nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
eighteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The interplay between product innovation, publishing, patenting and developing standards By Blind, Knut; Krieger, Bastian; Pellens, Maikel
  2. PATENTS, FAMILY, AND SIZE. EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS By Francesco Aiello; Paola Cardamone; Lidia mannarino; Valeria Pupo
  3. Identifying and boosting “gazelles”: evidence from business accelerators By Gonzalez-Uribe, Juanita; Reyes, Santiago
  4. Job Satisfaction, Structure of Working Environment and Firm Size By Tansel, Aysit
  5. The role of local embeddedness of transnational migrant start-ups in the COVID-19 crises: Examples from the Berlin start-up ecosystem By Terstriep, Judith; David, Alexandra; Ruthemeier, Alexander; Elo, Maria
  6. "Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs " By Cheah Wen Fong
  7. Agile R&D Units' Organization in Physical Product Development – An Empirical Investigation By Meier, Andre Klaus
  8. Stagnation despite ongoing innovation: Is R&D expenditure composition a missing link? An empirical analysis for the US (1948-2019) By Giovanna Ciaffi; Matteo Deleidi; Stefano Di Bucchianico
  9. The performance of Italian Industrial Districts in and out of the 2008-2012 crisis By Valter Di Giacinto; Andrea Sechi; Alessandro Tosoni
  10. ICT Expansion, Innovation Dynamics in the EU and Climate Neutrality-related Policy Options By Paul J. J. Welfens; Tian Xiong; David Hanrahan
  11. Profil entrepreneurial et capacités d'innovation des dirigeants des PME exportatrices en Algérie By Mohamed Kadi; Foued Cheriet
  12. The geography of acquisitions and greenfield investments: firm heterogeneity and regional institutional conditions By Amendolagine, Vito; Crescenzi, Riccardo; Rabellotti, Roberta
  13. Decision support for social innovation enabling sustainable development By Humphreys, Patrick; Imas, Miguel
  14. IFAD Research Series 78: The Small and Medium Enterprises’ quiet revolution in the hidden middle of food systems in developing regions By Reardon, Thomas; Liverpool-Tasie, Saweda; Minten, Bart
  15. Techno-Globalization: Theory and Empirical Analysis for OECD Countries By Andre Jungmittag
  16. Growth and Firm Dynamics in a Banking System Favoring Big Firms By Nurlan Jahangirli
  17. How do firms cope with losses from extreme weather events? By Benincasa, Emanuela; Betz, Frank; Gattini, Luca
  18. Building a Support Model for Design Management for SMEs (Japanese) By NISHIGAKI Atsuko; NUMAMOTO Kazuki; HARADA Takashi; HIRAYAMA Yuka; WASHIDA Yuichi; HIGO Ai

  1. By: Blind, Knut; Krieger, Bastian; Pellens, Maikel
    Abstract: Firms use a variety of practices to disclose the knowledge generated by their R&D activities, including, but not limited to, publishing findings in scientific journals, patenting new technologies, and contributing to developing standards. While the individual effects of engaging in the listed practices on firm innovation are well-understood, the existing literature has not considered their interrelation. Therefore, our study examines if the three practices are complements, substitutes, or unrelated in terms of firms' performance with product innovations new to the market. Our analysis builds on a sample of innovation-active firms from the German Community Innovation Survey, which includes information on the development of standards, enhanced with information on firms' engagement in patenting and publishing. We find that 26% of innovation-active firms engage in at least one of the three practices, and 22% of engaging firms combine them. Using supermodularity tests, we show that publishing and patenting as well as patenting and developing standards are substitutes. Publishing and developing standards are not significantly linked. Based on our findings, we derive implications for innovation management and policy.
    Keywords: Standardization,patents,scientific publications,product innovation
    JEL: O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Francesco Aiello (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Paola Cardamone (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Lidia mannarino (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy)); Valeria Pupo (Department of Economics, Statistics and Finance 'Giovanni Anania', University of Calabria, Rende (Italy))
    Abstract: This study explores whether the probability to patent differ between family and non-family firms, and whether any potential difference between firm-type is moderated by size. The analysis is based on a large archive of patenting activities (Orbis–PATSTAT dataset) carried out by around 3700 Italian manufacturing firms over the 2010–2017 period. The results from a probability model show that, on average, family firms patent less than non-family firms (the estimated average marginal effect is -0.0325). Firm size matters, as its average marginal effect is 0.0212, suggesting that the probability of patenting increases with size, no matter the firm ownership. The size effect differs, however, between family and non-family firms. It is demonstrated not only that family firms remain less likely to patent than non-family firms, but also that their disadvantages increase as they grow in size: in large firms, the probability of patenting is 0.22 for family firms and 0.39 for non-family firms. Importantly, the results hold when considering patent counts, citations and a number of additional sensitivity tests.
    Keywords: Family firms, Patenting activities, Firm size
    JEL: D22 L25 L60 O30
    Date: 2022–07
  3. By: Gonzalez-Uribe, Juanita; Reyes, Santiago
    Abstract: Why is high-growth entrepreneurship scarce in developing countries? Does this scarcity reflect firm capabilities constraints? We explore these questions using as a laboratory an accelerator in Colombia that selects participants using scores from randomly assigned judges and offers them training, advice, and visibility but no cash. Exploiting exogenous differences in judges’ scoring generosity, we show that alleviating constraints to firm capabilities unlocks innovative entrepreneurs’ potential but does not transform subpar ideas into high-growth firms. The results demonstrate that some high-potential entrepreneurs in developing economies face firm capabilities constraints and accelerators can help identify these entrepreneurs and boost their growth.
    Keywords: High growth entreprenuership; Business accelerators; Young firms; firm capabilities
    JEL: G24 M13
    Date: 2021–01–01
  4. By: Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Employees' wellbeing is important to the firms. Analysis of job satisfaction may give insight into various aspect of labor market behavior, such as worker productivity, absenteeism and job turn over. Little empirical work has been done on the relationship between structure of working environment and job satisfaction. This paper investigates the relationship between working environment, firm size and worker job satisfaction. We use a unique data of 28,240 British employees, Workplace Employee Relations Survey. In this data set the employee questionnaire is matched with the employer questionnaire. Four measures of job satisfaction considered are satisfaction with influence over job, satisfaction with amount of pay, satisfaction with sense of achievement and satisfaction with respect from supervisors. They are all negatively related to the firm size implying lower levels of job satisfaction in larger firms. The firm size in return is negatively related to the degree of flexibility in the working environment. The small firms have more flexible work environments. This is the first study that explore the effect of work amenities. We further find that, contrary to the previous results lower levels of job satisfaction in larger firms can not necessarily be attributed to the inflexibility in their structure of working environment.
    Keywords: job satisfactions, firm size, working environment, linked employer-employee data, Britain
    JEL: J21 J28 J29 J81
    Date: 2022–06
  5. By: Terstriep, Judith; David, Alexandra; Ruthemeier, Alexander; Elo, Maria
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a changing environment for transnational migrant start-ups. These changes have posed many challenges concerning altering strategic behaviour and approaches to driving business. We explored transnational migrant start-ups' embeddedness in translocal entrepreneurial ecosystems by analysing data from 14 semi-structured interviews with start-ups from Berlin's knowledgeintensive business services sector. We argue that the success of transnational migrant start-ups during crises is largely dependent on embeddedness in the local entrepreneurial ecosystem. Thus, we expect entrepreneurs to utilise local networks, infrastructures and interactions to help them cope with the challenges at hand and to pave the way for translocal business activities. Our results indicate that structural embedding in local entrepreneurial ecosystems and a sense of belonging, especially during the business formation phase, play a vital role for transnational migrant start-ups.
    Keywords: migrant entrepreneurship,migrant start-ups transnationalism,translocal embeddedness,COVID-19,crisis,entrepreneurial ecosystem
    JEL: F63 O12 L26
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Cheah Wen Fong (Faculty of Business, Multimedia University Melaka, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Yuen Yee Yen Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Business, Multimedia University Melaka, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Suganthi Ramasamy Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Business, Multimedia University Melaka, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - Sustainable entrepreneurship is considered to be combined with economic, social, and environmental value creation, and is considered a combination of social enterprise and environmental enterprise. The small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia are without exception. However, due to the lack of research, the existing literature has not yet provided sufficient explanation for the establishment of sustainable entrepreneurship in Malaysian SMEs. This research included an introduction that gives an overview of the research, continued by the review of existing literature that correlates to the research topic followed by the methodology adopted for this research. Methodology - Specifically, this research extends the Entrepreneurial Event Model to test the proposed framework. To test the research framework and to achieve the research objectives, the survey questionnaire was used to collect the primary data of 200 respondents (entrepreneurs from Malaysian SMEs). The research used Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) and Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) to encode and analyse the main data collected in this study. Findings - This research's findings revealed that the developed model was sustainable. All the constructs were reliable and valid, and the value was acceptable. The research novelty present in the paper regarding many researchers pay little attention to the key factors that affect the sustainable entrepreneurial ability of SMEs. At this point, this study had proposed a new variable such as environmental awareness and examined its impact on sustainable entrepreneurship performance. Furthermore, the research also provides references for future practical and theoretical contributions. Novelty - This research provides new and important insights for SMEs, entrepreneurs, employees, and institutions through empirical testing of the framework, thereby contributing to knowledge. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Sustainable Entrepreneurship; Perceived Desirability; Perceived Feasibility; Propensity to Act; Environmental Awareness
    JEL: L21 L26 M19
    Date: 2022–07–30
  7. By: Meier, Andre Klaus
    Abstract: While software firms increasingly rely on agile methods in their development processes and consequently transform to entirely agile firms, this movement lately also transferred to the domain of physical product development. More specifically, even traditional mechanical engineering firms increasingly rely on agilely organized Research and Development (R&D) units to cope with the current business environment’s increased demands for innovations at even shorter time intervals. However, since extant agility research primarily stems from the information systems and operations management fields, agility research in R&D and innovation management literature is rising but still scarce, resulting in the concept’s insufficient exploration in this context. Moreover, extant research shares agility literature’s general flaws, such as a strong focus on the firm or project level and software development. Moreover, literature highly focuses on the concept’s outcome perspective, i.e., increased adaptiveness, instead of elucidating how to organize to be agile, i.e., the capability perspective. As a result of these shortcomings, extant literature has neglected the practically highly relevant phenomenon of agile R&D units, particularly their organization, which makes them so adaptive in new product development (NPD). This dissertation addresses this shortcoming by linking insights from agility research, R&D and innovation management literature, and organizational theory. Based on an interview data set from twelve agility experts and three survey data sets from 178 R&D managers, 110 R&D project managers, and 454 R&D project employees, this dissertation conducts four investigations in the form of separate research studies. By the studies’ alignment, the dissertation, for the first time, elucidates what holistically constitutes agile R&D units’ organization (ARDO) and reveals ARDO’s consequences on the R&D units’ overall performance and the individual employees nested in the R&D units. Moreover, this dissertation contributes to agility, R&D and innovation management literature, as well as organizational theory in general, first by approaching the agility concept in a new context, via a new unit of analysis, and from a new angle, thus finally and holistically conceptualizing agility’s neglected capability perspective. Second, by providing a better understanding of agility’s and innovation performance’s interplay, particularly by further linking the concept to innovation’s front end. Third, ARDO’s identification and operationalization as such a competence advance dynamic capabilities theory, which facilitates future quantitative research on a dynamic capability in the context of R&D and on agile R&D units in physical product development in general.
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Giovanna Ciaffi; Matteo Deleidi; Stefano Di Bucchianico
    Abstract: Among the explanations for prolonged economic stagnation in advanced economies we find those that highlight the role of technical progress and its weakening impact on potential growth. Several contributions stress the apparent paradox of technological development and innovation going hand in hand with slowing labour productivity growth. This discourse is in turn linked to numerous factors, among which the pattern of research productivity, that appears to be falling in the last decades. The contribution of this article is to analyse the role of innovation expenditures composition, and its effects on productivity. We study whether productivity stagnation can be (partially) explained by the continuously falling ratio between public and private expenditures in innovation in the USA. We carry out an SVAR analysis of the US case during the period 1948Q1-2019Q4. In the empirical exercise we estimate the effect of public expenditure in innovation on productivity, private R&D, and GDP, comparing the outcomes with those relative to private expenditure in innovation. According to our results, the public type of innovation spending exhibits a positive effect on productivity and GDP, and it has a greater effect than private expenditure in innovation. In addition to this, public expenditure in innovation exerts a strong crowding-in effect on private investment in R&D. Therefore, according to the evidence we find, we maintain that the focus on the prolonged and sustained fall of public expenditure in innovation in relation to private expenditure of the same type helps in explaining lasting stagnation
    Keywords: Secular Stagnation, public and private R&D, innovation policy, research productivity, productivity growth
    JEL: O47 O32 O40
    Date: 2022–04
  9. By: Valter Di Giacinto (Bank of Italy); Andrea Sechi (Bank of Italy); Alessandro Tosoni (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: By exploiting firm level balance sheet data from the Cerved database and employment data from the INPS database, we provide a detailed description of the productivity performance of Italian industrial districts firms over the 2003-2017 period. The main structural features of industrial districts are first compared with those of the other types of local labour market areas. The performance of district firms is subsequently analysed both overall and separately for the firms belonging to the core district industry and the remaining companies. We find evidence of a positive and sizeable district productivity premium, increasing over the period of analysis. However, in order to consolidate their performance, industrial districts had to undergo significant structural changes. Medium-sized and large firms have grown in importance, also through a process of capital deepening that involved both tangible and intangible fixed assets. At the same time, structural adaptation involved the acquisition of a more significant role by firms not operating in the main district industry.
    Keywords: industrial districts, agglomeration economies, structural adaptation
    JEL: L25 L60 R11
    Date: 2022–06
  10. By: Paul J. J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Tian Xiong (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); David Hanrahan (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Climate change continues to challenge the global economy; particularly in industrialized countries, governments are increasingly coming under pressure to develop and implement adequate climate protection and innovation policies, as well as to co-operate in aligning them. At the same time, firms are also becoming more active in “greening†, by innovating in terms of greener products and processes in order to contribute to climate protection, stay at the technological frontier, and benefit from the increased environmental and sustainability awareness on the part of households, competitors and suppliers. Key areas of mutual concern to both policymakers and firms, therefore, include the determinants of green innovations – product or process – and how government can promote such innovation dynamics. Part of green innovations are covered by the European Union’s Community Innovation Survey (CIS), while the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also has data on green patenting dynamics. Using panel data on 35 European countries and covering the period of 2007-2018, including multiple waves of the CIS in a novel approach, we present an analysis on green innovation. The empirical analysis presented shows how key determinants of green innovation from the literature affect selected measures of green innovation. We find that the inward FDI stock intensity positively affects green process innovations (including manufacturing), while the ICT R&D Investment-GDP ratio has a negative impact on green innovativeness. As regards firms with both green process and green product innovations, GDP per capita is found to be a positive driver of innovativeness (excluding manufacturing) and is also a positive driver of green process innovations in firms with only green process innovations – but, paradoxically, is a negative driver of green product innovations in firms with only green product innovations. Regarding the rule of law, there is a positive impact on green innovations. The median age of the labor force has a negative impact on process innovations (excluding manufacturing), while the sign is positive for green process and product innovating firms (both including and excluding manufacturing). A green RCA variable is positively significant for green product innovating firms and green process and product innovators (including and excluding manufacturing). Our findings allow to suggest areas in which national and supranational policymakers should become more active to promote and foster green innovation in Europe.
    Keywords: Green innovation, product innovation, process innovation, ICT, Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: L86 Q55 O30 O31
    Date: 2022–07
  11. By: Mohamed Kadi (Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour le Développement - Partenaires INRAE); Foued Cheriet (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This article analyses the importance of the entrepreneurial and innovative dimension of the exporting companies' managers. Three main results were achieved, by using a survey of 43 Algerian exporting SMEs and basing it on multivariate analysis (ACP). The first one, high levels of innovation, particularly in production and marketing processes. The second one, the entrepreneurial dimensions of the exporting manager relate to his economic risk management of the targeted countries, his research, and the seizure of international business opportunities. Finally, for the Algerian exporting manager, the capacity for innovation is more appreciated in terms of the result of improving the quality of products destined for export.
    Abstract: Cet article analyse la place qu'occupe la dimension entrepreneuriale et d'innovation des dirigeants d'entreprises exportatrices. En utilisant une enquête auprès de 43 PME exportatrices algériennes et on nous basant sur une analyse multivariée (ACP), trois résultats principaux ont été obtenus : d'abord, des niveaux élevés d'innovation notamment en matière de procédés de production et de commercialisation. Ensuite, les dimensions entrepreneuriales du dirigeant exportateur portent sur sa gestion du risque économique des pays ciblés et sa recherche et saisie d'opportunités commerciales internationales. Enfin, pour le dirigeant exportateur algérien, la capacité d'innovation s'apprécie davantage en termes de résultat d'amélioration de la qualité des produits destinés à l'export.
    Keywords: entrepreneursip profile,Algerian enterprise,manager,profil entrepreneurial,entreprise algérienne,dirigeant,Algérie
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Amendolagine, Vito; Crescenzi, Riccardo; Rabellotti, Roberta
    Abstract: This paper investigates how institutional conditions at national and regional levels shape the decisions of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) to invest abroad by means of either acquisitions or greenfield investments. The empirical analysis covers all Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) projects in the European Union by the largest MNEs in the world to study alternative choices by the same firm and account for firm-level characteristics in investment decisions. The empirical results show that - other things being equal - MNEs prefer acquisitions to control activities in regions with stronger investment eco-systems, while they choose greenfield investments in regions with weaker systemic conditions. Moreover, the regional quality of government makes a fundamental difference to the nature of the investment projects attracted by regions: those with high quality of government can attract greenfield investments undertaken by the most productive MNEs. By improving their quality of government, local and regional policy makers can attract higher quality FDI to their constituencies, potentially breaking the vicious circle between low productivity areas and low productivity FDI.
    Keywords: greenfield FDI; cross-border acquisitions; firm terogeneity; regions; Europe; insitutions; European Union Horizon 2020 Programme H2020/2014-2020 (Grant Agreement n 639633-MASSIVE-ERC-2014-STG).
    JEL: R12 R58 F23
    Date: 2022–07
  13. By: Humphreys, Patrick; Imas, Miguel
    Abstract: This paper offers a unique and powerful bottom-up methodology for social innovation promoting and securing Sustainable development goals (SDG’s) in a wide variety of social innovation contexts founded on a bottom-up approach : it identifies four sustainable development enabling factors, (SDEFs) that make social innovation contributions to sustainability in all its forms. We Employ three level (micro, meso, macro) model of social Innovation. In the first four sections of the paper, we show how the SDEF’s constitute social innovation success factors at the micro level, underpinning in ancient history, the enduing success of the Silk Road network of trade and, in recent history we reveal their role underpinning entrepreneurial innovation clusters bottom up. Yje concluding section shows how social innovation achievements implementing the SDEFs at the micro level can inform successful expansion into new contexts via adaptation and exaptation at the meso level and top-down facilitation at the macro level.
    Keywords: cluster-building bottom-up; enabling factors; entrepreneurial innovation clusters; Silk Road; Social innovation; sustainable decision support; sustainable development; T&F deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–04–29
  14. By: Reardon, Thomas; Liverpool-Tasie, Saweda; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: Food systems are made up of a cluster of different value chains, including output, lateral, and research and development. This paper explores the rise of SMEs in transforming food systems—from traditional, to transitional, to modern. It discusses SMEs roles in the evolution, structure, and conduct of each segment of the midstream. It examines the impacts of the rise of midstream SMEs on employment, small farms, the environment and consumers.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Production Economics
    Date: 2022–05–01
  15. By: Andre Jungmittag (Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Parallel to the globalization of production and sales, multinational firms have partly also internationalized their research and development (R&D). In both the media and modern research on innovation, the increase in terms of the international generation, transfer and diffusion of new technologies has been described as technological globalization and techno- globalization; research has picked up the topic in scientific analysis. Based on the patent indicators suggested by Guellec and Pottelsberghe de la Potterie (2001), this contribution gives a consistent analysis of global technological cooperation as well as of the global sourcing of innovations as key elements of techno-globalization. In addition to taking stock for a cross- section of OECD countries and a time series examination for the whole of the OECD, and Germany and the Netherlands in particular, the significant drivers of techno-globalization are determined by simple correlation and regression analyses. Furthermore, simple tests for beta convergence show that there is an international convergence of the patent shares with domestic inventors and foreign applicants and also a convergence of the countries’ patent shares with an international cooperation of inventors. The analysis is completed by a view on the sectoral differences with regard to the internationalization of innovations as well as by some considerations with regard to the links between the internationalization of enterprises’ innovations and domestic employment.
    Keywords: Internationalization of R&D, International collaborative patents, Patent analysis, Patent cooperation, Techno-globalization
    JEL: O31 O32 O34 R11
    Date: 2020–10
  16. By: Nurlan Jahangirli (Monash)
    Abstract: Banks favor big firms by offering small firms different menu choices, which leads to disproportionate borrowing costs. I study big firm favorism in credit markets as a source of cross-country divergence and lower business dynamism. First, I provide some new evidence on the nature of this relationship across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The disproportionate cost of borrowing drastically declines as we move from low-income to high-income countries. Then, I integrate these stylized empirical facts into a Schumpeterian growth model with heterogeneous firm dynamics. Counterfactual policy interventions to alleviate disproportionate borrowing costs suggest a 10% to 21% increase in the economic growth rate in the US.
    Keywords: firm dynamics, cross-country convergence, borrowing costs, economic growth, pricing of corporate loans
    JEL: O16 O40
    Date: 2022–08
  17. By: Benincasa, Emanuela; Betz, Frank; Gattini, Luca
    Abstract: We document the investment and financing decisions of firms that experience monetary losses due to extreme weather events. Our sample covers firms operating in 41 economies, mainly emerging and developing markets. Consistent with the need to either replenish damaged capital or to adapt to climate change, firms hit by extreme weather are more likely to invest in long-term assets. In addition, they are more likely to integrate climate-friendly measures in their production processes. Although these firms have higher needs for bank credit, they are not more likely to be credit constrained than the average firm. Nonetheless, they face higher loan rejection rates and they are more leveraged than otherwise comparable firms. This suggests that climate change has the potential to erode the quality of firm balance sheets over time.
    Keywords: Physical climate risk,Extreme weather,Access to credit,Corporate investment
    JEL: D22 G21 G32 L20 Q54
    Date: 2022
  18. By: NISHIGAKI Atsuko; NUMAMOTO Kazuki; HARADA Takashi; HIRAYAMA Yuka; WASHIDA Yuichi; HIGO Ai
    Abstract: From the perspective of utilizing design in business management, METI and JPO announced some characteristics of design management organization in the Declaration for Design Management. In this paper, we hypothesized that SMEs and large enterprises would benefit from having different design organizations and conducted a survey on how different organizations view design management. From this survey, we found that design management in SMEs is different from that of large enterprises, and that it is close to the elements in “The Nine Entrances†proposed by the Japan Patent Office. Seven similar factors were derived for large companies and SMEs, but for SMEs, many additional factors related to improving internal understanding were found. In particular, it is important to directly connect design management to business profits in the case of SMEs. Thus, when supporting the introduction of design management in SMEs, this paper concluded that for business construction (or reconstruction), it is desirable to provide support that is specific and appropriate to the situation of each company. This support should be provided by designers with specifically relevant design expertise. One policy implication from this paper is that building a support model for design management for SMEs is an important consideration for the direction of policy.
    Date: 2022–07

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