nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2010‒08‒14
eleven papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. What Singapore Can Learn from Indonesia By H.P. Desker
  2. Asia and the IMF By Dr Stanley Fischer
  3. Asian Economic Integration ASEAN+3+1 or ASEAN+1s? By Amita Batra
  4. Asia's Role in the Global Financial Architecture By Kawai, Masahiro; Petri, Peter
  5. Adam Smith Meets an Index of Specialization in International Trade By Mitchell H. Kellman; Yochanan Shachmurove
  6. Globalization and Exclusionary Urban rowth in Asian Countries By Kundu, Amitabh and Kundu, Debolina
  7. FDI and Human Capital Development By P. Srinivas Subbarao
  8. The Spatial Dimension of Human Development Index in Indonesia By Rullan Rinaldi; Eva Nurwita
  9. Trade Facilitation Measures under Free Trade Agreements: Are They Discriminatory against Non-Members? By Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken; Lazaro, Dorothea
  10. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Transport Infrastructure Projects in the Greater Mekong Subregion By Stone, Susan; Strutt, Anna; Hertel, Thomas
  11. Decomposing the Great Trade Collapse: Products, Prices, and Quantities in the 2008-2009 Crisis By Mona Haddad; Ann Harrison; Catherine Hausman

  1. By: H.P. Desker
    Abstract: This report series is all about the growing recognition that Singapore can also learn from the experiences of Indonesia. [Report No.1]
    Keywords: Singapore, Indonesia, policy-maker, imitating, copying, foreign
    Date: 2010
  2. By: Dr Stanley Fischer
    Abstract: This lecture series begins with a discussion of the reforms that have undertaken in the IMF since the mid-1990s, and particularly since the start of the Asian economic crisis. It concludes with a discussion of the potential future roles of IMF in Asia, and of Asian countries in the IMF, particularly in the light of the emerging regional financial arrangements.
    Keywords: reforms, IMF, Asian, economic, financial arrangements
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Amita Batra
    Abstract: In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the most efficient approach to regional economic integration in Asia. Given that ASEAN is an existing regional bloc in Asia, alternative approaches to the alignment of China, Japan, Korea and India with ASEAN for the formation of the ASEAN+4 trade bloc have been evaluated to determine if there are efficiency costs by way of distortion in the patterns of trade away from those expected on the basis of comparative advantage. The findings of our analysis underscore the efficiency of a prior alignment with ASEAN for all the plus four economies. [Working Paper No. 186]
    Keywords: regional economic integration, Asia, efficiency cost, comparative advantage, first mover advantage, trade diversion
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Kawai, Masahiro (Asian Development Bank Institute); Petri, Peter (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The global economic and financial landscape has been transformed over the past decade by the growing economic size and financial power of emerging economies. The new G20 summit process, which includes the largest emerging economies, has established high-level international policy cooperation in this new setting. This paper argues that effective global economic governance will also require changes in key global organizations—such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and the Financial Stability Board—and closer collaboration between global and regional organizations. We suggest that federalism be introduced on a global scale by creating hierarchies of global and regional organizations with overlapping ownership structures in various functional areas (as is already the case with the World Bank and regional development banks in the area of development finance). Asia could contribute to this transformation by building effective institutions to promote macroeconomic and financial stability and deepen regional trade and investment integration.
    Keywords: saving investment balance; basic determinants export; american economy postcrisis
    JEL: F32 F41 F42
    Date: 2010–08–05
  5. By: Mitchell H. Kellman (Department of Economics, The City College of New York, and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York); Yochanan Shachmurove (Department of Economics, The City College of New York, and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York)
    Abstract: Development economists agree that increasing export diversification is a concomitant to economic development. An accepted explanation for Africa’s export stagnation is its dependence on monoculture, and on small number of commodities. Recently a large body of literature focuses on the relationship between economic growth and export specialization. However, there does not exist one generally acceptable measure or index for the concept of “Specialization in International Trade”. This paper suggest one such measure for specialization and its theoretical and conceptual framework are developed and applied to Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Tunisia and Morocco, during the years of their take offs.
    Keywords: Trade Specialization Indices; Development Theory; Developing Country Export Compositions; International Trade Theory; Trade in Manufactures; Trade and Transformation.
    JEL: O1 O14 F1 F14
    Date: 2010–08–06
  6. By: Kundu, Amitabh and Kundu, Debolina
    Abstract: This paper overviews the debate on the relationship between the measures of globalization, economic growth and pace of urbanization, and speculates on its impact on the quality of life and poverty in the context of Asian countries. After experiencing moderate to high urban growth for three to four decades since the 1950s, most of these countries have reported a significant deceleration. This questions the postulate of the epicentre of urbanization shifting to Asia. It also lends credence to the thesis of exclusionary urban growth, which is linked with the formal or informal denial of entry to poor migrants and increased unaffordability of urban space of the rural people. An analysis of the policies and programmes at the national and regional levels shows that these have contributed to the ushering in of this era of urban exclusion. The process of elite capture in the global cities has led to ‘sanitization’ and cleaning up of the micro environment by pushing out the current and prospective migrants and informal activities out of the city boundaries. Given the political economy of urban growth and the need to attract global and domestic capital into cities, governments would not interfere with ‘elitist interests’. Asia, thus, is unlikely to go the same way as Latin America did in the second half of the last century. To absorb incremental labourforce outside agriculture, many of the large countries may, however, promote the small and medium towns that have unfortunately reported economic stagnation and deceleration in population growth. Furthermore, a few among the small and less developed countries are likely to experience high urban growth, largely due to foreign investment. This would impact on the geopolitical balance on the continent despite the fact that expansion in the urban and industrial base in these countries would not make a dent on macro-level aggregates.
    Keywords: globalization, urbanization, urban growth, URGD, exclusionary urbanization, inequality, poverty, small towns, small Asian countries economic resiliency, Liberia
    Date: 2010
  7. By: P. Srinivas Subbarao
    Abstract: This paper explains importance of human capital skilling, the relation between the FDI and Human Capital development besides the experiences of these two in different regions of the world i.e., Asian and Latin American experiences. [W.P. No.2008-02-01]
    Keywords: FDI, human capital skilling, Human Capital development, Asian, Latin American
    Date: 2010
  8. By: Rullan Rinaldi (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Eva Nurwita (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: As the new paradigm of economic development pioneered by UNDP and Mahbub Ul-Haq undertaken, development processes no longer viewed as monodimensional process of economic growth indicated by GDP growth solely. Human Development Index on the other side offer an indicator that takes into account other aspecta as proxies of life quality such as life expectancy and literacy rate wrapped as a composite index. Several previous researches has try to explain the determinant of HDI, but as HDI was start to calculated at sub national level, the complexity of the task to explain the determinants was escalating due the fact that sub national data has geographical information attached in it. This paper tries to explain the spatial pattern on HDI achievement at sub national level in Indonesia, and estimate the determinants of HDI using spatial econometrics method. The use of the tools based on the necessity to put into account spatial dependence as special form of cross-sectional serial correlation, which is a common situation in observations that has geographical information.
    Keywords: Human Development Index, Spatial Econometrics, Sub National Data
    JEL: O15 R58 R11
    Date: 2010–06
  9. By: Hamanaka, Shintaro (Asian Development Bank); Tafgar, Aiken (Asian Development Bank); Lazaro, Dorothea (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Are trade facilitation measures under free trade agreements (FTAs) discriminatory? This important question has yet to be sufficiently explored by the existing literature on trade facilitation. Despite the multilateral scope and non-discriminatory objectives of trade facilitation measures, some trade facilitation measures under FTAs can be discriminatory, similar to those in preferential tariff elimination. Based on a review of FTAs in Asia and the Pacific, this study provides detailed empirical analysis on whether or not trade facilitation provisions in FTAs are exclusive to contracting FTA partners and how the measures can be discriminatory against non-members.
    Keywords: Trade facilitation; free trade agreements (FTAs); discriminatory measures; national treatment (NT); most-favored-nation (MFN)
    JEL: F13 F15 F42 F53 F59
    Date: 2010–07–01
  10. By: Stone, Susan (Asian Development Bank Institute); Strutt, Anna (Asian Development Bank Institute); Hertel, Thomas (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This study attempts to quantify the links between infrastructure investment and poverty reduction using a multi-region general equilibrium model, supplemented with household survey data for the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Infrastructure investment is an important step in economic development, with improvements in transportation infrastructure boosting economic opportunities throughout the region, for example by significantly reducing travel times and costs. In this study, we concentrate on quantifying the effects of some of the key linkages between upgraded infrastructure, economic growth, and poverty reduction. We model the impact of both reducing transport costs and improving trade facilitation in the GMS. Our findings suggest strong gains to the GMS countries as a result of infrastructure development and trade facilitation with national poverty reduced throughout the region. However, the impact on various segments of these populations differs, depending in part on factor returns.
    Keywords: greater mekong subregion; poverty reduction; infrastructure investment
    JEL: F15 I32 O12
    Date: 2010–08–03
  11. By: Mona Haddad; Ann Harrison; Catherine Hausman
    Abstract: We identify a new set of stylized facts on the 2008-2009 trade collapse that we hope can be used to shed light on the importance of demand and supply-side factors in explaining the fall in trade. In particular, we decompose the fall in international trade into product entry and exit, price changes, and quantity changes for imports by Brazil, the European Union, Indonesia, and the United States. When we aggregate across all products, most of the countries analyzed experienced a decline in new products, a rise in product exit, and falls in quantity for product lines that continued to be traded. The evidence suggests that the intensive rather than extensive margin mattered the most, consistent with studies of other countries and previous recessionary periods. On average, quantities declined and prices fell. However, these average effects mask enormous differences across different products. Price declines were driven primarily by commodities. Within manufacturing, while most quantity changes were negative, in most cases price changes moved in the opposite direction. Consequently, within manufacturing, there is some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that supply side frictions played a role. For the United States, price increases were most significant in sectors which are typically credit constrained.
    JEL: F1
    Date: 2010–08

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