nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2023‒02‒06
twenty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Opposing Firm Level Responses to the China Shock: Output Competition versus Input Supply By Philippe Aghion; Antonin Bergeaud; Matthieu Lequien; Marc Melitz; Thomas Zuber
  2. Distant but close in sight. Firm-level evidence on French-German productivity gaps in manufacturing By Thomas Grebel; Mauro Napoletano; Lionel Nesta
  3. Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Performance of Start-Ups By Caliendo, Marco; Kritikos, Alexander S.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Stier, Claudia
  4. Does VC Investor Type Matter? Determinants and effects of VC backing for new firms in Japan By KATO Masatoshi; Nicolas LEGENDRE; YOSHIDA Hiroki
  5. The Role of Firm Dynamics in the Green Transition: Carbon Productivity Decomposition in Finnish Manufacturing By Kuosmanen, Natalia; Maczulskij, Terhi
  6. Gender Diversity in Ownership and Firm Innovativeness in Emerging Markets. The Mediating Roles of R&D Investments and External Capital By Vartuhi Tonoyan; Christopher Boudreaux
  7. A new dataset to study a century of innovation in Europe and in the US By Bergeaud, Antonin; Verluise, Cyril
  8. Gender Specific Distortions, Entrepreneurship and Misallocation By Ranasinghe, Ashantha
  9. RGP Analysis and Policy Tasks for Regional Industries By Kim, Young Soo
  10. Proprietorship Structure and Firm Performance in the Context of Tunneling: An Empirical Analysis of Non-Financial Firms in Pakistan By Sulehri, Fiaz Ahmad; Ali, Amjad
  11. Job Ladders by Firm Wage and Productivity By Bertheau, Antoine; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
  12. Stratégie de mise à niveau technologique des entreprises québécoises By Benoit Dostie; Genevieve Dufour
  13. Culture and the creative economy in Lithuania and municipalities of Klaipėda, Neringa and Palanga By OECD
  14. The Digital Transformation of Korean Industries Today and Implications for Policy By Shim, Woo Jung; Kim, Jongki
  15. The importance of access to knowledge for technological progress in the Industrial Revolution By Erik Hornung; Julius Koschnick; Francesco Cinnirella
  16. Initiation of knowledge and technology transfer from academia to industry: Opportunity recognition and transfer channel choice By Matthias Huegel; Philip Doerr; Martin Kalthaus
  17. The landscape of B2C e-commerce marketplaces in Latin America and the Caribbean By Lotitto, Estefanía; Díaz de Astarloa, Bernardo
  18. Fiscal Policies for Job Creation and Innovation: The Experiences of US States By Robert S. Chirinko; Daniel J. Wilson
  19. Continuing Patent Applications at the USPTO By Cesare Righi; Davide Cannito; Theodor Vladasel
  20. Vers la nouvelle bioéconomie: La biofabrication comme initiative stratégique de développement économique pour le Québec By Bryan Campbell; Michel Magnan

  1. By: Philippe Aghion; Antonin Bergeaud; Matthieu Lequien; Marc Melitz; Thomas Zuber
    Abstract: We decompose the “China shock” into two components that induce different adjustments for firms exposed to Chinese exports: an output shock affecting firms selling goods that compete with similar imported Chinese goods, and an input supply shock affecting firms using inputs similar to the imported Chinese goods. Combining French accounting, customs, and patent information at the firm-level, we show that the output shock is detrimental to firms' sales, employment, and innovation. Moreover, this negative impact is concentrated on low-productivity firms. By contrast, we find a positive effect - although often not significant - of the input supply shock on firms' sales, employment and innovation.
    Keywords: Competition Shock, Patent, Firms, Import
    JEL: F14 O19 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Thomas Grebel; Mauro Napoletano (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Lionel Nesta (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We study the productivity level distributions of manufacturing firms in France and Germany, and how these distributions evolved across the Great Recession. We show the presence of a systematic productivity advantage of German firms over French ones in the decade 2003-2013, but the gap has narrowed down after the Great Recession. Convergence is explained by the better growth performance of French firms in the post-recession period, especially of those located in the top percentiles of the productivity distribution. We also highlight the role of sectoral growth, firm size and export intensity in explaining the above convergence. In contrast, the contribution of allocative efficiency was small.
    Keywords: international productivity gaps, productivity distributions, firm level comparisons
    Date: 2021–01–01
  3. By: Caliendo, Marco (University of Potsdam); Kritikos, Alexander S. (DIW Berlin); Rodriguez, Daniel (University of Potsdam); Stier, Claudia (University of Potsdam)
    Abstract: Self-efficacy reflects the self-belief that one can persistently perform difficult and novel tasks while coping with adversity. As such beliefs reflect how individuals behave, think, and act, they are key for successful entrepreneurial activities. While existing literature mainly analyzes the influence of the task-related construct of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, we take a different perspective and investigate, based on a representative sample of 1, 405 German business founders, how the personality characteristic of generalized self-efficacy influences start-up performance as measured by a broad set of business outcomes up to 19 months after business creation. Outcomes include start-up survival and entrepreneurial income, as well as growthoriented outcomes such as job creation and innovation. We find statistically significant and economically important positive effects of high scores of self-efficacy on start-up survival and entrepreneurial income, which become even stronger when focusing on the growth-oriented outcome of innovation. Furthermore, we observe that generalized self-efficacy is similarly distributed between female and male business founders, with effects being partly stronger for female entrepreneurs. Our findings are important for policy instruments that are meant to support firm growth by facilitating the design of more target-oriented offers for training, coaching, and entrepreneurial incubators.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, firm performance, general self-efficacy, survival, job creation, innovation
    JEL: L26 M13 D91
    Date: 2023–01
  4. By: KATO Masatoshi; Nicolas LEGENDRE; YOSHIDA Hiroki
    Abstract: This study examines venture capital (VC) backing among new firms in Japan, exploring how the determinants and effects of VC backing vary depending on the VC investor type. We estimate the determinants of VC backing and find that new firms receiving investments from independent VCs tend to be larger, younger, and more innovative than non-VC-backed firms. However, the factors affecting investments from corporate, finance-affiliated, and government-funded VCs significantly differ from those affecting independent VCs. To explore the effect of VC backing, we construct a matched sample using propensity score matching. Furthermore, we estimate the average treatment effect of receiving VC investments to clarify whether new VC-backed firms achieve superior growth and innovation performance. The results indicate that investments from independent VC firms enhance the performance of new firms. However, we find no significant effect on new firm performance for other VC investor types.
    Date: 2022–12
  5. By: Kuosmanen, Natalia (ETLA - The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy); Maczulskij, Terhi (ETLA - The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy)
    Abstract: This paper explores the importance of firm dynamics, including entry and exit and the allocation of carbon emissions across firms, on the green transition. Using the 2000–2019 firm-level register data on greenhouse gas emissions matched with the Financial Statement data in the Finnish manufacturing sector, we examine the sources of carbon-productivity growth and assess the relative contributions of structural change and firm dynamics. We find that continuing firms were the main drivers of carbon productivity growth whereas the contribution of entering and exiting firms was negative. In addition, the allocation of emissions across firms appeared to be inefficient, with a negative impact on carbon productivity growth over the study period. Our analysis also revealed a positive relationship between labor-intensive firms and carbon productivity, but firms with a larger market share tended to be less productive in terms of carbon use.
    Keywords: carbon productivity, decomposition analysis, firm dynamics, firm-level data, manufacturing sector
    JEL: D24 L60 Q54
    Date: 2023–01
  6. By: Vartuhi Tonoyan; Christopher Boudreaux
    Abstract: Despite recent evidence linking gender diversity in the firm with firm innovativeness, we know little about the underlying mechanisms. Building on and extending the Upper Echelon and entrepreneurship literature, we address two lingering questions: why and how does gender diversity in firm ownership affect firm innovativeness? We use survey data collected from 7, 848 owner-managers of SMEs across 29 emerging markets to test our hypotheses. Our findings demonstrate that firms with higher gender diversity in ownership are more likely to invest in R&D and rely upon a breadth of external capital, with such differentials explaining sizeable proportions of the higher likelihood of overall firm innovativeness, product and process, as well as organizational and marketing innovations exhibited by their firms. Our findings are robust to corrections for alternative measurement of focal variables, sensitivity to outliers and subsamples, and endogenous self-selection concerns.
    Date: 2023–01
  7. By: Bergeaud, Antonin; Verluise, Cyril
    Abstract: Innovation is an important driver of potential growth but quantitative evidence on the dynamics of innovative activities in the long-run are hardly documented due to the lack of data, especially in Europe. In this paper, we introduce PatentCity, a novel dataset on the location and nature of patentees from the 19th century using information derived from an automated extraction of relevant information from patent documents published by the German, French, British and US Intellectual Property offices. This dataset has been constructed with the view of facilitating the exploration of the geography of innovation and includes additional information on citizenship and occupation of inventors.
    Keywords: history of innovation; patent; text as data
    JEL: R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2022–04–28
  8. By: Ranasinghe, Ashantha (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Women account for a small share of all business owners and a small share of the market in India's manufacturing sector. To account for these patterns, I estimate the extent of gender-specific distortions to operating a business using firm-level data. Feeding these estimates that differ across gender into a standard framework of heterogeneous producers replicates key features of the firm size distribution, on aggregate and across gender. While women face high entry barriers into entrepreneurship, they have modest impacts on female market shares. Accounting for the distribution of distortions, instead of its average, provides a more accurate view of the differential barriers to production women face and their quantitative relevance. Policies that promote female entrepreneurship are effective, yet have only marginal impacts on aggregate productivity. These findings are not unique to India, and apply across a broader set of countries.
    Keywords: gender; entrepreneurship; misallocation; productivity; micro data.
    JEL: J16 O10 O40 O50
    Date: 2023–01–12
  9. By: Kim, Young Soo (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Growth potential is the totality of growth factors that can contribute to current or future growth. The core growth potential of the digital economy era should be identified in business and industrial capabilities that are expressed based on human capital and regional innovation. Therefore, regional growth potential (RGP) can be defined as the sum of regional growth performance (Y), corporate/industrial capabilities (K), human capital capabilities (H), regional innovation capabilities (I), and local community capabilities (S). Based on this framework, this paper designs a system of RGP indicators and employed it in an analysis of megaregions, municipalities, and provinces. The results of the analysis suggest the following. First, RGP has a mechanism by which human capital/local innovation/local community capabilities translate into corporate/industrial capabilities that in turn result in regional growth performance. Second, the mechanism by which RGP is expressed exhibits a higher correlation at the megaregion level than in individual cities or provinces. Third, the growth potential gap between the Seoul Capital Area (SCA)/ the Chungcheong megaregion and other megaregions has been widening. Fourth, the decrease in the relative growth potential of the Southeast megaregion and Daegu/Gyeongbuk megaregion — which together host clusters of Korea’s flagship manufacturing industries — is a serious problem which needs to be addressed as at the national industrial policy level. Finally, regions with excellent growth potential show distinctive characteristics compared to regions with poor growth potential at the municipal and provincial levels. Based on this, this paper suggested the following policies to promote regional industries. First, policy efforts should be stepped up to expand innovation investment in existing flagship industries and foster new industries. Second, it is necessary to nurture talented workers who will lead innovation in the digital economy era and expand innovation support primarily for talented workers who are likely to stay in the region. Third, the focus should be on creating quality jobs with high added value targeting knowledge service industries connected to region-specific manufacturing industries. Fourth, it is important to create a compelling regional environment for startups and skilled workers.
    Keywords: Regional Innovation; Regional Growth Performance; Regional Growth Potential
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2022–03–31
  10. By: Sulehri, Fiaz Ahmad; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: This study has investigated the majority shareholder's practice to use minority shareholders’ wealth without their consent which influence the performance of firms in Pakistan from 2009 to 2020. The firm performance has been taken as an explained variable, whereas ownership concentration, inside ownership, firm size, leverage, and investment growth are considered explanatory variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, Hausman test, and random effect model have been used for empirical analysis. The study used a sample of 24 firms with a total of 288 observations to look at how ownership concentration, inside ownership, leverage, and sales growth affect firm performance. The ownership concentration, firm size, and investment growth have a positive and significant impact on firm performance, whereas inside ownership and leverage have a negative and significant influence on the performance of selected non-financial firms. The larger the gap between ownership and control, the more likely it is that company resources will be tunneled. So, it has been suggested to the securities and exchange commission of Pakistan to frame strict rules and regulations to stop the role of inside ownership because it influences firm performance adversely.
    Keywords: firm performance, insider ownership, tunneling
    JEL: D73 L25
    Date: 2022–12
  11. By: Bertheau, Antoine (University of Copenhagen); Vejlin, Rune Majlund (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: We investigate whether workers reallocate up firm productivity and wage job ladders, and the cyclicality of this process. We document that productivity is a better measure of the job ladder than the average wage, since high productivity firms relative to low poach more workers than high wage firms relative to low. Employment cyclicality over the business cycle differs between the firm wage and productivity ladders. In recessions, employment decreases more in low than in high productivity firms. Low productivity firms fire more workers in recessions and stop hiring unemployed workers. Thus, there is a cleansing effect of recessions from the point of view of productivity reallocation. Oppositely, employment decreases more in high than in low wage firms, and the poaching channel of employment growth explains the difference. In recessions separations to other firms slow down more in low wage firms relative high wage firms and thus reallocation up the wage job ladder breaks down - a sullying effect of recessions. Thus recessions speed up productivity-enhancing reallocation but impede progression on the wage ladder.
    Keywords: job creation rate, firm heterogeneity, employment fluctuations
    JEL: E24 E32
    Date: 2023–01
  12. By: Benoit Dostie; Genevieve Dufour
    Abstract: We examine the technology upgrading strategies of Quebec firms by comparing their adoption rates of new technologies to those of firms in the rest of Canada using data from Statistics Canada's Survey of Innovation and Business Strategies (SIBS) for the years 2009, 2012, and 2017. For 2017, we find that Quebec is in line with the Canadian average in terms of adoption of advanced technologies, and even ahead in terms of emerging technologies. An econometric analysis of the determinants of the adoption of these technologies then allows us to identify some explanatory factors for the differences in adoption rates between firms. We find that large firms, firms with export activities outside of Canada, firms facing higher competition, and firms with a higher percentage of employees with a university degree are all more likely to adopt new advanced technologies. Finally, we compare other upgrading strategies regarding the adoption of advanced management practices and innovation strategies. Nous examinons les stratégies de mise à niveau technologiques des entreprises québécoises en comparant leur taux d’adoption des nouvelles technologies à celles des entreprises du reste du Canada à l’aide des données de l’Enquête sur l’innovation et les stratégies d’entreprise (EISE) de Statistique Canada pour les années 2009, 2012 et 2017. Pour 2017, nous constatons que le Québec se situe dans la moyenne canadienne en ce qui a trait à l’adoption des technologies de pointe, et même en avance pour ce qui est des technologies émergentes. Une analyse économétrique des déterminants de l’adoption de ces technologies permet ensuite d’identifier certains facteurs explicatifs des différences dans les taux d’adoption entre les entreprises. Nous constatons que les grandes entreprises, celles avec des activités d’exportation à l’extérieur du Canada, celles faisant face à un taux de compétition plus élevé et celles avec un plus fort pourcentage d’employés ayant un diplôme universitaire sont toutes plus enclines à adopter davantage les nouvelles technologies de pointe. Finalement, nous comparons d’autres stratégies de mise à niveau concernant l’adoption de pratiques de gestion de pointe et de stratégies d’innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, technology adoption, adoption rates, digital transformation, Innovation, adoption des technologies, taux dâadoption, transformation numérique
    Date: 2023–01–10
  13. By: OECD
    Abstract: Cultural and creative sectors are a significant driver of local development through job creation and income generation, spurring innovation across the economy and increasing the attractiveness of cities and regions as destinations to visit, work and live. This case study offers a review of cultural and creative sectors in Lithuania, highlighting issues and trends in employment and business development, financing and cultural participation. It brings a specific focus on three municipalities within the County of Klaipėda located on the Baltic coast – Klaipėda City, Neringa and Palanga – small cities specialised in port activities, logistics, traditional manufacturing and seaside resort tourism. It highlights how culture and creative sectors can be leveraged to foster local development, diversify the economy and strengthen territorial attractiveness. It provides recommendations and international examples on ways to support business development in creative sectors and to strengthen synergies between culture and tourism.
    Keywords: creative industries, cultural employment, culture and local development
    JEL: I31 Z1
    Date: 2023–01–25
  14. By: Shim, Woo Jung (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Kim, Jongki (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: The accelerated pace at which digital transformation is unfolding across various sectors of Korean society is exerting a profound impact on the overall structure of Korean industries and the Korean economy as well, with the rise of the contactless and stay-at-home economies, the growth of digital services, and the increasing emphasis on health and hygiene. Governments worldwide have established policy measures facilitating digital transformation, and major companies worldwide are leading digital transformation in global industries. Digital transformation (DX) serves a number of business objectives, including enhancing competitiveness in response to changes in market demand and industrial structures, facilitating the research and development (R&D) of new products and services (as well as differentiating and innovating existing ones), enhancing cost-competitiveness, and strengthening productivity. Much of the DX phenomenon occurs spontaneously in response to the growing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies, smart manufacturing, metaverse systems and platforms, online services, and digital platforms across industries. In Korea, however, there is a general lack of awareness of and preparation for digital transformation, with much of the DX that has occurred still in its early stages. DX has yet to produce results to the extent and depth desired by businesses. Relative to their global competitors, Korean companies’ capabilities for DX also fall short. The current situation of digital transformation in Korea attests to the importance of effective policy measures that foster the use of DX and digital innovations by companies. Most importantly, infrastructure needs to be developed to provide small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with digital technologies and platforms. Policy measures promoting DX should also reflect the characteristics, current issues, and changing trends of different industries. The four types of industries examined in this study (IT manufacturing, non-IT manufacturing, IT services, and non-IT services) show different levels of progress with DX in line with the different conditions and characteristics they have as industries. Policymakers and businesses alike ought to consider these differences in devising their DX strategies.
    Keywords: Korean Economy; Digital Services; Digital Platforms; Digital Innovation
    JEL: O25 O38
    Date: 2022–02–28
  15. By: Erik Hornung (University of Cologne); Julius Koschnick (London School of Economics); Francesco Cinnirella (University of Bergamo)
    Abstract: Sustained technological progress was at the heart of the Industrial Revolution. This column argues that access to knowledge was crucial for innovation and technological diffusion during this period. Inventors and entrepreneurs needed access to useful knowledge to generate new ideas and continue innovating. Such access was provided by the ‘economic societies’ – associations of individuals interested in improving the local economy. These societies became drivers of knowledge diffusion and innovation.
    Date: 2022–12
  16. By: Matthias Huegel (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Economics); Philip Doerr (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Economics); Martin Kalthaus (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The transfer of knowledge and technology from academia to industry is usually understood as a process. While previous research focuses on phenomena along the process and its outcomes, the starting point of the process – the initiation of a transfer activity – remains unstudied. We provide first empirical insights on the initiation of the transfer process and conceptualize this initiation as a simultaneous recognition of a transfer opportunity and the choice of a transfer channel. We focus on Science-Industry collaboration, Intellectual Property Rights and spin-off creation as relevant channels. We use survey data from 1, 149 scientists from the German state of Thuringia and utilize seemingly unrelated regressions to account for selection and multiple channel choices in our econometric approach. Our results show a positive relationship between scientists’ probability to recognize a transfer opportunity and different kinds of prior knowledge. Contrary to our expectation, scientific quality reduces the likelihood of recognizing a transfer opportunity. For the choice of the transfer channel, the results show a positive relationship between choosing the spin-off channel and risk willingness, as well as basic research. Applied research increases the likelihood to choose Intellectual Property Rights as a channel. Furthermore, role models are positively associated with these two channels.
    Keywords: Transfer Process, Transfer Initiation, Opportunity Recognition, Transfer Channel, Science-Industry Collaboration, Intellectual Property Right, Academic Spin-off
    JEL: L26 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2023–01–18
  17. By: Lotitto, Estefanía; Díaz de Astarloa, Bernardo
    Abstract: The digitization of economy, and particularly the e-commerce can encourage innovation and contribute to the process of digital transformation of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) through the implementation of digital technologies and new business models, which can improve the efficiency and productivity of companies beyond its effects on access to new markets. Despite potential gains, activity of online platforms implies risks and challenges in terms of antitrust regulation, data protection, cybersecurity, and market dynamic. Better quality of institutions and an effective judiciary system and a competitive business environment are associated with higher efficient of platforms. Data and evidence for the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region remain scarce still. This paper analyzes data set of online marketplace activity in the region between 2019 and 2021. Besides, it describes the main characteristics of online platforms in the region, as well as their distribution across countries and the evolution of traffic during such period. These data also were combined with country-level indicators to study structural determinants of those marketplace activities.
    Date: 2022–12–15
  18. By: Robert S. Chirinko; Daniel J. Wilson
    Abstract: This paper reviews selected fiscal policy initiatives undertaken by US states to encourage job creation and innovation. We begin with a discussion of some general considerations about the design of tax policies summarized in a tax policy design table. Four policies are reviewed: job creation tax credits, research and development tax credits, a set of tax policies targeted to the biotechnology industry, and a broad set of tax policies that attract star scientists. The experiences at the state level are used to evaluate the effectiveness of these employment and knowledge-capital tax incentives in creating jobs and spurring innovation. The paper concludes with four other considerations need to be taken into account in selecting policies.
    Keywords: targeted state fiscal policies, employment tax incentives, job creation, knowledge-capital tax incentives, innovation
    JEL: H71 H25
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Cesare Righi; Davide Cannito; Theodor Vladasel
    Abstract: Despite their growing importance for rm innovation strategy and frequent appearance in U.S. patent policy debates, how continuing patent applications are used remains unclear. Turn-of-the-century reforms strongly limited opportunities to extend patent term and surprise competitors, but continuing applications have steadily risen since. We argue that they retain a subtle use, as applicants can file continuations to keep prosecution open and change patent scope after locking in gains with the initial patent. We document a sharp drop in parent abandonment and rise in continuations per original patent after the reforms. Continuing applications are more privately valuable than original patents, are led in more uncertain contexts, for higher value technologies, by more strategic applicants, and react strongly to the notice of allowance. The evidence supports a current strategic use of continuing applications to craft claims over time.
    Keywords: intellectual property, patent scope, continuation, divisional, innovation
    JEL: O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2023–01
  20. By: Bryan Campbell; Michel Magnan
    Abstract: Globally, the bioeconomy can be defined as the domain of the economy based on products, services and processes derived from biological resources. In this regard, synthetic biology refers to the characteristics of a field derived from biology that has developed over the past thirty years thanks to advances in applied genetics and bioengineering. Some predict that the future economy will primarily be a bioeconomy based on these emerging techniques, which are consistent with the decarbonization of our economy. We first describe the international reality of the "Bio Revolution" and then aim to assess Quebec's position. Next, we present some government policies following a top-down approach from different jurisdictions. A case study of a Montreal-based company allows us to highlight the problems it faced in attracting the financial capital needed for its growth. Another critical issue in the field is the scalability of production processes. We explore this issue further in agritech, a high potential sector but whose realization faces several socio-economic challenges. This analysis serves as a backdrop to our recommendations to develop a roadmap for government support for synthetic biology. Globalement, la bioéconomie peut être définie comme le domaine de l'économie basée sur les produits, services et processus dérivés des ressources biologiques. À cet égard, la biologie de synthèse réfère aux caractéristiques d’un domaine dérivé de la biologie qui s’est développé au cours des trente dernières années grâce aux progrès de la génétique appliquée et de la bio-ingénierie. Certains prédisent que l'économie future sera principalement une bioéconomie basée sur ces techniques émergentes, lesquelles sont cohérentes avec la décarbonisation de notre économie. Nous décrivons d’abord la réalité internationale de la « Révolution Bio » et tentons d’évaluer la position du Québec. Par la suite, nous présentons des politiques de soutien à la bioéconomie de diverses juridictions. Une étude de cas d’une entreprise de Montréal nous permet de mettre en évidence les problèmes auxquels elle a dû faire face pour attirer le capital financier nécessaire à sa croissance. Outre le financement, un autre enjeu critique dans le domaine est la montée en charge (scalability en anglais) des processus de transformation. Nous explorons davantage cet enjeu en agro-technologie, secteur à haut potentiel mais dont la réalisation comporte plusieurs défis socio-économiques. Cette analyse sert de toile de fond à nos recommandations qui portent sur l'élaboration d'une feuille de route pour le soutien gouvernemental à la biologie de synthèse.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy, biomanufacturing, innovation, agritech, capital, Bioéconomie, biofabrication, innovation, agro-technologie, capital
    JEL: O3 O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 Q16 M13
    Date: 2023–01–11

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