nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2008‒04‒21
ten papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Latin America’s Asian Opportunity By Rolando Avendaño; Gøril Bjerkhol Havro
  2. How to Spend It: Sovereign Wealth Funds and the Wealth of Nations By Helmut Reisen
  3. Estimating the permanent growth effects of financial liberalization: The case of Malaysia By Rao, B. Bhaskara
  4. O Papel das Mulheres no Desenvolvimento Rural: Uma Leitura para Timor-Leste By Vanda Narciso; Pedro Damião Henriques
  5. An Exploratory Study on the Level of Trust towards Online Retailers among Consumers in the United Kingdom and Malaysia By Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Wazeer, Mohd Wazni
  6. Trade, conflicts and political integration : explaining the heterogeneity of regional trade agreements By Vincent Vicard
  7. "Globalization and Urban Growth: Evidence for Bangalore (India)" By Muttur Ranganathan Narayana
  8. Prudent versus Imprudent Lending to Africa: From debt relief to emerging lenders By Helmut Reisen; Sokhna Ndoye
  9. Copyright Protection In The Digital Era: A Malaysian Perspective By Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Lee, Kaw May
  10. Multidimensional Poverty Measures from an Information Theory Perspective By Maria Ana Lugo; Esfandiar Maasoumi

  1. By: Rolando Avendaño; Gøril Bjerkhol Havro
    Abstract: Growing trade with China and India offers new export opportunities for Latin America. Latin American countries need to invest in infrastructure and innovation. * This Policy Insights is based on the Latin American Economic Outlook 2008.
    Date: 2007–10
  2. By: Helmut Reisen
    Abstract: Development economics can explain both saving sources and motives that have led to the recent SWF boom, thus helping avoid investment restrictions in OECD countries. As the economics underlying funds from oil exporting countries are different from the economics of East Asian funds, so are the appropriate policy answers.
    Date: 2008–02
  3. By: Rao, B. Bhaskara
    Abstract: We argue that the specifications used to estimate the permanent growth effects of reforms in the financial sector are unsatisfactory. Using a modified specification and data for the period 1970 to 2004, we show developments in the financial sector in Malaysia have a small but significant permanent effect on the growth of output. Our results are different from the conclusions in a recent work on this topic.
    Keywords: Growth effects of financial development; Solow model; Malaysia.
    JEL: F49 O16
    Date: 2008–04–16
  4. By: Vanda Narciso; Pedro Damião Henriques (Universidade de Évora)
    Keywords: Gender, Land rights, Rural development, East Timor.
    JEL: Q15 A A A
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Wazeer, Mohd Wazni
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the extant level of trust towards online retailers among consumers in two different geographical and cultural locations – UK and Malaysia based on Michell’s et al. trust model. The objectives of this study are: 1. To identify the predictive variables of customers’ trust towards online retailers 2. To ascertain the extent of the consumer trust variable as being the essential element of online shopping 3. To analyse the differences in perception of online trust between consumers in the United Kingdom and Malaysia The study showed that online retailers are comparatively more trusted in UK than in Malaysia indicative by the higher average levels of trust from consumers in the UK. Additionally, the UK had a higher age group in the 25 – 34 category contributing the highest average trust value compared to Malaysia’s highest average trust value found in the lower 18 – 24 age group. There were a relatively higher percentage of male users; 66 per cent and 78 per cent in the UK and Malaysia respectively. Multiple stepwise regressions were used to analyse the level of trust against the selected trust correlates.
    JEL: L14 L81 O57
    Date: 2007–12–17
  6. By: Vincent Vicard (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, Ecole d'économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of the shape of regional trade agreements (RTAs). Because the world is constituted by independent political entities, international trade flows take place in a system where property rights are unsecured and RTAs should be understood as regulation mechanisms. In this theoretical framework, trade and security issues interact in the formation of RTAs, so that their determinants differ according to their level of political integration, defined by their ability to promote the negotiated settlement of conflicts. Empirical results confirm that countries more subject to interstate disputes and naturally more opened to trade are more likely to create politically integrated regional agreements, such as common markets or custom unions. On the contrary, international insecurity deters less integrated agreements implying a weak institutional framework, such as preferential or free trade agreements.
    Keywords: International conflicts, political integration, regionalism, trade, war.
    Date: 2008–03
  7. By: Muttur Ranganathan Narayana (CIRJE, University of Tokyo and Institute for Social and Economic Change)
    Abstract: This paper aims at economic analysis of globalization and urban growth of Bangalore (capital of Karnataka State, and globally known as Silicon Valley of India, IT Hub of Asia, and IT Capital of India) in South India. It offers new insights and evidence for information and communication technology (ICT) sector as a major source for selective globalization and urban growth. Estimated combined contribution of ICT manufacturing and services to Bangalore's economic growth is compared with regional, national and international (OECD average) levels. Empirical results support for a remarkable performance of Bangalore at all levels, mainly driven by ICT sector. In addition, Bangalore's valuable contributions to regional and national economic growth are singled out. Available and new evidence are put together to explain select factors behind Bangalore's phenomenal economic growth under globalization.
    Date: 2008–01
  8. By: Helmut Reisen; Sokhna Ndoye
    Abstract: Over recent years, a number of emerging creditors have increased their aid and lending to Africa’s Low-Income Countries (LICs). This has fed worries that new official lenders may be undoing years of international efforts to rein in over-indebtedness in Africa, to reduce the continent’s exposure to foreign-currency denominated debt and to encourage good governance by making loans conditional on political and economic reforms. These worries are reflected in the G8 Action Plan for Good Financial Governance in Africa, which attempts to include emerging lenders in the DSF framework — the Joint Bank-Fund Debt Sustainability Framework. The empirical analysis of debt dynamics distinguishes three country groups: African HIPC, HIPC-China (High China Presence), and Resource-rich IDA-only. All groups display marked trends of lower debt ratios (in net present value terms, NPV), in most cases below debtdistress level for even the lowest governance groups. Evidence on links between growth and lending may even suggest that African HIPC are currently under-leveraged. Generally, there is very little evidence of “imprudent lending” to debt relief beneficiaries in the figures up to 2006. The Asian giants lower debt ratios a little through debt relief, but they do this even more through stimulating exports and growth. This holds in particular for those countries towards which their lending is mostly directed: the resource-rich countries, rather than the debt-relief beneficiaries. <BR>Ces dernières années, un certain nombre de créanciers émergents ont accru leurs aides et leurs prêts en faveur des pays d'Afrique à faible revenu (LIC). On s'est dès lors inquiété que ces nouveaux prêteurs officiels puissent défaire des années d'efforts internationaux dans le but de ralentir le surendettement en Afrique, réduire l'exposition du continent aux devises étrangères ainsi qu'à la dette en question et encourager une bonne gouvernance en faisant de sorte que les emprunts dépendent des réformes politiques et économiques. Ces inquiétudes transparaissent dans le plan d'action du G8 qui vise une bonne gouvernance financière et tente d'inclure ces nouveaux prêteurs dans le cadre du CSD : le « Cadre de soutenabilité de la dette du FMI et de la Banque Mondiale ». Malheureusement, la DSF n'a pas exactement le profil pour ce type de situation : elle encourage à indiquer dans une moindre mesure les nouveaux prêts, doit s'attacher à des indicateurs opaques de gouvernances diverses, ne parvient pas à atteindre les déterminants économiques généraux de la viabilité de la dette et n'arrive pas à prendre en considération les versements et les biens publics dans ses analyses sur la viabilité de la dette. L'analyse concrète des dynamiques de la dette distingue trois types de pays : les PPTE africains, les PPTE chinois (pays à forte présence chinoise) et les pays emprunteurs d'IDA uniquement riches en ressources. Tous affichent des tendances claires de faibles taux de dette (en termes de valeur actualisée nette, VAN) et se trouvent dans la plupart des cas, sous un niveau de détresse lié à la dette et cela même pour les pays issus du groupe aux plus faibles gouvernances. Cette indication sur des liens entre la croissance et les prêts semblerait même indiquer que les HIPC africains sont actuellement sous exploités. En général, il y a peu d'indications quant aux « prêts imprudents » sur les bénéficiaires de soulagement de la dette dans les chiffres allant jusqu'en 2006. Les géants asiatiques réduisent légèrement les taux de dette grâce à des soulagements de la dette, mais surtout grâce à une croissance et une exportation stimulée. Ceci vaut en particulier pour tous ces pays dont les prêts sont le plus souvent destinés aux pays riches en ressources que ceux bénéficiaires d'un soulagement de la dette.
    Keywords: debt, dette
    JEL: F21 F34 F35
    Date: 2008–02–22
  9. By: Nasir, Rosniwati; Ponnusamy, Vanitha; Lee, Kaw May
    Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the significance of copyright protection in Malaysia’s business environment of the digital era. Copyright law is increasingly being challenged with the intensification of internet use now. Issues of piracy and infringement of rights raise concerns surrounding the enforcement of legal measures for protection of copyrights. Hence the paper aim to understand the role and function of copyright in the digital era, and assessing the Malaysian society’s awareness of cyberspace copyright protection. This is an interpretive research carried out by conducting interviews, on 3 different groups of respondents, which are the companies, the IP professionals and government officials. The findings indicate there is a difference amongst the three groups in the understanding and awareness of Intellectual Property Rights and copyright protection; and that Malaysian government is not actively and effectively promoting awareness of the copyright issues to the public. Also it is imperative for Malaysian authorities to enhance protection of copyright in cyberspace.
    JEL: O34
    Date: 2007–12–14
  10. By: Maria Ana Lugo (University of Oxford); Esfandiar Maasoumi (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: This paper proposes to use an information theory approach to the design of multidimensional poverty indices. Traditional monetary approaches to poverty rely on the strong assumption that all relevant attributes of well-being are perfectly substitutable. Based on the idea of the essentiality of some attributes, scholars have recently suggested multidimensional poverty indices where the existence of a trade-off between attributes is relevant only for individuals who are below a poverty threshold in all of them (Bourguignon and Chakravarty 2003, Tsui 2002). The present paper proposes a method which encompasses both approaches and, moreover, it opens the door to an intermediate position which allows, to a certain extent, for substitution of attributes even in the case in which one or more (but not all) dimensions are above the set threshold. An application using individual well-being data from Indonesian households in 2000 is presented in order to compare the results under the different approaches.
    Keywords: Multidimensional Poverty, Information Theory
    JEL: I32 I10 C43
    Date: 2008

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