nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2023‒03‒27
nineteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Influence of Start-up Motivation on Entrepreneurial Performance By Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos; Claudia Stier
  2. Financing Innovation with Innovation By Zhiyuan Chen; Minjie Deng; Min Fang
  3. Stalled-Growth SMEs and Directions for Policy By Cho, Deokhee
  4. State-Based Conflict and Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence By Naudé, Wim; Amorós, Ernesto; Brück, Tilman
  5. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Structural Change in European Regions By Mirella Schrijvers; Niels Bosma; Erik Stam
  6. The Status of Servitization and its Effects on Productivity in Korea By Hwang, Kyung-In; Jung, Jieun
  7. Key indicators for SME`s development in 2022 By Barinova Vera; Levakov P.
  8. Schumpeterian Growth, Price Rigidities, and the Business Cycles By Adil Mahroug; Alain Paquet
  9. Mapeamento do sistema de inovação da mineração de minério de ferro em Minas Gerais By Ottavio Raul Domenico Riberti Carmignano; Rochel Montero Lago; Ulisses Pereira dos Santos
  10. Applicants and beneficiaries of innovation-related actions under the Portuguese RRP By MARQUES SANTOS Anabela; CONTE Andrea
  11. Solar Panel Adoption in SMEs in Emerging Countries By Pedro I. Hancevic; Hector H. Sandoval
  12. Technological Innovation and Corporate Entrepreneurship: A Study By Aria, Dr
  13. Digitalisation and productivity: gamechanger or sideshow? By Anderton, Robert; Botelho, Vasco; Reimers, Paul
  14. The Effect of R&D on Quality, Productivity, and Welfare By Mons Chan; Amil Petrin; Frederic Warzynski
  15. The Science of Startups: The Impact of Founder Personalities on Company Success By Paul X. McCarthy; Xian Gong; Fabian Stephany; Fabian Braesemann; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu; Margaret L. Kern
  16. Methodological foundations of cross-innovation projects in creative industries By Kazakova Maria
  18. The Effect of Creativity on Entrepreneurial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Demographics By Shaheen, N.
  19. The role of national development institutions in Russian export diversification By Knobel Alexander; Kuznetsov Dmitry; Loshchenkova Anna

  1. By: Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos; Claudia Stier
    Abstract: Predicting entrepreneurial development based on individual and business-related characteristics is a key objective of entrepreneurship research. In this context, we investigate whether the motives of becoming an entrepreneur influence the subsequent entrepreneurial development. In our analysis, we examine a broad range of business outcomes including survival and income, as well as job creation, expansion and innovation activities for up to 40 months after business formation. Using self-determination theory as conceptual background, we aggregate the start-up motives into a continuous motivational index. We show – based on a unique dataset of German start-ups from unemployment and non-unemployment – that the later business performance is better, the higher they score on this index. Effects are particularly strong for growth oriented outcomes like innovation and expansion activities. In a next step, we examine three underlying motivational categories that we term opportunity, career ambition, and necessity. We show that individuals driven by opportunity motives perform better in terms of innovation and business expansion activities, while career ambition is positively associated with survival, income, and the probability of hiring employees. All effects are robust to the inclusion of a large battery of covariates that are proven to be important determinants of entrepreneurial performance.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Push and Pull Theories, Start-up Motivation, Survival, Job Creation, Firm Growth, Innovation
    JEL: L26 C14
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Zhiyuan Chen; Minjie Deng; Min Fang
    Abstract: This paper documents that firms are increasingly financing innovation using their stock of innovation, measured as patents. We refer to this behavior as financing innovation with innovation. Drawing on patent collateral data from both the US and China, we first show that (1) in both countries, the total number and share of patents pledged as collateral have been rising steadily, (2) Chinese firms employ patents as collateral on a smaller scale and with a lower intensity than US firms, (3) firms increase their borrowing and innovation after they start to use patent collateral. We then construct a heterogeneous firm general equilibrium model featuring idiosyncratic productivity risk, innovation capital investment, and borrow- ing constrained by patent collateral. The model emphasizes two barriers that hinder the use of patent collateral: high inspection costs and low liquidation values of patent assets. We parameterize the model to firm-level panel data in the US and China and find that both barriers are significantly more severe in China than in the US. Finally, counterfactual analyses show that the gains in innovation, output, and welfare from reducing the inspection costs in China to the US level are substantial, moreso than enhancing the liquidation value of patent assets.
    Keywords: Patent collateral; innovation investment; financial frictions; firm dynamics;
    JEL: E22 G32 O31 O33
    Date: 2023–03–02
  3. By: Cho, Deokhee (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Recent research says 20 percent of Korean manufacturers are stalled-growth small and medium enterprises (SMEs), or companies that have been business for at least 20 years but have under 50 employees, with market factors causing 65 percent of such stagnation and the businesses themselves 35 percent. Market factors included excessive competition in main markets (18.5 percent), low market growth (17.6 percent), and small market scale (16.7 percent), while chronic shortages of both workers and money (10.6 percent) and a lack of marketing capacity (8.3 percent) were among the faults of businesses. Most stalled-growth SMEs lacked growth capacity and experience and stuck to strategies targeting conventional business areas with limited growth opportunities rather than those eyeing development of new high-growth markets. Accordingly, many such SMEs are not expected to overcome growth stagnation on their own without policy support. Seen this way, the problem is serious and broad. Even so, policy interest in such SMEs has been lukewarm and related support lacking. This explores the shape that an effective future-centric response to the problem might take. It proposes aggressive expansion and reform of core policies that support changes to the way business is done, and in particular generous aid (in the form of both consulting and funding) to boost the capacity of such SMEs to pursue alternative lines of business.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises; corporate governance; SME governance; SMEs; SME policy; growth policy; insolvent firms; zombie firms; industrial policy; Korea; restructuring; firm performance; firm strategy
    JEL: G30 G33 G34 G38 H25 H81 L10 L16 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2021–11–29
  4. By: Naudé, Wim (RWTH Aachen University); Amorós, Ernesto (EGAP Tecnológico de Monterrey CEM); Brück, Tilman (ISDC - International Security and Development Center)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between state-based conflict and entrepreneurship. From a survey of the existing literature, we formulate two hypotheses: (1) state-based conflict has a negative association with productive and opportunity-motivated forms of entrepreneurship, and (2) a positive association with unproductive and necessity-motivated forms of entrepreneurship. We test these hypotheses by drawing on several state-based conflict and entrepreneurship measures, using appropriate estimators, and employing robustness checks. The evidence supports our hypotheses. Necessity-motivated start-up entrepreneurship is, on average, almost three times higher in countries in conflict than in countries not in conflict. Development level matters. In countries with less unemployment, more finance, and higher levels of physical, human capital and GDP, entrepreneurship is more resilient, and the ratio of female-to-male entrepreneurs in opportunity-motivated entrepreneurship higher.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, conflict, war, small business, employment
    JEL: L26 M13 J23 N40 O11 O17
    Date: 2023–02
  5. By: Mirella Schrijvers; Niels Bosma; Erik Stam
    Abstract: The process of structural change is investigated in six European regions that were recently confronted with a severe decline in manufacturing jobs. Entrepreneurs are key actors in this process, as they are the agents driving creative destruction that is needed to transform the economy. The entrepreneurial ecosystem of each of the regions is analysed using ecosystem metrics and case study methods. Having a strong entrepreneurial ecosystem helps regions to be resilient to shocks, such as a decline in traditional industries or closures of large focal firms. Institutions, knowledge, and skilled labour play key roles in a successful economic transformation. Formal institutions can provide the leadership and investment needed to quickly adapt to shocks, as shown in the West Midlands (UK), Eindhoven (NL), and Oulu (Finland). The cases of Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Ruhr region, Germany, show however that a strong ecosystem does not guarantee a swift structural transformation. To explain these exceptions, it is important to consider the economic history and regional context. For example, a strong dependence on one industry or firm can create a lock-in effect that prevents resilience in the face of shocks. When diagnosing ecosystems to inform policies, it is therefore crucial to combine metrics with a thorough understanding of the regional context.
    Keywords: Structural change, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial ecosystem, regional diversity, economic resilience
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Hwang, Kyung-In (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Jung, Jieun (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Despite its importance, government support for firms that adopt servitization in their businesses is severely lacking. This is because there is little known about the status of servitization; little is known about which firms are likely to implement servitization, how many firms have adopted servitization in their businesses, or the degree to which servitization increases business performances. A major problem is that a lack of empirical studies has impaired effective policy development for servitization firms. This paper aims to describe the current status of servitization in Korea and quantify whether servitization firms perform better than non-servitization firms and to what degree. The work also studies the impacts of servitization on firm productivity. This paper concludes with policy implications for servitization.
    Keywords: servitization; Korea; productivity; productivity growth; tehnology; Industry 4.0; 4IR; manufacturing; innovation; manufacturing policy; innovation policy
    JEL: D22 D23 D24 L53 L60 L80 O14 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2023–02–28
  7. By: Barinova Vera (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Levakov P. (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The study examines the effect of the crisis associated with coronavirus infection and increased sanctions pressure on the sector of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation in 2022. This sector can be considered the most susceptible to the influence of crisis phenomena in the economy. Key indicators of this businesses are analyzed, including the number of firms, employment, revenue and others. The study uses data provided by official sources, which include the Unified Register of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses, Rosstat, the Federal Tax Service and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The authors use data both for the whole country and in the regional context. Based on the analysis of these indicators, the authors draw several key conclusions. Firstly, the sector of small and medium sized businesses is managing the crisis better than expected, the values of key activity indicators have reached or have already exceeded the crisis values. Secondly, there is a noticeable trend towards a decrease in the average size of enterprises. It can be noted that the number of small businesses and self-employed citizens. This may be due to the need for enterprises to reduce the tax burden by transferring part of the employees to the self-employed format. Finally, we can note the increased credit burden on representatives of small and medium-sized businesses. In this regard, we propose to extend the program of subsidized lending for them, which is necessary for their adequate functioning. In the future, we plan to evaluate the effectiveness of the government's policy of supporting small and medium-sized businesses and provide recommendations for its improvement.
    Keywords: Russian economy, SME sector, COVID-19, self-employment, credit burden
    JEL: D04 L25 L26
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Adil Mahroug (University of Quebec in Montreal); Alain Paquet (University of Quebec in Montreal)
    Abstract: Embedding Schumpeterian innovation within a New Keynesian DSGE model matters for the likelihood of innovating when making endogenous decisions about investments in R&D and the path of the technological frontier. This feature brings new challenges at the modeling and simulation stages with implications for the interactions between Schumpeterian innovation and price rigidities, and between business cycle and growth. The interplay of innovation with optimal price setting in the intermediate sector spells out how the technological frontier advances, and how more innovation leads to more price flexibility despite the existence of nominal rigidities. With a reasonable calibration, key moments and comovements of macroeconomic variables are consistent with their observed counterparts. The Schumpeterian features of the model play a role on the cyclical impacts of various standard shocks and that of a knowledge-spillover shock. Moreover, different combinations of steady-state innovation probability and extent of knowledge spillovers, for the same steady-state growth rate of the economy, have important welfare implications in consumption equivalent terms.
    Keywords: Schumpeterian endogenous growth, Innovation, Business cycles, New Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model, nominal price rigidity and flexibility.
    JEL: E32 E52 O31 O33 O42
    Date: 2021–11
  9. By: Ottavio Raul Domenico Riberti Carmignano (UFMG); Rochel Montero Lago (UFMG); Ulisses Pereira dos Santos (Cedeplar/UFMG)
    Abstract: How does innovation work in the iron ore innovation system in Minas Gerais? Authors like Pfitzner (2014) state that innovation occurs in the mining activity in production process, aiming to reduce costs or to meet socio-environment requirements; and that there is a culture resistance to innovation. Souza Júnior (2014) states that mining is not a relevant part of the dynamics of the regional innovation system in Minas Gerais; and Pietrobelli, Marin e Olivari (2018) said that leading mining companies tend to trust in traditional suppliers, and prefer then to new companies. This work intends to present an overview of the innovation system in the iron ore mining activity in Minas Gerais, to validate these hypotheses identified in the literature, identify their main characteristics, and present contributions to the literature in the conclusion
    Keywords: Mining, Steel Industry, Innovation System.
    JEL: O30 O33 R58
    Date: 2023–03
  10. By: MARQUES SANTOS Anabela (European Commission - JRC); CONTE Andrea (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Next Generation EU (NGEU) is a temporary financial instrument launched to support EU member states’ recovery after the Covid-19 crisis in 2020. To access to NGEU funds – in particular the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) - Member States had to submit a national Recovery and Resilience Plan (RRP). Innovation investments play a key role in the thematic allocation of many national RRPs. In the case of Portugal, these investments account for around 10% of the total grants (cost-based estimations: €1, 344 Million), which is aligned to the EU average. The selection process of the beneficiaries of Research and Innovation (R&I) subsidies was done through a competitive call for applications. R&I beneficiaries in the Portuguese RRP are mainly entities with more than 10 years of activity (69%), operating in knowledge intensive services (39%) and past beneficiaries of EU funds (66%). These characteristics also reflect more broadly the profile of overall applicants. R&I beneficiaries are mainly concentrated in the more innovative areas of Portugal, in particular in the central-north coastal area.
    Keywords: Recovery and Resilience Facility, Innovation, Portugal
    Date: 2023–01
  11. By: Pedro I. Hancevic (CIDE/Universidad Panamericana); Hector H. Sandoval (Bureau of Economic and Business Research)
    Abstract: We analyze the determinants of adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems, focusing on small and medium-sized commercial and service firms. We make use of monthly billing data that is perfectly matched with data from the ENCENRE-2019 –a novel survey that gathers data on electricity consumption, stock of electric equipment, and a rich set of firm characteristics in the Metropolitan Area of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Using an econometric model, we find evidence that a set of explanatory variables such as business characteristics, the economic sector, ownership status, stock and usage of equipment and appliances, presence of other solartechnologies, and views about the use of renewable energy are important determinants of the probability of adoption of solar panel systems. Furthermore, using machine learning methods to identify the best predictors of solar adoption, we indirectly validate the theory-driven empirical model by assessing a large set of explanatory variables and selecting a subset of these variables. In addition, we investigate relevant cases where a priory solar panel adoption seems to be costeffective but structural adoption barriers and adoption gaps might coexist for certain groups of electricity users. We also calculate the social cost savings and the avoided CO2 emissions. Finally, based on our results, we provide several policy implications and recommendations.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), distributed photovoltaic generation, electricity consumption, technology adoption, Mexico
    JEL: D22 O14 Q40 Q53
    Date: 2023–03
  12. By: Aria, Dr
    Abstract: Today's organizations are facing a number of challenges in terms of their operational and strategic performance. This is due to the uncertainties of the environment, the turbulence of markets, and the heterogeneity of employees. The trend of corporate entrepreneurship is becoming obvious to a greater and greater extent as companies increasingly turn to it. This is in order to be able to develop and nurture both today's core competencies and those of tomorrow at the same time in order to successfully meet the challenge of meeting the needs of tomorrow. Due to the above factors, it has become increasingly important for managers at every level of the organization to be actively involved in the creation and implementation of a corporate entrepreneurship strategy in order to achieve success. As a general consensus, a number of studies from the past decade, which are based on a number of studies that have been conducted over the past few years, have suggested that successful corporate entrepreneurship (CE) is associated with improved firm performance. However, this is not a consensus that is universal, as there are a number of studies that differ on this point. Corporate entrepreneurship may be viewed from a variety of different perspectives, and there are many ways to do so. As time passes, however, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not the case and that it is in fact not the case at all. Due to its effectiveness, validity, and feasibility, corporate entrepreneurship has been shown to be an effective, valid, and feasible method of achieving high levels of performance at the organizational level, as a result of its effectiveness, validity, and feasibility. Moreover, executive coaching is now gaining recognition as one of the most effective and effective practices that have the potential of providing tangible and real advantages to a broad range of organizations at all levels of management, as well as being one of the most promising and effective management tools.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship within corporations, Corporate Entrepreneurship and Technology, Challenges in corporate entrepreneurship, Corporate Entrepreneurship and Organizations
    JEL: L2 L26 L3 L31 O3 O32 O35 Q55
    Date: 2021–03–03
  13. By: Anderton, Robert; Botelho, Vasco; Reimers, Paul
    Abstract: Is digitalisation a massive gamechanger which will deliver huge gains in productivity, or is it more of a sideshow with only limited impacts? We use a large balance sheet panel dataset comprising more than 19 million European firm-level observations to empirically investigate the impact of digitalisation on productivity growth via various previously unexplored chan-nels and mechanisms. Our results suggest that for two otherwise identical firms, the firm that exhibits on average a higher share of investment in digital technologies will exhibit a faster rate of TFP growth, but not all firms and sectors experience significant productivity gains from digitalisation. Digitalisation does not seem to have relatively stronger impacts on the productivity of frontier firms compared to laggards, nor does it help to turn laggards into frontier firms. Overall, firms should not regard digital investment as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ strategy to improve their productivity. Digital technologies are a gamechanger for some firms. But they seem more like a sideshow for most firms, who attempt to be increasingly digital but are not able to adequately reap its productivity gains. JEL Classification: D22, D24, D25, O33
    Keywords: digital technology/transition, productivity growth, technology adoption/diffusion
    Date: 2023–03
  14. By: Mons Chan; Amil Petrin; Frederic Warzynski
    Abstract: In this paper we provide a methodology that jointly studies production and demand for multi-product firms using detailed firm-product level data from Denmark. We estimate marginal cost by combining production function estimation with a cost function that allows for quasi-fixed inputs. We use a discrete choice demand model that extends insights from Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) to obtain a measure of the demand shock (quality). We estimate the relationship between product (process) R&D and quality (efficiency), and find strong evidence that process innovation is related to higher efficiency, while product innovation is associated with higher product quality. We discuss the welfare implications of these two distinct innovation activities.
    JEL: L1
    Date: 2023–02
  15. By: Paul X. McCarthy; Xian Gong; Fabian Stephany; Fabian Braesemann; Marian-Andrei Rizoiu; Margaret L. Kern
    Abstract: Startup companies solve many of today's most complex and challenging scientific, technical and social problems, such as the decarbonisation of the economy, air pollution, and the development of novel life-saving vaccines. Startups are a vital source of social, scientific and economic innovation, yet the most innovative are also the least likely to survive. The probability of success of startups has been shown to relate to several firm-level factors such as industry, location and the economy of the day. Still, attention has increasingly considered internal factors relating to the firm's founding team, including their previous experiences and failures, their centrality in a global network of other founders and investors as well as the team's size. The effects of founders' personalities on the success of new ventures are mainly unknown. Here we show that founder personality traits are a significant feature of a firm's ultimate success. We draw upon detailed data about the success of a large-scale global sample of startups. We found that the Big 5 personality traits of startup founders across 30 dimensions significantly differed from that of the population at large. Key personality facets that distinguish successful entrepreneurs include a preference for variety, novelty and starting new things (openness to adventure), like being the centre of attention (lower levels of modesty) and being exuberant (higher activity levels). However, we do not find one "Founder-type" personality; instead, six different personality types appear, with startups founded by a "Hipster, Hacker and Hustler" being twice as likely to succeed. Our results also demonstrate the benefits of larger, personality-diverse teams in startups, which has the potential to be extended through further research into other team settings within business, government and research.
    Date: 2023–02
  16. By: Kazakova Maria (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The relevance of this research is related to cross-innovation that have become new impulses for the development of creative industries and other industries in favor of strengthening economic diversification. This is an exceptionally new offer for real sector companies and the support of unique creative solutions based on advanced technologies. The main goal of the work is to identify cross-sectoral projects of creative industries and methodologically substantiate the development of cross-innovation cooperation between creative industries and other sectors of the economy. This implies formulation of the author's version of the boundaries of the concept of cross-sectoral cooperation between creative and «non-creative» industries. The main conclusions of the study are the following. Cross-innovation means cooperation of an intersectoral or interdisciplinary nature between creative industries and real-sector companies. The main goal of such activity is to ensure the competitiveness and efficiency of cross-innovation activities. Cross-innovation projects also contribute to the emergence of new economic benefits produced not only by cultural and creative industries, but also by other economic agents, since these projects create favorable conditions for doing business. In their turn, regions and territories that serve as a space for the development of cross-innovative projects, attract investment, labor and are characterized by dynamic economic development. Conclusions about practical significance of this research argue that this work may serve as a direct guide for the development of cross-innovation cooperation in Russia, due to its scientific novelty and methodological importance.
    Keywords: Russian economy, creative industries, economic growth, models of creative industries
    JEL: O10 O15 O31 O34 Z10
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Nathalie Touratier-Muller (ESC PAU - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce, Pau Business School); Karim Machat (LIREM - Laboratoire de Recherche en Management (LIREM) - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour); Jacques Jaussaud (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article explores the behaviour of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) regarding mandatory and voluntary measures established by the French government to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated by freight transport operations. Through semi-structured interviews with fourteen SMEs (five shippers, eight carriers and a consultant) located throughout France, this research examines the integration of sustainable development into organizational and decision-making practices since the introduction of these programmes on the French territory. Our qualitative study suggests that active environmental implications stem mainly from the company's internal dynamics, driven by its management, as well as end customers' expectations. The voluntary policies seem to appeal more to SMEs than the mandatory measures implemented since 2013. This research shows that the carriers surveyed are highly environmentally proactive, regardless of their size. It also sheds light on techniques that could increase the efficiency and widespread adoption of governmental measures, in particular through the increasing use of on-board telematics.
    Abstract: Cet article explore le comportement des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) suite aux dispositifs obligatoires et volontaires mis en place par le gouvernement français pour réduire les émissions de CO2 générées par le transport de marchandises. Grâce à des entretiens semi-directifs réalisés auprès de quatorze entreprises réparties sur le territoire français (cinq chargeurs, huit transporteurs et un consultant), nous examinons la prise en compte du développement durable dans les pratiques organisationnelles et décisionnelles des PME depuis l'apparition de ces dispositifs. Notre étude qualitative suggère que les implications environnementales actives découlent principalement de la dynamique interne de l'entreprise, pilotée par sa direction, ainsi que des attentes des clients finaux. Ce sont les démarches volontaires qui semblent séduire davantage les PME par rapport aux dispositifs obligatoires mis en place depuis 2013. Nous identifions une forte proactivité environnementale des transporteurs interrogés, quelle que soit leur taille. Notre travail apporte également un éclairage sur les techniques qui permettraient d'accroître l'efficacité et l'adoption des dispositifs gouvernementaux, notamment via une utilisation croissante de la télématique embarquée.
    Keywords: Sustainable transport, government programmes, freight transport, SME, CO2 emissions reduction, Transport durable, dispositifs gouvernementaux, transport de fret, PME, réduction des émissions de CO2
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Shaheen, N.
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of creativity on entrepreneurial behavior with demographics as a moderating variable. Creativity is critical for improving entrepreneurial behavior (EB). However, few studies exist in the literature about this topic in developing countries. Building on the literature, the study proposed a positive effect between creativity and entrepreneurial behavior. The study also proposed the demographic variables as moderating variables. The population of the study consists of all the entrepreneurs and workers at entrepreneurial enterprises in Jordan. The sample of study was composed of 155 respondents; the responses were gathered using the convenience sampling method. Simple linear regression and hierarchical regression were employed to examine the data. Results show a significant effect of creativity on entrepreneurial behavior. The results also demonstrate that none of the demographic characteristics produce a significant statistical change in the influence of creativity on EB. More studies on creativity and its impact on the EB of firms and employees at entrepreneurial firms are needed.
    Date: 2023–02–06
  19. By: Knobel Alexander (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Kuznetsov Dmitry (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Loshchenkova Anna (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The development of non-commodity non-energy exports is one of the national goals reflected in the President’s Decrees in 2018 and 2020. It is assumed that national development institutions should play a key role in pursuing a consistent export promotion policy, including Russian Export Center JSC currently managed by VEB.RF. In Russia the increasing role of development institutions in facilitating the export activities of firms is due to unprecedented sanctions against Russian companies and sectors and the need to find new export directions in friendly countries and promote Russian goods in these markets. To a large extent, export support measures are aimed at increasing the involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises in export activities: out of 11, 3 thousand exporters supported in 2019, 80% are SMEs. In 2019 the total volume of supported exports by the REC amounted to about 19, 5 billion US dollars. The econometric analysis shows that export support measures are generally an effective tool for the development of Russian non-resource exports: companies which have received support from REC JSC export more and have a more diversified commodity and country export structure. The most effective measures are those related to credit and guarantee support and insurance, and virtually all types of support encourage companies to explore new markets.
    Keywords: Russian exports, sanctions
    JEL: F13 F14 F15
    Date: 2022

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