nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2023‒09‒04
twenty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão, Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Firm Resilience and Growth during the Economics Crisis: lessons from the Greek depression By Christos Genakos; Ioannis Kaplanis; Maria Theano Tagaraki; Aggelos Tsakanikas
  2. Complementing Business Training with Access to Finance: Evidence from SMEs in Kenya By Anik Ashraf; Elizabeth Lyons
  3. KOBI’lerin Ihracat Dinamiklerine Etkisi By Altan Aldan; Enver Sait Kurtaran; Didem Yazici
  4. International experience in supporting employment through entrepreneurship and the possibility of its application in Russia By Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан); Tsareva, Yulia (Царева, Юлия)
  5. The analysis of small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs’) support, aimed at achieving sustainable development goals in the EU Countries, policy recommendations for Russia By Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина)
  6. Local banking markets and barriers to entrepreneurship in minority and other areas: Does broadband availability help? By Prieger, James
  7. Innovation and level of development in Morocco: Comparative analysis of innovation inputs and outputs according to the "Global Innovation Index" 2017 By Rhazi Zineb; Hefnaoui Ahmed
  8. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS SUPPORT IN RURAL AREAS By Gataulina, Ekaterina (Гатаулина, Екатерина); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина)
  9. National and regional innovation systems: best practices in developed and developing countries By Ivanova, Margarita (Иванова, Маргарита); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан); Mikhaylov, Alexander (Михайлов, Александр)
  10. Revisiting innovation: the organizational vulnerability of small or medium companies innovating in the outdoor sports sector By Bastien Soulé; Julie Hallé; Eric Boutroy; Bénédicte Vignal
  11. Digitalisation in European regions: Unravelling the impact of relatedness and complexity on digital technology adoption and productivity growth By Stefan Apostol; Eduardo Hernández-Rodríguez
  12. "The Effect of Bank Recapitalization Policy on Credit Allocation, Investment, and Productivity: Evidence from a Banking Crisis in Japan" By Hiroyuki Kasahara; Yasuyuki Sawada; Michio Suzuki
  13. The Role of Marketing Strategy on Market Performance: A Study on Small and Medium Enterprises in Ethiopia, Jimma Town By Abbas, Asad
  14. Diversify or not? The link between global sourcing of ICT goods and firm performance By Schiersch, Alexander; Bertschek, Irene; Niebel, Thomas
  15. Favoriser l’innovation par le lean product development : le comportement humain, un indicateur pertinent ? By Maéva Jaffré; Eric Blanco; Pierre Chévrier; Bernard Penz
  16. Management, Performance And Pay By Natália P. Monteiro; Odd Rune Straume
  17. Tariffs and Innovation in a Schumpeterian Economy with North-South Technology Transfer By Ho, Florence Ut Meng
  18. Management Control and Performance in the SME Context: a contingent approach By Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI; Mohamed TAHROUCH
  19. Is Self-Employment for Migrants? Evidence from Italy By Brunetti, Marianna; Zaiceva, Anzelika
  20. How much do firms need to satisfy employees? - Evidence from credit spreads and online employee reviews By Koji Takahashi; Sumiko Takaoka

  1. By: Christos Genakos; Ioannis Kaplanis; Maria Theano Tagaraki; Aggelos Tsakanikas
    Abstract: The global financial crisis that burst in 2008 adversely affected business performance in many countries, especially in Europe. However, the impact of the crisis on entrepreneurship and business dynamics differed amongst countries, depending on their businesses resilience, the policies implemented, but also their predominant productive structure. The magnitude and length of the Greek depression have no precedent among modern middle and high-income economies. Still, to date, there is no systematic analysis of the impact of the crisis on entrepreneurship and business dynamism. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining individual firm, sectoral and regional level characteristics that might affect existing firm resilience and new firm survival rate. We use two sources of data with the most extensive coverage of small (sole proprietorship) and large (other legal status firms) firms containing information on entry and exit in Greece. Matching data from patents and trademarks allow us to examine the interplay between entrepreneurship and innovation. Our analysis focuses on the factors that help or hinder firm survival and growth. We find that the crisis increased the exit likelihood for a firm by 5% to 16%. Larger firms, with significant fixed assets, lower financial leverage, operating in concentrated industries, but also those that are innovation and export oriented tend to have better chances of survival compared to their counterparts. These results are important for designing business policies not only in Greece but also other countries facing similar crises.
    Keywords: Greece, entrepreneurship, business resilience, business dynamism, innovation, growth
    Date: 2023–07
  2. By: Anik Ashraf (LMU Munich); Elizabeth Lyons (University of California San Diego)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the complementarity between business training and access to financial capital for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Kenya. All participants in a business training program are offered training. One-third of participants are offered loans immediately after training (Concurrent Loan group), one-third are offered loans six weeks after training (Delayed Loan group), and the remaining third are offered loans after another four weeks (Control group). While a long delay between training and loans may reduce knowledge retention and application by SMEs in the presence of complementarity, concurrent access to loans and associated business spending may crowd out the entrepreneurs' attention from improving business practices. We find evidence for the latter in both intention-to-treat and treatment-on-the-treated estimates. While SMEs in both Control and Delayed Loan groups improve their business practices, SMEs in the Concurrent Loan group who take loans do not improve their practices at all. Moreover, entrepreneurs who take loans spend less time on their businesses and their business revenue falls. Our evidence is consistent with the entrepreneurs in our study using loans to substitute for their income.
    Keywords: business training; access to finance;
    JEL: O12 L26 M53
    Date: 2023–08–09
  3. By: Altan Aldan; Enver Sait Kurtaran; Didem Yazici
    Abstract: [TR] Bu calismada, Turkiye’nin ihracatinda Kucuk ve Orta Buyuklukteki Ýsletmelerin (KOBI) rolu incelenmektedir. Toplam ihracattaki payi yuzde 35 seviyelerinde olan KOBI’lerin ihracat artisina olan katkisinin buyuk firmalardan oldukca fazla oldugu gorulmektedir. Ýlk bakista tutarsiz gorunen bu durum, firma dinamiklerinden ve KOBI sinifindan buyuk olcekli firma sinifina gecisin yapisindan kaynaklanmaktadir. Ýhracat buyume performansi yuksek olan KOBI’ler zaman icinde KOBI sinifindan buyuk firma sinifina gecmekte ve boylece KOBI’lerin ihracattaki paylari daha yatay seyretmektedir. [EN] In this study, the role of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Türkiye's exports is examined. It is seen that the contribution of SMEs, whose share in total exports is around 35 percent, to the increase in exports is considerably higher than that of large companies. The explanation for this seemingly inconsistent situation at first glance stems from firm dynamics and the nature of the transition from SME class to large-scale firm class. SMEs with a high-export growth performance gradually move from the SME class to the large firm class, so the share of SMEs in exports is almost fla
    Date: 2023
  4. By: Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Tsareva, Yulia (Царева, Юлия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ more than 50% of the population of developed countries, so their support is one of the significant measures in maintaining employment. The relevance of this direction has grown since the crisis of 2020, which caused significant damage to the SME sector. The aim of the work was systematization and generalization of the developed countries’ experience in SME support in crisis and non-crisis periods, identification of support tools needed in Russia. The tasks of the study included analyzing both the experience of the development of employment support policies and tools for supporting and developing entrepreneurship using various crises as an example. The research was carried out using general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, comparisons, generalizations, etc.). The authors reviewed the literature and open sources relevant for 2021, including reports by international organizations, regulatory legal acts. The results of the research are conclusions about the foreign experience of employment support and the possibility of its application in Russia. The main direction of the employment support policy in non-crisis periods abroad is to create motivation for mediumand long-term unemployed to look for work, to attract vulnerable social groups to work; acceleration programs are used to support SMEs by reducing administrative pressure and increasing regulatory transparency. During the current crisis, the government support for business abroad intensified in two directions: supporting the liquidity of companies and facilitating the maximum transfer of activities to a remote, digital mode. Over the past decade, Russia has actively advanced in non-crisis support for SMEs, but in the current crisis, it needs to expand the areas of preferential lending or co-financing, and step up assistance to digitalize the activities of SMEs. The main direction of further research is to analyze the use of said foreign instruments in Russia, compare their effectiveness and adjust them taking into consideration Russian specifics.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises, entrepreneurship, employment support, business policy, anti-crisis policy
    Date: 2021–12–14
  5. By: Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals remain relevant in times of crisis, especially such goals as eradicating poverty, inequality, ensuring economic growth, developing innovation and infrastructure. Achieving these goals is where small and medium-sized enterprises can play a key role. An analysis of the EU countries’ experience in the application of entrepreneurship support measures is of particular interest for the prompt adjustment of the Russian SME support policy, since they take into account not only short-term political and economic needs, but are aimed at achieving a long-term result - sustainable development. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the best foreign SME support practices in terms of achieving certain indicators of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of the work is to generalize the experience of SME support in the EU in connection with the implementation of sustainable development goals. For this, the following tasks have been set: establishing links between the SME activities and the implementation of the SDGs; analysis of support for various target groups of entrepreneurs in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU; analysis of anti-crisis support measures in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU. General scientific methods are applied - generalizations, comparisons, synthesis, inductive approach. The following conclusions and results were obtained in the study: SMEs contribute greatly to value creation, development and use of innovations, promoting employment, and they are most consistent with SDGs 8, 9; the main support measures include traditional loans and guarantees, subsidies, public procurement, tax incentives, as well as digital platforms, improving the digital skills of the population, financing scientific research; support for vulnerable groups of entrepreneurs is carried out through the promotion of entrepreneurship, the development of entrepreneurial skills and culture, information and advisory support, access to financing, development of entrepreneur networks and improvement of labor legislation; development of assistive technology to access support measures; provision of premises for doing business, coaching, mentoring. Among the recommendations for the Russian practice, it is necessary to note facilitating the SME access to financial resources, promoting entrepreneurship, creating networks of entrepreneurs in areas with different specifics, training entrepreneurs and the public in digital technologies, and providing special benefits for doing business to vulnerable groups of the population. Research prospects: analysis of the Russian experience of SME support in conjunction with the SDGs and generalization of the most effective practices in order to form an effective policy.
    Keywords: small and medium entrepreneurship, sustainable development goals, foreign experience, government support, youth entrepreneurship, women's entrepreneurship, digitalization, anti-crisis policy
    JEL: J78 O38 O57 Q01
    Date: 2022–07
  6. By: Prieger, James
    Abstract: This empirical study investigates the linkages among entrepreneurship in the form of establishment entry, local banking markets, and broadband availability, focusing on minority areas in the US. Lack of access to banks and lack of competition in the market for small business loans can make it more difficult for an entrepreneur to overcome the liquidity constraint to starting a new business. Broadband internet access can facilitate startups directly by enhancing firm profitability and indirectly by stimulating competition in the loan market, lowering the cost of access to finance, and enabling access to financial capital from fintech lenders. The barriers to new business creation erected by local banking markets are hypothesized to be even higher in minority areas, given the greater difficulty minority entrepreneurs face in raising financial capital. The empirical results show that broadband availability, local bank density, and competition in small business loans all facilitate startups. Broadband lowers barriers for entrepreneurs as hypothesized through both the direct and indirect channels. Broadband availability attenuates the barriers from insufficient access to local banks and lack of competition in small business loans from banks. For some industries, higher bank density and greater loan competition facilitate startups more in minority areas than in mostly white areas. Given that minority areas have many fewer banks per capita and much less loan competition than mostly white counties, the results imply that minority areas face even higher barriers to entrepreneurship from insufficient local formal financial resources. The moderating effect of broadband on local financial constraints applies even more so to Black communities; thus while the barriers for Black entrepreneurs may be higher, access to broadband has a greater alleviating effect on those barriers. Business creation in Hispanic areas also faces obstacles from the local banking environment, but broadband does not appear to help reduce them, although it still has a positive direct effect on entry. Additional evidence shows that broadband helped small businesses in minority areas procure more bank loans. Broadband access can thus help entrepreneurs in general, Blacks in particular, and to a lesser extent Hispanics surmount the liquidity constraint to starting a business. The implications of the results are discussed with reference to current and proposed policy to promote broadband availability, usage, and digital equity.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; startups; minority entrepreneurship; broadband internet access; fintech; FCC Form 477 data; entrepreneurs
    JEL: D22 L26 R11
    Date: 2023–01–02
  7. By: Rhazi Zineb (doctorante chercheuse en sciences économiques et de gestion à la faculté des sciences juridiques, économiques et sociales de Mohammedia); Hefnaoui Ahmed (Professeur de l’enseignement supérieur à l’université Hassan II, faculté des sciences juridiques, économiques et sociales de Mohammedia)
    Abstract: This exploratory study aims to determine the link between innovation and economic development in different types of countries, and Morocco in particular, based on the Global Innovation Index. The main objective is to identify the impact of innovation on Morocco's economic development, focusing on its global positioning in terms of innovation according to the 2017 Global Innovation Index, and then to compare it to a sample of countries. To achieve this, on the one hand a principal component analysis has been carried out, and on the other, a linear regression is run to demonstrate the link between innovation and economic development. The development of this econometric model is determined by linking the level of development with measures of innovation, geography and trade openness. The results obtained from the two analyses show a strong positive relationship between level of development and innovation. The study's conclusions endorse the quadratic relationship between development and innovation capacity, with an average level of innovation in Morocco.
    Abstract: Cette étude, à but exploratoire vise à déterminer le lien entre l'innovation et le développement économique des différents types de pays et précisément le Maroc en se basant sur le « Global Innovation Index». L'objectif principal est d'identifier l'impact de l'innovation sur le développement économique du Maroc en mettant l'accent sur son positionnement au niveau mondial en matière d'innovation selon l'indice global de l'innovation 2017 et à le comparé ensuite, à un échantillon de pays. Pour ce faire, d'une part une analyse en composante principale a été effectuée et d'autre part, une régression linaire est menée pour démontrer le lien existant entre l'innovation et le développement économique. L'élaboration de ce modèle économétrique est déterminée par le fait de mettre en relation le niveau de développement avec des mesures de l'innovation, de la géographie et de l'ouverture commerciale. Les résultats obtenus des deux analyses, montrent l'existence d'une forte relation positive entre le niveau de développement et l'innovation. Les conclusions de l'étude approuvent le lien quadratique du développement et de les capacités d'innovation avec un caractère moyen du niveau d'innovation au Maroc.
    Keywords: Innovation, Economic development, GII Innovation Indicator, economic growth, ACP ., Développement économique, Indicateur de l’innovation GII, croissance économique, ACP.
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Gataulina, Ekaterina (Гатаулина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: One of the priorities of state policy is small business and the development of rural areas. It is obvious that rural small business (SB) is an important aspect of the development of rural areas. However, it has been little studied, which justifies the relevance of the study. The purpose of the work is to analyze the state of rural small business, to identify the peculiarities of its support. The objectives of the study include an analysis of methodological issues of identification and support of small businesses in rural areas, the formation of a database based on a review of information sources, analysis of the current state of, and support measures for, small businesses in rural areas based on the generated data sets. A separate task of the study is to identify the status quo and peculiarities of support for rural small businesses in the context of COVID-19. The work was carried out at the Center for Agri- Food Policy of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in 2021. The main sources of information were data from the Unified Register of Small and Medium-sized Businesses and the Unified Register of Small and Medium-sized Businesses receiving support. The two registers are maintained by the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation. Comparative, computational-constructive, statistical methods were used. As a result, for the first time, an assessment of the current state of rural small business in Russia was obtained in regional and sectoral cross-sections in terms of the number and density of businesses; in comparison with the urban areas, which is also the novelty of this work. The regions with the highest concentration of rural small business, as well as regions where it develops less successfully, are highlighted. It is shown that the main volume of support for rural SBs falls on agriculture, although the main sphere of rural SBs is trade, transport, and only then agriculture. The results can be used to improve regional and federal policy in the field of rural development. Further research can develop in terms of further monitoring of rural small business, expanding the analysis of the characteristics of rural small businesses, now available through a limited range of indicators, identifying factors affecting the development of rural small businesses.
    Keywords: Small-scale rural entrepreneurship, rural development, government support, agriculture, subsidies and grants, Register of small and medium-sized businesses
    Date: 2021–12–14
  9. By: Ivanova, Margarita (Иванова, Маргарита) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Mikhaylov, Alexander (Михайлов, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Relevance of the research: The totality of national and regional innovation systems, implying sustainable interaction and cooperation between scientific, educational, government organizations and businesses, is the basis for the country's innovative and economic development. Due to the wide variety of systems existing in the world, it seems appropriate to identify the main problems and patterns of their development in the advanced and developing economies. The results of the study will help determine the directions for improving the regional policy of the Russian Federation in the field of innovation economics. The goal of this study is to analyze and summarize foreign experience in organizing national and regional innovation systems. Research methods and methodology: comparative analysis, system analysis, qualitative analysis, historical and economic analysis. Scientific novelty: We conducted a deep analysis and identified best practices for organizing national and regional innovation systems in developed (USA, France, Switzerland, Japan, Republic of Korea) and some rapidly developing countries (China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Colombia, Mexico).
    Keywords: national innovation system, regional innovation system, developed and developing countries, innovation activity, strategic development
    JEL: B52 O18
    Date: 2022–07
  10. By: Bastien Soulé (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Julie Hallé (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Eric Boutroy (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon); Bénédicte Vignal (L-VIS - Laboratoire sur les Vulnérabilités et l'Innovation dans le Sport (EA 7428) - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: While it is common thought that innovating is likely to procure competitive advantage within the industry of sports goods, it is also a risky activity which may lead to damaging consequences for companies. It therefore seems relevant to take an interest in the potential detrimental effects of innovation processes within small, particularly creative, companies in the sports sector. In this paper, we seek to know if, and how, engaging in an innovation process leads to singular forms of organizational vulnerability. Case studies were carried out in five French companies specializing in the outdoors: three small or medium entreprises (SME) and two very small (or micro) entreprises (VSE). We conducted a total of 48 interviews with different actors in the innovation processes, accompanied by field observations and analysis of secondary data. The priority frequently given to meeting technical challenges is likely to distance the product from the customer and real use. In certain cases, "innovation fever" generates internal imbalance. Second, some companies are too dependent on a key figure in their functioning, the inventor-entrepreneur; it sometimes implies a weakening of the innovation network during its vital decoupling stage. Finally, although the creation of innovation networks is necessary, it heightens the dependence on stakeholders and exposes to specific threats. Excessive confidence in the benefits of innovation can prove problematic. Innovators should not be discouraged, but reminded of the contingent and uncertain nature of the processes in which they engage, requiring anticipation and measure. The challenge consists in managing both the present and the future, while acknowledging that the exploitation of a routine does not prevent the exploration of new solutions.
    Abstract: Au sein de l'industrie des articles de sport, il est convenu d'affirmer que l'innovation est susceptible de procurer un avantage concurrentiel. Il s'agit cependant aussi d'une activité risquée qui peut entraîner des conséquences moins vertueuses pour les entreprises. Quitte à s'inscrire à contre-courant de l'injonction contemporaine à innover, il semble pertinent de s'intéresser aux potentiels effets néfastes des processus d'innovation au sein des petites entreprises du secteur du sport, particulièrement créatives. Dans cet article, nous cherchons donc à savoir si, et le cas échéant comment, l'engagement dans un processus d'innovation conduit à des formes singulières de vulnérabilité organisationnelle. Des études de cas ont été réalisées dans cinq entreprises françaises spécialisées dans l'outdoor (trois PME et deux TPE). Nous avons mené un total de 48 entretiens avec différents acteurs des processus d'innovation, accompagnés d'observations de terrain et d'analyses de données secondaires. Plusieurs résultats marquants ressortent. La priorité fréquemment donnée à la réponse aux défis techniques est susceptible d'éloigner le produit du client et de son utilisation réelle. Dans certains cas, une forme de « fièvre de l'innovation » génère des déséquilibres internes. Par ailleurs, certaines entreprises sont trop dépendantes de l'inventeur-entrepreneur, acteur clé de leur fonctionnement, mais aussi de son réseau de proximité ; cela peut impliquer un affaiblissement du réseau d'innovation, notamment lors de la phase cruciale de découplage. Enfin, si la création de réseaux d'innovation est nécessaire, elle accentue la dépendance vis-à-vis des parties prenantes et expose à des menaces spécifiques. En termes d'implications managériales, il ressort qu'une confiance excessive dans les avantages de l'innovation peut s'avérer problématique. Il ne s'agit pas de décourager les innovateurs, mais de rappeler la nature contingente et incertaine des processus dans lesquels ils s'engagent, ce qui nécessite anticipation et mesure. Le défi consiste à gérer à la fois le présent et l'avenir, tout en reconnaissant que l'exploitation d'une routine n'empêche pas l'exploration de nouvelles solutions.
    Keywords: innovation management, organizational vulnerability, outdoor sports, product innovation, small companies, management de l’innovation, vulnérabilité organisationnelle, sports outdoor, innovation de produit, petites entreprises
    Date: 2023–07–23
  11. By: Stefan Apostol; Eduardo Hernández-Rodríguez
    Abstract: Digitalisation has become a clear policy objective. Regions want to digitalise their economies to benefit from the digital world. This paper provides empirical evidence on how the adoption of new digital web technologies is shaped by previous regional digital capabilities. The analysis is based upon an economic complexity and relatedness framework using novel data on digital web technologies’ adoption for 278 European NUTS-2 regions between years 2000-2022. Results show that regions tend to adopt new digital web technologies when they already master related digital capabilities. This paper also shows how digital complexity is associated with labour productivity gains at the regional level. Conclusions shed light on how regions are adopting digital web technologies and serve as a tool for policymakers.
    Keywords: Digitalisation; digital web technologies; relatedness; economic complexity; productivity; European regions
    JEL: L86 O14 O33 R11
    Date: 2023–08
  12. By: Hiroyuki Kasahara (University of British Columbia); Yasuyuki Sawada (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo); Michio Suzuki (Tohoku University, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan)
    Abstract: This paper examines the ramification of government capital injections into financially distressed banks during the 1997 Japanese banking crisis. By leveraging a unique dataset merging firm-level financial statements and bank balance sheets, the study aims to examine whether the capital injections primarily benefited high-productivity firms or were misallocated to struggling "zombie" firms. The empirical results suggest that banks, post-injection, increased lending to both high-productivity non-zombie firms and low-productivity zombie firms. While the former is in line with conventional theories that prioritize high-productivity firms for investment and productivity enhancement, the latter suggests credit misallocation towards struggling firms mainly for debt servicing. Intriguingly, the study finds no evidence that these injections promoted investments among firms, irrespective of their productivity or financial health status. In particular, we provide suggestive evidence that zombie firms even reduced investments, especially in infrastructure, while high-productivity non-zombie firms did not exhibit a significant investment boost despite receiving more loans. However, these high-productivity firms displayed positive growth in labor productivity and total factor productivity, potentially driven by sales growth and increased advertisement expenses rather than employment and wage adjustments.
    Date: 2023–08
  13. By: Abbas, Asad
    Abstract: The Role of Marketing Strategy on Market Performance: A Study on Small and Medium Enterprises in Ethiopia, Jimma Town
    Date: 2023–08–04
  14. By: Schiersch, Alexander; Bertschek, Irene; Niebel, Thomas
    Abstract: Our paper contributes to the discussion about Europe's digital sovereignty. We analyze the relationship between firm performance and the diversification of sourcing countries for imported ICT goods. The analysis is based on administrative data for 3888 German manufacturing firms that imported ICT goods in the years 2010 and 2014. We find that firms that diversify the sourcing of ICT goods across multiple countries perform better than similar firms with a less diversified sourcing structure. This result holds for value added as well as for gross operational surplus as performance measures and for two different indicators of diversification.
    Keywords: ICT goods imports, global sourcing, digital sovereignty, firm performance
    JEL: F14 F23 L14 L23 D24
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Maéva Jaffré (G-SCOP_CCI - Conception Collaborative et Intégrée - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Eric Blanco (CReA - Centre de Recherche de l'École de l'air - Armée de l'air et de l'espace); Pierre Chévrier (G-SCOP_CC - Conception collaborative - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INPG - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, G-SCOP_CCI - Conception Collaborative et Intégrée - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Bernard Penz (G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes, G-SCOP_GROG - Groupe Recherche Opérationnelle de Grenoble - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: The links between lean product development (LPD) and performance, particularly innovation, vary depending on the company. This raises the question of the parameters influencing the results of the LPD. The issue of LPD and innovation is often analyzed from a "tool" point of view. The actors and their own logics are topics not covered. In this study we ask the question of the importance of human behavior in the success of the LPD to promote innovation. We also wonder how to measure this parameter. To answer this question, we carried out a field study in a technological R&D of semiconductors and did a triangulation of the data collected there. This study allowed us to observe that factually some levers of lean related to innovation were less implemented than others. However, when we examine the field, the human dimension systematically emerges as a factor fostering innovation. This showed us the importance and predominance of human behavior in innovation in this company. Subsequently, we propose a first way of classifying the qualities of behavior conducive to innovation. From this qualification comes a proposal for behavioral indicators, KBIs.
    Abstract: Les liens entre le lean product development (LPD) et la performance notamment d'innovation varient selon les entreprises. Se pose donc la question des paramètres influant sur les résultats du LPD. La question du LPD et de l'innovation est souvent analysée d'un point de vue « outil ». La prise en compte des acteurs et de leurs logiques propres est peu traitée. Dans cette étude nous posons la question de l'importance du comportement humain dans le succès du LPD pour favoriser l'innovation. Nous nous demandons également comment mesurer ce paramètre. Pour répondre à la question nous avons réalisé une étude de terrain dans une R&D technologique de semi-conducteurs et réalisé une triangulation des données recueillies sur ce terrain. Cette étude nous a permis d'observer que factuellement certains leviers du lean liés à l'innovation étaient moins implémentés que d'autres. Cependant, lorsque l'on interroge le terrain, la dimension humaine ressort systématiquement comme facteur favorisant l'innovation. Cela nous a montré l'importance et la prédominance du comportement humain dans l'innovation dans cette entreprise. Par la suite, nous proposons une première piste de classification des qualités d'un comportement propice à l'innovation. De cette qualification découle une proposition d'indicateurs de comportements, des KBI (key behavior indicators).
    Keywords: KBI, Innovation, Lean Product Development, Indicators, Field study, Indicateurs, Etude de terrain
    Date: 2023–06–14
  16. By: Natália P. Monteiro (NIPE/Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal); Odd Rune Straume (NIPE/Center for Research in Economics and Management, University of Minho, Portugal; and Department of Economics, University of Bergen, Norway)
    Abstract: We use rich Portuguese data to analyse the relationship between the use of structured management practices and worker pay in a large representative sample of firms. We find that management practices are significantly associated with both higher average wages and higher within-firm wage dispersion.The positive relationship between management practices and average pay is present throughout the wage distribution and for all occupational skill groups, but is stronger for workers higher up in the wage distribution and in higher-skilled occupations. These results are driven by management practices related to incentives, and are also mainly driven by small and medium-sized firms.
    Keywords: Management practices, wages, labour productivity
    JEL: D22 J31 M11 M54
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Ho, Florence Ut Meng
    Abstract: This paper develops a North-South quality-ladder model with northern innovative R&D, southern adaptive R&D and imitative R&D to analyze the effects of tariffs on innovation, technology transfer, relative wage and welfare. We find that increasing southern tariff decreases the relative wage between the North and the South permanently, increases the technology transfer rate permanently and decreases the northern innovation rate temporarily. In contrast, increasing northern tariff increases the relative wage permanently, decreases the technology transfer rate permanently and either increases or decreases the northern innovation rate, depending on the size of the North-South labor ratio. Moreover, we calibrate this model to the US-China data to perform a quantitative analysis. We find that imposing tariff in the home country yields welfare gain in itself and yields welfare loss in the foreign country. When both countries impose tariffs simultaneously, they can benefit from the welfare gains. The numerical results are consistent with the analytical policy implications.
    Keywords: Tariffs; Technology Transfer; Innovation; Foreign Direct Investment; Product Cycles.
    JEL: F13 F4
    Date: 2023–06–21
  18. By: Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, UEMF - Université Euro Méditerranéenne de Fès); Mohamed TAHROUCH (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi)
    Abstract: This article sets itself the objective of showing to what extent certain contingency factors of management control impact the practices of dashboards in SMEs. For this, it relies on a field survey conducted with a sample of 184 Moroccan SMEs, followed by an exploratory analysis based on the data collected. It shows that such a practice is indeed affected by both the accounting and organizational characteristics of SMEs.Furthermore, performance monitoring by means of dashboards is well developed there, even if the nature of these dashboards is often limited to a few EXCEL spreadsheets, more or less elaborate; but which provide regular information on the evolution of the performance indicators of these structures. Therefore, research hypotheses would be worth raising for SMEs regarding a possible contingent influence, highlighted by the use of TBs in improving performance and, in doing so, identifying the compliance of characteristics of these TB with the combination of contingency factors. Verification of these hypotheses through modeling and confirmatory analysis would be an interesting prospect for the continuation of this work.
    Abstract: Cet article s'assigne comme objectifs de monter dans quelle mesure certains facteurs de contingence du contrôle de gestion impactent les pratiques des tableaux de bord dans les PME. Il s'appuie pour cela sur une enquête de terrain menée auprès d'un échantillon de 184 PME marocaines, suivie d'une analyse quantitative à partir des données recueillies. Il en ressort qu'une telle pratique est effectivement affectée par les caractéristiques à la fois comptables et organisationnelles des PME. Par ailleurs, le suivi de la performance au moyen des tableaux de bord y est bien développé même si la nature de ces tableaux se résume parfois à quelques tableurs EXCEL, plus ou moins élaborés ; mais qui renseignent régulièrement sur l'évolution des indicateurs de performance de ces structures. Dès lors, des hypothèses de recherche mériteraient d'être soulevées pour les PME quant à une possible influence contingente, mise en évidence par l'usage des TB dans l'amélioration de la performance et, par ricochet, à l'identification de la conformité des caractéristiques de ces TB avec la combinaison de facteurs de contingence. La vérification de ces hypothèses au moyen d'une modélisation et d'une analyse confirmatoire constituerait une perspective intéressante pour la poursuite de ce travail.
    Keywords: Management control, Performance, SME, Dashboard, Morocco, Contrôle de gestion, PME, Tableau de bord, Maroc
    Date: 2023–08–05
  19. By: Brunetti, Marianna; Zaiceva, Anzelika
    Abstract: Using a unique Italian dataset covering the period 2004-2020, we assess the immigrant-native gap in entrepreneurship and investigate channels behind it. The data allows us to account for many observable characteristics as well as for risk aversion, which is usually not observed, yet crucial for the self-employment decision. Unlike most of the existing empirical literature, we find that immigrants in Italy are less likely to be self-employed. The negative gap is confirmed when propensity score matching methodology is used. Heterogeneity analysis suggests that the negative gap is larger for men, for economic migrants and those coming from Sub-Saharan Africa, while it is not significant for mixed immigrant-native couples, for highly skilled, and for migrants from Asia and Oceania. The largest gap is found for those working in the agricultural sector. Regarding additional channels, we explore the role of access to credit, including the informal one, and whether migrants are credit constrained, as well as the importance of migrant networks, easiness of doing business, and expenditures on services for migrants. Despite finding significant correlations between self-employment and some of these factors, none of them seem to decrease the magnitude of the negative gap.
    Keywords: immigrants, self-employment, gender, intermarriage, propensity score matching
    JEL: F22 J21 O15 J15
    Date: 2023
  20. By: Koji Takahashi; Sumiko Takaoka
    Abstract: Using employee reviews accumulated in online platform service and ESG scores, this paper studies the relationship between firms' workforce benefits and their credit risk. We provide evidence that the sign of the effect of employee treatment on credit spreads depends on the sectoral intensity of human capital. In a sector with high intensity of human capital, especially in the manufacturing sector, more generous benefits for workers lead to lower credit spreads. In contrast, in a sector with low intensity, they are associated with larger credit spreads. We also find evidence that the lowering effect on credit spreads in sectors with high human capital intensity is mainly due to increased labor productivity.
    Keywords: employee satisfaction, online employee review, credit risk, labor risk
    JEL: G12 J28 J32
    Date: 2023–07

This nep-sbm issue is ©2023 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.