nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2021‒10‒25
thirteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The drivers of SME innovation in the regions of the EU By Hervás-oliver, José-luis; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Rodríguez-pose, Andrés; Sempere-ripoll, Francisca
  2. Geographies of Knowledge Sourcing and the Value of Knowledge in Multilocational Firms By Anthony Frigon; David L. Rigby;
  3. Corporate CO2 offsetting in small- and medium-sized firms in Germany By Daniel Engler; Gunnar Gutsche; Amantia Simixhiu; Andreas Ziegler
  4. Effects of business improvement districts on firm performance, place attractiveness, and urban safety By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Mihaescu, Oana; Rudholm, Niklas
  5. A Systematic Review on Leadership Styles in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Sharon Esther Anak Donny Sita
  6. Social Incubators and Social Innovation in Cities: A Qualitative Analysis By Niccolò PIERI; Millán DÃ AZ-FONCEA; Carmen MARCUELLO; Ermanno TORTIA
  7. Determinants of entrepreneurial success in times of health and economic crisis: The case of SMEs in the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra region By Dina Ait Lahcen; Mustapha Oukassi; Nour Eddin Amghar
  8. Technological capacity and firms' recovery from Covid-19 By Sebastian Doerr; Magdalena Erdem; Guido Franco; Leonardo Gambacorta; Anamaria Illes
  9. Success factors of very small businesses in regulated context: Case of Moroccan insurance brokers By Lahoucine Outolba; Abdelhaq Lahfidi
  10. Analyzing “Innovation” in economics By Kakkar, Shrey
  11. Patents for Covid-19 vaccines are based on public research: a case study on the privatization of knowledge By Massimo FLORIO
  12. Regional Productivity Slowdown, Tax Havens and MNEs’ Intangibles: where is Measured Value Creation? By Jean-Charles Bricongne; Samuel Delpeuch; Margarita Lopez Forero
  13. Study of The Relationship Between Public and Private Venture Capitalists in France: A Qualitative Approach By Jonathan Labbe

  1. By: Hervás-oliver, José-luis; Parrilli, Mario Davide; Rodríguez-pose, Andrés; Sempere-ripoll, Francisca
    Abstract: European Union (EU) innovation policies have for long remained mostly research driven. The fundamental goal has been to achieve a rate of R&D investment of 3% of GDP. Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) innovation, however, relies on a variety of internal sources —both R&D and non-R&D based— and external drivers, such as collaboration with other firms and research centres, and is profoundly influence by location and context. Given this multiplicity of innovation activities, this study argues that innovation policies fundamentally based on a place-blind increase of R&D investment may not deliver the best outcomes in regions where the capacity of SMEs is to benefit from R&D is limited. We posit that collaboration and regional specificities can play a greater role in determining SME innovation, beyond just R&D activities. Using data from the Regional Innovation Scoreboard (RIS), covering 220 regions across 22 European countries, we find that regions in Europe differ significantly in terms of SME innovation depending on their location. SMEs in more innovative regions benefit to a far greater extent from a combination of internal R&D, external collaboration of all sorts, and non-R&D inputs. SMEs in less innovative regions rely fundamentally on external sources and, particularly, on collaboration with other firms. Greater investment in public R&D does not always lead to improvements in regional SME innovation, regardless of context. Collaboration is a central innovation activity that can complement R&D, showing an even stronger effect on SME innovation than R&D. Hence, a more collaboration-based and place-sensitive policy is required to maximise SME innovation across the variety of European regional contexts.
    Keywords: regional innovation; SMEs; R&D; place-based; collaboration; EU regions
    JEL: O31 O32 L11
    Date: 2021–11–01
  2. By: Anthony Frigon; David L. Rigby;
    Abstract: A growing body of research in economic geography, international business management and related fields focuses on geographies of knowledge sourcing. This work examines the organizational structure of innovation activities within the firm, the mechanisms by which knowledge is extracted from various external sources and the geography of these different activities. We augment this literature by exploring knowledge sourcing within multilocational firms operating in the US using a unique dataset matching patent records to firm-level ownership and geographical data. The results add value to existing research in three ways. First, the establishments of multilocational corporations are shown to produce different kinds of knowledge in different locations. Second, the patents generated within a firm’s establishments are linked to the knowledge stocks of the cities where they operate, supporting a vision of geographical knowledge sourcing. Third, the complexity of knowledge produced within the firm as a whole is positively related to the number of establishments in which multilocational firms undertake innovation activities. In sum these data suggest that multilocational firms distribute their innovation activities across locations in order to secure access to local pools of tacit knowledge. The complexity value of firms’ knowledge production is enhanced as a result of this spatial strategy.
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Daniel Engler (University of Kassel); Gunnar Gutsche (University of Kassel); Amantia Simixhiu (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Voluntary CO2 offsetting by individuals, firms, and organizations is increasingly considered as a direction of climate policy that is complementary to traditional approaches such as subsidies or CO2 taxes. Based on data from a large-scale survey among corporate decision makers, this paper empirically examines corporate CO2 offsetting and its determinants in small- and medium-sized firms in Germany. Our descriptive analysis shows both a rather limited engagement in corporate CO2 offsetting as well as a strong lack of knowledge about its mechanism. The econometric analysis reveals that some firm-specific characteristics like the average age of the employees, firm size, and firm age matter for CO2 offsetting. However, the main estimation results refer to the relevance of general environment-related variables like the implementation of environmental product and service innovations or the share of employees that carry out environment-related tasks and especially of climate-related factors and activities. In particular, the implementation of climate targets and the participation in the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) are strongly significantly positively correlated with CO2 offsetting. In line with similar findings at the individual level, these estimation results imply that corporate CO2 offsetting also does not substitute or crowd out other climate protection and further pro-environmental activities, but rather complements them.
    Keywords: Corporate CO2 offsetting, corporate climate protection and pro-environmental activities, small- and medium-sized firms
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Mihaescu, Oana (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Rudholm, Niklas (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: : Business improvement districts (BIDs) have emerged as possible solutions for the revitalization of urban areas characterized by economic decline. Using a difference-in differences model, we investigate the effects of a voluntary Swedish BID programme in five cities on firm performance, urban safety, and place attractiveness – both within and outside the BID. We find that the BID programme increased labour productivity for incumbent firms within the BID by 7.62%, mainly through an increase in revenues. However, the positive effect of the BID programme on firm performance is largely transitory, decreasing sharply during the third year and then becoming insignificant. We find no statistically significant impacts on firm performance outside the geographical boundaries of the BIDs. The results also suggest that fewer crimes were committed in the BIDs, as the estimates for all years are negative, though they are significant only for the fourth year after BID implementation. Finally, we detect no statistically significant effects of the BID programme on property values either within or outside the designated BIDs.
    Keywords: : Business improvement district; public–private partnerships; firm performance; labour productivity; property values; crime; difference-in-differences
    JEL: H44 L11 L25 R11 R12
    Date: 2021–10–15
  5. By: Sharon Esther Anak Donny Sita ("School of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, COLGIS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah DarulAman, Malaysia" Author-2-Name: Nor Ashikin Mohd Nor Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, COLGIS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah DarulAman, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of the leadership style practiced by leaders in small and medium-sized enterprises. Methodology/Technique - Following the protocol guidance known as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart, a total of six articles were reviewed and analysed after meeting inclusion criteria and being deemed relevant to the goals of this paper. Findings - The results of the study suggested that the leadership styles of leaders in the context of small and medium enterprises are based on the following elements: 1) the background of an organization; 2) the characteristics of the leader; 3) the relationship between leader and followers; and 4) the position of the followers. Novelty - This paper contributes to the knowledge on leadership style in general, specifically in the context of small and medium-sized enterprises. Type of Paper - Review."
    JEL: L20 L29
    Date: 2021–09–30
  6. By: Niccolò PIERI (Transport Policy, Impact Assessment and Economic Evaluation, European Commission); Millán DÃ AZ-FONCEA (Department of Management, University of Zaragoza (Spain)); Carmen MARCUELLO (Department of Management, University of Zaragoza (Spain)); Ermanno TORTIA (Department of Economy and Management, University of Trento (Italy))
    Abstract: How do social incubators contribute to social innovation in cities? We wanted to understand what their role in the city and the neighborhoods is, how they position themselves in the process of providing answers to the local needs in the specific place they are located. The answers to these questions are built upon the identification of the processes, the organizations and the services provided by the social incubators. The relationships built and developed between social incubators and the social enterprises are identified to understand the role of these new typologies of organizations in urban neighborhoods. The analysis is performed by applying case study methodology involving four different social incubators in two cities: Brussels and Milan.
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Dina Ait Lahcen (Université Mohamed V - Souissi); Mustapha Oukassi (Université Mohammed V); Nour Eddin Amghar (Université Mohamed V - Souissi)
    Abstract: SMEs are the backbone of any economy (Eggers, 2020). Thus, when the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, the entire economy was put at risk and SMEs were hit hard. The first figures seem to be alarming, but the prospects for emerging from this vortex remain optimistic. At the end of 2020, more than 95% of Moroccan SMEs have been able to maintain their activity (HCP, 2021), many of which have shown resilience and agility and have been able to overcome the devastating effects of the crisis. Our research aims, then, to study the key determinants explaining the success of Moroccan SMEs in times of health and economic crisis COVID-19 by focusing on three main dimensions: the environment, the entrepreneur and the resources mobilized. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study through individual semi-directive interviews with a simple random sample of 20 entrepreneurs operating in the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region. The results obtained showed that although the Moroccan government has developed a wide range of support measures for SMEs, the majority of the entrepreneurs considered that the success of their business is mainly due to endogenous factors related to their commitment, their motivation and the resources at their disposal, and secondarily, to exogenous factors related to the characteristics of the context and the opportunities offered by the environment in which they operate.
    Keywords: factors.,resilience,crisis,success,SME,facteurs.,résilience,crise,réussite,PME
    Date: 2021–10–01
  8. By: Sebastian Doerr; Magdalena Erdem; Guido Franco; Leonardo Gambacorta; Anamaria Illes
    Abstract: Can higher technological capacity help firms to recover quicker from recessions? Analyzing the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on firm revenues in several countries, we find that firms headquartered in jurisdictions with better digital infrastructure generated relatively higher revenue during the shock period. Improving a country's technological capability by one standard deviation is associated with a relative increase in revenues of the average firm by around 4%. The positive effect of technology is more pronounced among smaller firms, suggesting that it could have helped the recovery of SMEs.
    JEL: E23 G10 G38 O30
    Date: 2021–10
  9. By: Lahoucine Outolba (UIZ - Ibn Zohr University of Agadir); Abdelhaq Lahfidi (UIZ - Ibn Zohr University of Agadir)
    Keywords: Small businesses,Regulation,Entrepreneurship success. Classification JEL: M10 Paper type: Empirical research
    Date: 2021–10–01
  10. By: Kakkar, Shrey
    Abstract: This article discusses existing theories on “Innovation” since the 1940s. It differentiates between “Innovation” and “Invention”, and presents examples of innovation that are modelled by theory.
    Keywords: Innovation, Invention
    JEL: B20 B25 O31
    Date: 2021–07–31
  11. By: Massimo FLORIO (Department of Economics, Management, and Quantitative Methods, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy))
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced us to reconsider the relationship between public and private research and development (R&D). The policy issue is whether, over the next 20 years, governments’ only negotiating position on biomedical technologies will be to sign one purchase contract after another and transfer value from tax payers to investors in pharmaceutical companies. Knowledge and technologies that are crucial to Covid-19 vaccine development and production were created with the contribution of governments. Patents filed by pharma companies do not protect the public interest arising from such earlier research. The paper offers a case study on the privatization of knowledge created in the first place by R&D in the public sector or supported by public funds and eventually being appropriated by pharmaceutical corporations.
    Keywords: COVID 19 pandemic, vaccines, public and private R&D, Big Pharma, public funding, USA
    JEL: H51 I11 L32 O32
    Date: 2021–03
  12. By: Jean-Charles Bricongne; Samuel Delpeuch; Margarita Lopez Forero
    Abstract: Based on French firm-level data over around 15 years we evaluate the contribution of the micro-level profit shifting –through tax haven foreign direct investments to the aggregate productivity slowdown measured in France. We show that firm measured productivity in France declines over the immediate years following the establishment in a tax haven, with an average estimated drop by 3.5% in labor apparent productivity. We argue that this productivity decline, following a presence in a tax haven, is most likely explained by multinationals’ tax optimization, where domestic productivity is underestimated as profits are not recorded anymore in the home country. The fall in productivity is especially strong for firms that are intensive in intangible capital and is equivalent to 4.1% (versus 2.7% for low intangible intensive firms), reflecting the fact that these types of assets are more easily shifted across countries and facilitate tax planning. Our results additionally suggest that the mismeasurement has strong dynamic effects, as the decline becomes more important the longer the firm remains in a tax haven. Finally, given these firms’ weight in the economy, our results imply an 8% loss at the aggregate in terms of the level of the labor productivity throughout the whole sample period, which is equivalent to an annual loss of 9.7% in terms of the aggregate annual labor productivity growth.
    Keywords: Tax Havens, Profit shifting FDI, Productivity slowdown, Productivity mismeasurement, Intangible capital
    JEL: D33 F23 H26 H87 O47
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Jonathan Labbe (CEREFIGE)
    Abstract: This research focuses on the study of relationships between public and private equity investors in France. In this regard, we need to apprehend the formal or informal nature of interactions that can sometimes take place within traditional innovation networks (Djellal \& Gallouj, 2018). For this, our article mobilizes a public-private partnerships approach (PPPs) and the resource-based view theory. These perspectives emphasize the complementary role of disciplinary and incentive mechanisms as well as the exchange of specific resources as levers for value creation. Moreover, these orientations crossed with the perspective of a hybrid form of co-investment allow us to build a coherent and explanatory framework of the mixed syndication phenomenon. Our methodology is based on a qualitative approach with an interpretative aim, which includes twenty-seven semi-structured interviews. These data were subjected to a thematic content analysis using Nvivo software. The results suggest that the relationships between public and private Venture capitalists (VCs) of a formal or informal nature, more specifically in a syndication context, at a national or regional level, are representative of an ''economico-cognitive'' (Farrugia, 2014, page 6) approach to networking and innovation. Moreover, the phenomenon of mixed syndication reveals a context of hybridization of public and private actors that would allow the private VCs to benefit from the distribution of wealth when the company develops its innovation. We can also identify a process related to a quest for legitimacy on the part of the public actor characterized by its controlling role within the public-private partnership (Beuve and Saussier, 2019). Finally, our study has some limitations. One example is the measurement of the effects of relationships on ''visible'' or ''invisible'' innovation (Djellal \& Gallouj, 2018, page 90).
    Date: 2021–10

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