nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2010‒10‒16
twelve papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Fiscal Policy Coordination in Asia: East Asian Infrastructure Investment Fund By Mahani Zainal Abidin
  2. Financing Asia’s Infrastructure: Modes of Development and Integration of Asian Financial Markets By Biswa N Bhattacharyay
  3. Asia’s Contribution to Global Rebalancing By Adams, Charles; Jeong, Hoe Yun; Park, Cyn-Young
  4. Appropriate Economic Space for Transnational Infrastructural Projects: Gateways, Multimodal Corridors, and Special Economic Zones By Peter J. Rimmer; Howard Dick
  5. Monetary Transmission of Global Imbalances in Asian Countries By Il Houng Lee; Woon Gyu Choi
  6. The Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization: Origin, Development and Outlook By Anonymous
  7. Openness and technological innovation in East Asia : have they increased the demand for skills? By Almeida, Rita K.
  8. A Dynamic Structural Model of Contraceptive Use and Employment Sector Choice for Women in Indonesia By Uma Radhakrishnan
  9. Asia’s Role in the Global Financial Architecture By Masahiro Kawai; Peter A. Petri
  10. Critical Evaluation of Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects in Asia By Manabu Fujimura; Ramesh Adhikari
  11. Marginal benefit incidence of public health spending: evidence from Indonesian sub-national data By Sparrow, R.A.; Pradhan, M.P.; Kruse, I.
  12. New Estimates of the Equilibrium Exchange Rate: The case for the Chinese renminbi By SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko; Nagendra SHRESTHA; Zhaoyong ZHANG

  1. By: Mahani Zainal Abidin
    Abstract: East Asian countries were seriously affected by the 2008 global crisis through a steep fall in exports. This experience exposed the vulnerability of the East Asian growth model and emphasized the importance of generating regional growth by expanding domestic demand and enlarging intra-regional trade. A key factor to achieving higher regional economic growth and enlarging intra-regional trade is the better connectivity of infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, and rail links. Although some East Asian countries have made large investments in improving their infrastructures, others still lag behind. [ADBI Working Paper 232]
    Keywords: East Asian, exports, global crisis, intra-regional trade, roads, ports, airports,
    Date: 2010
  2. By: Biswa N Bhattacharyay
    Abstract: Asia faces very large infrastructure funding demands, estimated at around US$750 billion per year for energy, transport, telecommunications, water, and sanitation during 2010–2020 (ADB/ADBI 2009). Asia has large savings, significant international reserves, and rapid accumulations of funds that could be utilized for meeting these infrastructure investment needs, but Asian markets have failed to use available resources to channel funding into highly needed infrastructure projects. This paper explores issues and challenges in financing infrastructure for seamless Asian infrastructure connectivity and for other high priority development financing needs, and seeks methods and instruments to help direct Asian and international resources to cost-effectively and efficiently support infrastructure and other development needs. [ADBI Working Paper 229]
    Keywords: Asia, infrastructure,energy, transport, telecommunications, water
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Adams, Charles (National University of Singapore); Jeong, Hoe Yun (Asian Development Bank); Park, Cyn-Young (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Developing Asia remains at the core of global payment imbalances. While the geographical concentration of current account imbalances is rather significant, with the People’s Republic of China accounting for the lion’s share of the region’s current account surplus, how Asia contributes to global rebalancing also depends critically on the NIEs and larger ASEAN economies. Given the region’s huge diversity, the necessary national macroeconomic and structural policies will vary significantly across Asia’s emerging economies. Whereas near-term rebalancing efforts will be driven primarily by macroeconomic and exchange rate policies, medium- to long-term measures will involve policies and structural reforms directed to boost domestic and regional demand as a source of economic growth. In this paper, we argue that regional rebalancing will depend critically on the adoption of deeper and more comprehensive structural reforms and further trade liberalization that promote domestic spending—thus reducing Asia’s high dependence on extra regional demand. Priority policies should include infrastructure spending, competition, trade, financial development, investment, immigration, and other social policies to reduce national savings.
    Keywords: global imbalances; Asia; rebalancing
    JEL: E61 F42 F43
    Date: 2010–09–01
  4. By: Peter J. Rimmer; Howard Dick
    Abstract: This study addresses three questions that arise in Asia when formulating, financing, implementing, and maintaining transnational linkages versus purely domestic connections. [ADBI Working Paper 237]
    Keywords: Asia, formulating, financing, implementing, maintaining
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Il Houng Lee; Woon Gyu Choi
    Abstract: The paper explores the linkages between the global and domestic monetary gaps, and estimates the effects of monetary gaps on output growth, inflation, and net saving rates using panel data for 20 Asian countries for 1980-2008. We find a significant pass-through of the global monetary gap to domestic monetary gaps, which in turn affect output growth and inflation, in individual emerging market and developing countries in Asia. Notably, we provide evidence that the global monetary condition is partly responsible for the current account surplus in Asia. We also draw implications for monetary policy coordination for global rebalancing.
    Keywords: Asia , Balance of trade , Capital flows , Economic integration , Economic models , Export competitiveness , Globalization , Inflation , Monetary policy , Production growth , Reserves , Savings ,
    Date: 2010–09–15
  6. By: Anonymous
    Abstract: This paper discusses the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM); its origin, development and future outlook. It puts forward a number of proposals to make the liquidity support role of the CMIM more effective. It is further argued that the CMIM can bring about major changes to the policy institutional infrastructure of the East Asia region, particularly through the establishment of an Independent Surveillance Unit (ISU). The ISU can provide technical and secretariat support to financial cooperation processes in the region, which have thus far been driven by officials on a part-time basis. Consolidation of the main financial forums in the region is also proposed, specifically the Finance Minister Process and the Central Bank Process. Membership of these two processes should be expanded and unified, with the ISU providing technical and secretariat support. It is argued that regular policy meetings can be institutionalized and that this could enhance the role of East Asia in the global financial arena, whilst facilitating policy cooperation, with important regional and global implications. [ADBI Working Paper 230]
    Keywords: Multilateralization, Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM),East Asia, Surveillance Unit, financial arena
    Date: 2010
  7. By: Almeida, Rita K.
    Abstract: This paper asks whether the increased openness and technological innovation in East Asia have contributed to an increased demand for skills in the region. The author explores a unique firm level data set across eight countries. Results strongly support the idea that greater openness and technology adoption have increased the demand for skills, especially in middle income countries. Moreover, while the presence in international markets has been skill enhancing for most middle income countries, this has not been the case for manufacturing firms operating in China and in low-income countries. If international integration in the region intensifies further and technology continues to be skilled biased, policies aimed at mitigating skills shortages in the region should produce continual and persistent increases in skills.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Technology Industry,Emerging Markets,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2009–10–01
  8. By: Uma Radhakrishnan
    Abstract: This research investigates the impact of the Indonesian family planning program on the labor force participation decisions and contraceptive choices of women. I develop a discrete choice dynamic structural model, where each married woman in every period makes joint choices regarding the method of contraceptive used and the sector of employment in which to work in order to maximize her expected discounted lifetime utility function. Each woman obtains utility from pecuniary sources, nonpecuniary sources, and choice-specific time shocks. In addition to the random shocks, there is uncertainty in the model as a woman can only imperfectly control her fertility. Dynamics in the model are captured by several forms of state and duration dependence. Women in this model make different choices due to different preferences, differences in observable characteristics, and realization of uncertainty. The choices made by a woman depend on the compatibility between raising children and the sector of employment (including wages). While making decisions regarding contraceptive use, a woman considers the trade-off between costs (monetary and nonmonetary) of having a child and the benefits from having one. The primary source of data for this study is the first wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS 1), a retrospective panel. In my research, I use the geographic expansion and the changing nature of the Indonesian family planning program as sources of exogenous variation to identify the parameters of the structural model. I estimate the model using maximum likelihood techniques with data from IFLS 1 for the periods 1979-1993. Structural model estimates indicate that informal sector jobs offer greater compatibility between work and childcare. Parameter estimates indicate that choices of contraception method and employment sector vary by exogenous characteristics.
    Keywords: Family planning, female labor force participation, contraception, formal sector, Indonesia
    JEL: J13 J22 O17
    Date: 2010–09
  9. By: Masahiro Kawai; Peter A. Petri
    Abstract: The global economic and financial landscape has been transformed over the past decade by the growing economic size and financial power of emerging economies. The new G20 summit process, which includes the largest emerging economies, has established high-level international policy cooperation in this new setting. This paper argues that effective global economic governance will also require changes in key global organizations—such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the Financial Stability Board—and closer collaboration between global and regional organizations. We suggest that federalism be introduced on a global scale by creating hierarchies of global and regional organizations with overlapping ownership structures in various functional areas (as is already the case with the World Bank and regional development banks in the area of development finance). Asia could contribute to this transformation by building effective institutions to promote macroeconomic and financial stability and deepen regional trade and investment integration. [ADBI Working Paper 235]
    Keywords: global economic, financial landscape, international policy, cooperation, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Financial Stability
    Date: 2010
  10. By: Manabu Fujimura; Ramesh Adhikari
    Abstract: This paper attempts to fill gaps faced by policymakers and practitioners in the evaluation of cross-border infrastructure projects. It first defines what constitutes cross-border infrastructure projects, and then outlines an analytical framework and criteria to evaluate them. The criteria identify additionalities and externalities specific to cross-border infrastructure projects that need to be stressed in covering broader and indirect impacts that are not usually captured in the analysis of national projects. Then the paper examines to what extent the defined criteria are applicable in evaluating recent cross-border infrastructure projects. It also reports on emerging impacts patterns evidenced in relevant studies. The paper draws lessons and implications for design and implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects. [ADBI Working Paper 226]
    Keywords: policymakers, practitioners, cross-border, infrastructure projects, design and implementation
    Date: 2010
  11. By: Sparrow, R.A.; Pradhan, M.P.; Kruse, I.
    Abstract: We examine the marginal effects of decentralized public health spending by incorporating estimates of behavioural responses to changes in public health spending through benefit incidence analysis. The analysis is based on a panel dataset of 207 Indonesian districts over a 4-year period from 2001 to 2004. We show that district-level public health spending is largely driven by central government transfers, with an elasticity of public health spending with respect to district revenues of around 0.9. We find a positive effect of public health spending on utilization of outpatient care in the public sector for the poorest two quartiles. We find no evidence that public expenditures crowd oututilization of private services or household health spending. Our analysis suggests that increased public health spending improves targeting to the poor, as behavioural changes in public health care utilization are pro-poor. Nonetheless, most of the benefits of the additional spending accrued to existing users of services, as initial utilization shares outweigh the behavioural responses.
    Keywords: decentralization;public spending;health care utilization;benefit incidence;Indonesia.
    Date: 2009–12–01
  12. By: SATO Kiyotaka; SHIMIZU Junko; Nagendra SHRESTHA; Zhaoyong ZHANG
    Abstract: We estimate the equilibrium exchange rate (EER) of the Chinese renminbi (RMB) vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar from 1992 to 2008. In contrast to the recent empirical studies on the EER employing a large cross-country analysis, we focus on the supply side real factors in estimating the EER by extending the Yoshikawa (1990) model. To better reflect China's processing exports in the context of growing intra-regional trade in Asia, we incorporate in the empirical analysis the source country breakdown data on import prices and input coefficients of intermediate inputs by constructing an annual new International Input-Output (IIO) table for the period from 1992 to 2008. The results show that the EER of Chinese RMB appreciates sharply from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the current RMB exchange rate has been substantially undervalued and should be revalued by 65 percent from the year 2000 level. Such sharp appreciation of the EER corresponds to the dramatic increase in China's current account surplus from the mid-2000s, especially against the United States, which is ascribed to the significant improvement of both labor and intermediate input coefficients in China.
    Date: 2010–09

This nep-sea issue is ©2010 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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