculture sector for economic growth in the developing countries.
    Keywords: export growth, economic growth, shery sub-sector, cointegration, error-correction models
    JEL: Q57 Q58
    Date: 2011–06
  5. By: Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Adnan , Hamimah; Che Haron, Roziha
    Abstract: Abstract - Often times, contractors failed to identify, plan, strategize, analyzed, execute, monitor, control and manage the risk involves during construction phase in Malaysia. Consequently, the contractor failed to complete the project on schedule, within client’s budget and quality. The idea of introducing formal risk management among Malaysian contractors during construction phase is seem to be a proactive approach to achieve the project objectives. This paper intends to identify the application of formal risk management among the contractors during the construction phase in Malaysia. Questionnaires and interviews were used. It was found that although the risk management process in Malaysian construction industry has been introduced, most of them are not well structured and not being implemented in a formal manner. Therefore, it is suggested that these contractors should try to implement formal risk management and hope that the construction industry in Malaysia can enjoy the benefits and lead our industry effectively into the next stage of building the nation.
    Keywords: Keywords : Risk Management; Contractors; Construction Phase; Malaysia
    JEL: G3 D8 L7
    Date: 2010–11–16
  6. By: Alom, Fardous
    Abstract: This study investigates the economic effects of external oil and food price shocks in the context of selected Asia and Pacific countries including Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, India and Thailand. The study is conducted within the framework of SVAR model using quarterly data over the period 1980 to 2010 although start date varies based on availability of data. The study reveals that resource poor countries that specialize in heavy manufacturing industries like Korea and Taiwan are highly affected by international oil price shocks. Oil price shocks negatively affect industrial output growth and exchange rate and positively affect inflation and interest rates. On the other hand, oil poor nations such as Australia and New Zealand with diverse mineral resources other than oil are not affected by oil price shocks. Only exchange rates are affected by oil price shocks in these countries. Furthermore, countries that are oil poor but specialized in international financial services are also not affected by oil price increase. Similarly, developing country Like India with limited reserve of oil is not affected by oil price shock. However, Thailand possessing a number of natural resources other than oil is not accommodative of oil price shocks. Limited impact of food prices can be recorded for India, Korea and Thailand in terms of industrial output, inflation and interest rate. The major impact of food prices is that it helps depreciating real effective exchange rate for almost all countries except Singapore. As a whole, the effects of external oil and food prices depend on the economic characteristics of the countries. The empirical results of this study suggest that oil and food prices should be considered for policy and forecasting purposes especially for Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.
    Keywords: oil price, food price, shocks, economic effects, Asia, Pacific, SVAR, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Boon Lee (QUT)
    Abstract: The current study was motivated by statements made by the Economic Strategies Committee that Singapore's recent productivity levels in services were well below countries such as the US, Japan and Hong Kong. Massive employment of foreign workers was cited as the reason for poor productivity levels. To shed more light on Singapore's falling productivity, a nonparametric Malmquist productivity index was employed which provides measures of productivity change, technical change and efficiency change. The findings reveal that growth in total factor productivity was attributed to technical change with no improvement in efficiency change. Such results suggest that gains from TFP were input-driven rather than from a 'best-practice' approach such as improvements in operations or better resource allocation.
    Keywords: Efficiency, productivity; Malmquist indices; Singapore services
    JEL: G21 D24
    Date: 2011–09–06
  8. By: Yen, Steven T.; Tan, Andrew K.G.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2011–09–02
  9. By: Boon Lee (QUT)
    Abstract: This paper employs the industry of origin approach to compare value added and productivity of Singapore and Hong Kong's Distribution Trade Sector for the period 2001-2008. The direct comparison between these two economies was motivated by the statements of the Singapore government: Its services sector, especially in Retail Trade, lags behind Hong Kong's productivity levels. The results show that since 2005, Singapore's Distribution performance in terms of labour productivity was below Hong Kong's level, which was largely due to poor performance in its Retail Trade sector arising from an influx of foreign workers. Results from total factor productivity (TFP) between these two economies also suggest that Hong Kong's better performance (since 2005) was largely due to its ability to employ more educated and trained workers with limited use of capital. The results suggest that polices that worked in Hong Kong may not work for Singapore because its population is more diverse which poses a challenge to policy-makers in raising its productivity level.
    Keywords: purchasing power parities; distribution trade; wholesale trade; retail trade; total factor productivity; labour productivity
    JEL: C43 D24 L81 O47
    Date: 2011–09–06
  10. By: Reetz, Sunny W. H.; Brummer, Bernhard
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Kersting, Sarah; Wollni, Meike
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2011–09–02
  12. By: Tonini, Axel; Matus, Silvia Saravia; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
    Abstract: This paper computes and analyses total factor productivity (TFP) growth rates for tropical agricultural systems in Central-Western Africa and South-East Asia. Two regions that despite sharing common agro-ecological conditions, have pursued different adoption rates of green revolution technology and have reported dissimilar yields per hectare. A panel data set is constructed for the period 1987-2007 from the FAOSTAT database. A Bayesian stochastic frontier model with country specific temporal variation in technical efficiency is estimated. Technical efficiency estimates reveal that there is substantial room for improvement in both continental sub-sets and that TFP estimates show on average larger rates of growth for South-East Asian countries as compared to Central-Western African countries. Results indicate that TFP is mostly driven by technical change and countries such as Benin, and Gambia display catch-up.
    Keywords: Bayesian Inference, Stochastic Production Frontier, Time Varying Technical Inefficiency, Total Factor Productivity Growth, Tropical Agricultural Systems, Farm Management, Productivity Analysis, C15, D24, O47,
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Lipsey, Robert E. (NBER); Sjöholm, Fredrik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper attempts to measure the size of South-South FDI in developing East Asia and the trends in it, and the characteristics of the investing countries and the investments themselves. It also summarizes the findings of studies in individual countries of the effects of these investments. The studies of individual countries will be used to try to find some consensus on differences between South-South FDI and North-South FDI. Among the comparisons of the two types of FDI we try to summarize are be findings about their industrial composition, their effects on their host countries and their host-country firms’ productivity, wages, and employment, and how these differ across industries.
    Keywords: FDI; East Asia; South-South; Economic development
    JEL: F21 F23 O19
    Date: 2011–10–06
  14. By: Christoph Ernst (International Labour Office, Employment Policy Department); Jorge Alarcon; P.D. Sharma
    Abstract: This paper discusses the problems associated with measuring economy wide employment in developing countries. In doing so, it sets up the outline of a framework in which employment and its dimensions in developing countries ought to be conceived. The paper then goes on to propose a measure of employment that gives relatively acceptable returns to the worker. Based on this measure, the work explores how the incidence of good employment has been associated with economic growth and income inequality in the developing world.
    Keywords: employment / labour intensity / income distribution / measurement / developing countries
    Date: 2011
  15. By: Lipsey, Robert E. (City University of New York); Sjöholm, Fredrik (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to measure the size of South-South FDI in developing East Asia and the trends in it, and the characteristics of the investing countries and the investments themselves. It also summarizes the findings of studies in individual countries of the effects of these investments. The studies of individual countries will be used to try to find some consensus on differences between South-South FDI and North-South FDI. Among the comparisons of the two types of FDI we try to summarize are be findings about their industrial composition, their effects on their host countries and their host-country firms’ productivity, wages, and employment, and how these differ across industries.
    Keywords: FDI; East Asia; South-South; Economic development; Multinational firms
    JEL: F21 F23 O19
    Date: 2011–09–30
  16. By: Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana
    Abstract: Abstract — The construction industry is still plagued by poor quality, poor workmanship, poor safety and health environment, and poor practices. The current main problem in the Malaysian Construction Industry is delayed projects under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The idea of introducing formal risk assessment among Malaysian contractors during the project planning stage is a proactive approach to achieve project objectives. Therefore, this research intends to achieve the following objectives: (1) to investigate the contractors’ approaches of risk assessment techniques at the project planning stage, (2) to investigate the consequences of risk assessment techniques at the project planning stage, and (3) to determine the appropriate risk assessment techniques in dealing with the potential risk factors at the project planning stage. The research methodology applied for this research includes literature reviews and questionnaires. Findings from this research show that the application of risk assessment techniques in the Malaysian Construction Industry is still moderate. Hence, it is suggested that these contractors should try to implement formal risk assessment techniques during the project planning stage in order to achieve the project objectives.
    Keywords: Keywords - Risk; Risk Assessment; Contractors; Project Planning Stage; Construction Industry
    JEL: G3 L7
    Date: 2011–09–25
  17. By: Gonzalo Castro
    Abstract: The emergence of the new South-South axis in commerce provides extraordinary opportunities for poverty alleviation, investment in clean technologies, and strong movement toward sustainable development in both regions. Yet there is also the possibility of major impacts on the environment. This paper examines the environmental and social implications for Latin America and the Caribbean of economic growth in Asia and presents ideas as to how the region can take full advantage of change.
    Keywords: Environment & Natural Resources :: Environmental Policy, Integration & Trade :: Trade Agreements, IDB-TN-236, globalization, integration & trade, LAC, southeast Asia, South-South axis, environmental change, commodities
    Date: 2011–03
  18. By: Kümpel, Arndt
    Abstract: This paper analyses the current state and trends in Australia’s foreign economic relations with respect to the economic rise of Asia. Starting from an evolutionary view of Australia’s integration into the global economy, the consequences of the rise in the terms of trade are analysed. Following on from that, an analysis of selected aggregated indicators of Australia’s foreign trade and investment is carried out. Finally, the outlook emphasizes the promising perspective as well as the challenges.
    Keywords: Dutch disease; Australian Terms of trade; regional economics; international economics; growth poles; Australian production factor endowment
    JEL: N57 F14 F21
    Date: 2011–07–07
  19. By: Toni Gravelle; Fuchun Li
    Abstract: In this paper, we define a financial institution’s contribution to financial systemic risk as the increase in financial systemic risk conditional on the crash of the financial institution. The higher the contribution is, the more systemically important is the institution for the system. Based on relevant but different measurements of systemic risk, we propose a set of market-based measures on the systemic importance of financial institutions, each designed to capture certain aspects of systemic risk. Multivariate extreme value theory approach is used to estimate these measures. Using six big Canadian banks as the proxy for Canadian banking sector, we apply these measures to identify systemically important banks in Canadian banking sector and major risk contributors from international financial institutions to Canadian banking sector. The empirical evidence reveals that (i) the top three banks, RBC Financial Group, TD Bank Financial Group, and Scotiabank are more systemically important than other banks, although with different order from different measures, while we also find that the size of a financial institution should not be considered as a proxy of systemic importance; (ii) compared to the European and Asian banks, the crashes of U.S. banks, on average, are the most damaging to the Canadian banking sector, while the risk contribution to the Canadian banking sector from Asian banks is quite lower than that from banks in U.S. and euro area; (iii) the risk contribution to the Canadian banking sector exhibits “ home bias ”, that is, cross-country risk contribution tends to be smaller than domestic risk contribution.
    Keywords: Financial stability; Financial system regulation and policies; Financial institutions; Econometric and statistical methods
    JEL: C14 G21 G32
    Date: 2011
  20. By: Yoshitaka Yamazaki (International University of Japan); Thitiwat Attrapreyangkul (International University of Japan)
    Abstract: We compared various aspects of learning styles between Japan and Thailand through the lens of experiential learning theory. A total of 398 participants who work for Japanese multinational corporations were surveyed and examined with controlling age, gender, work experience periods, and hierarchical management positions. Results showed that the two country difference significantly impacted all learning style variables concerning a dialectical learning dimension of feeling and thinking, In the process of learning, for example, Japanese employees learned through more feeling and less thinking, whereas Thai employees learned equally applying the four learning modes of feeling, thinking, reflecting, and action. Although the learning style of Japanese employees indicated diverging on average, the analysis of their learning style distribution revealed that accommodating was most dominated. Thai employees were categorized in accommodating learning style that was not so specialized at feeling and acting modes. Instead, they possessed balanced learning style as their distinctive characteristic. Based on those findings, we discussed theoretical and practical implications.
    Keywords: Learning styles; specialized vs. balanced orientation; Japan; Thailand; Japanese multinationals
    Date: 2011–09
  21. By: Pree Thiengburanathum (College of Art Media and Technology - University of Chiang Mai); Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat); Yacine Ouzrout (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Université Lumière - Lyon II : EA4125 - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon); Nopasit Chakpitak (College of Art Media and Technology - University of Chiang Mai); Abdelaziz Bouras (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Université Lumière - Lyon II : EA4125 - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon)
    Abstract: In logistics, freight transportation is a major source of income in a country's economy. One of the most popular strategies is logistics sharing, which is a complex problem due to the involved stakeholders. Moreover, the current several transport operations are extremely expensive due to the empty return. For these reasons, a decision support system is needed to enhance or predict the system optimum and the best strategies of each stakeholder in the context of logistics sharing schemas. In this paper, we will discuss how a Knowledge Management System methodology can be developed for a real case study from the project between Northern Thailand and Southern China which will be used in our study. In parallel, we will show how we model the agent from the analysed data in order to use in our Multi-Agent Simulation in the next phase. The agents will be defined such as transport agents, intermediate agents and customers, among others.
    Keywords: Knowledge Management, Customer Relationship Management, Multi Agent Simulation and Modelling, Greater Mekong Subregion's North-South Economics Corridor
    Date: 2010–12–16
  22. By: Howard, Sam; Gow, Hamish R.; Ozer-Balli, Hatice
    Abstract: This paper discusses the economic implications of the preferential trade agreements that New Zealand is currently negotiating, using a computable general equilibrium modelling framework. The New Zealand dairy industry is a particular focus in the results, which come from the GTAP model produced by Purdue University. Results are discussed from the independent simulations of preferential trade agreements between New Zealand and Korea, New Zealand and India, New Zealand and Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, New Zealand and the Gulf Cooperation Council, and expansion of the Trans-Pacific Partnership to include Australia, Peru, Viet Nam, Malaysia, and the United States of America.
    Keywords: New Zealand, dairy industry, preferential trade agreements, Agribusiness, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics,
    Date: 2011
  23. By: Menkhoff, Thomas; Evers, Hans-Dieter
    Abstract: Based on two case studies of knowledge clusters (off shore marine/rig business and water hub) in Singapore, the paper illustrates the importance of good knowledge governance in creating robust and value-creating knowledge clusters. We begin by defining key terms used such as knowledge clusters, hubs and governance, followed by a short historical account of good knowledge governance for Singapore’s development. The two cases studies of knowledge clusters presented here include (i) the offshore oil rig business (Keppel) which we posit as an example of innovative value creation based on sophisticated fabrication methods and R&D as well as (ii) the island republic’s dynamic and rapidly emerging, global hydrohub called ‘WaterHub’. We examine the structural characteristics of both clusters, assess their progress based on the cluster lifecycle literature, highlight key governance enablers required to create and sustain such competitive hubs and draw conclusions for K4D latecomers.
    Keywords: Knowledge governance; knowledge clusters; science policy; maritime industry; Singapore
    JEL: D8 G3 A14
    Date: 2011–09–16
  24. By: Dufhues, Thomas; Theesfeld, Insa; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Munkung, Nuchanata
    Abstract: One of the most important issues in rural development is empowerment and entitlement of farmers through participation. Decentralisation and participation are seemingly interdependent. Therefore, the paper begins with a theoretical discussion on the cause and effects of this interdependence. Decentralisation is often advertised as means to better incorporate the views and wishes of local actors. Yet, a decentralization process is no guaranty for political participation of local actors. The state induced decentralisation process in rural Thailand serves as an example to investigate forces that hamper or facilitate political participation. Change and uncertainty are inherent of political systems and the agricultural sector. Hence, this paper focuses in particular, on the last two politically turbulent decades in Thailand and its impact on political participation in rural Thailand. The Tambon Administration Organization (TAO) as one means of and likewise outcome of the decentralization process will serve as an example to discuss the effects of decentralisation on participation in the TAOs, using the concept of accountability. After increasing decentralization at the end of the 90s the last decade was coined by centralization policies. The ongoing political unrest could potentially trigger a new wave of political decentralization. However, the real reason for decentralization is not to distribute power but to maintain central effectiveness. Thus, we expect to see more decentralization without participation.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2011
  25. By: Patricia Justino (Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex); Marinella Leone (Department of Economics, University of Sussex); Paola Salardi (Department of Economics, University of Sussex)
    Abstract: The Timor Leste secession conflict lasted for 25 years. Its last wave of violence in 1999, following the withdrawal of Indonesian troops, generated massive displacement and destruction with widespread consequences for the economic and social development of the country. This paper analyzes the impact of the conflict on the level and access to education of boys and girls in Timor Leste. We examine the short-term impact of the 1999 violence on school attendance and grade deficit rates in 2001, and the longer-term impact of the conflict on primary school completion of cohorts of children observed in 2007. We compare also the educational impact of the 1999 wave of violence with the impact of other periods of high-intensity violence during the 25 years of Indonesian occupation. The short-term effects of the conflict are mixed. In the longer term, we find a strong negative impact of the conflict on primary school completion among boys of school age exposed to peaks of violence during the 25-year long conflict. The effect is stronger for boys attending the last three grades of primary school. This result shows a substantial loss of human capital among young males in Timor Leste since the early 1970s, resulting from household investment trade-offs between education and economic survival.
    Date: 2011–10

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