nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2021‒03‒01
fifteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Fencing Off Silicon Valley: Cross-Border Venture Capital and Technology Spillovers By Ufuk Akcigit; Sina T. Ates; Josh Lerner; Richard R. Townsend; Yulia Zhestkova
  2. Market study to understand job growth potential in SMEs in Nepal By Irwin, David; Ibrahim, Nada
  3. The missing link: international migration in global clusters of innovation By Massimiliano CODA-ZABETTA; Christian CHACUA; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ; Julio RAFFO; Deyun YIN
  4. What Do Cooperative Firms Maximize, if at All? Evidence from Emilia-Romagna in the pre-Covid Decade By Guido Caselli; Michele Costa; Flavio Delbono
  5. Digitalizing Firms: Skills, Work Organization and the Adoption of New Enabling Technologies By Valeria Cirillo; Lucrezia Fanti; Andrea Mina; Andrea Ricci
  6. Financing Innovation: A Complex Nexus of Risk & Reward By Dutta, Sourish
  7. How Social Innovation can be Supported in Structurally Weak Rural Regions By Christmann, Gabriela B.
  8. Conceptualizing Strategic Innovation in a Firm Context: A Theoretical Review and Research Agenda By Mulaa, Josephine K.; Kilika, James M.; Namusonge, Mary J.; Institute of Research, Asian
  9. Living Labs, Collaborative Innovation and Ecosystems: The Case of the “Concept Maturity Levels” Initiative in the Medtech By Mathias Béjean; Robert Picard; Gabrièle Breda
  10. Local entrepreneurship ecosystems and emerging industries: Case study of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, United Kingdom By OECD
  11. Effect of ICT on Women Entrepreneur Business Performance: Case of Malaysia By Isa, Filzah Md; Muhammad, Nik Maheran Nik; Ahmad, Azizah; Noor, Shaista; Institute of Research, Asian
  12. Centripetal and centrifugal forces in technological activities: linking regional innovation performances to EU Science & Technology policies By Daniele Archibugi; Rinaldo Evangelista; Antonio Vezzani
  13. Technology Transfer and Innovation for Low-Carbon Development. By Miria A. Pigato; Simon J. Black; Damien Dussaux; Zhimin Mao; Miles Mckenna; Ryan Rafaty; Simon Touboul
  14. Orchestrating platform ecosystems : the interplay of innovation and business development subsystems By Thierry Isckia; Mark de Reuver; Denis Lescop
  15. Growth, development, and structural change at the firm level: The example of the PR China By Heinrich, Torsten; Yang, Jangho; Dai, Shuanping

  1. By: Ufuk Akcigit (University of Chicago - Department of Economics; NBER; CEPR); Sina T. Ates (Federal Reserve Board of Governors); Josh Lerner (Harvard University - Harvard Business School; NBER); Richard R. Townsend (University of California at San Diego - Rady School of Management); Yulia Zhestkova (University of Chicago - Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The treatment of foreign investors has been a contentious topic in U.S. entrepreneurship policy in recent years. This paper examines foreign corporate investments in Silicon Valley from a theoretical and empirical perspective. We model a setting where such funding may allow U.S. entrepreneurs to pursue technologies that they could not otherwise, but may also lead to spillovers to the overseas firm providing the financing and the nation where it is based. We show that despite the benefits from such inbound investments for U.S. firms, it may be optimal for the U.S. government to raise their costs to deter investments. Using as comprehensive as possible a sample of investments by non-U.S. corporate investors in U.S. start-ups between 1976 and 2015, we find evidence consistent with the presence of knowledge spill-overs to foreign investors.
    Keywords: Innovation, foreign direct investment, corporate venture capital
    JEL: G24 O33 O34
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Irwin, David; Ibrahim, Nada
    Abstract: This report identifies and quantifies Nepal's key jobs challenges and the implications for future job creation, job quality and gender disparities. The diagnostic examines the slow pace of structural transformation, the existing distribution of jobs by work status, productivity level and worker characteristics, and the role of migration in absorbing excess labor supply. The analysis of private sector labor demand finds that most firms are micro-sized, and the pace of wage job creation – although increasing – is insufficient to absorb job seekers, especially women. A new SME survey conducted for this study concludes that small firms struggle to compete and access credit, and they lack the capacity to obtain the skills and other inputs necessary to increase their product quality, ultimately limiting their growth capacity. Nepal's business environment and labor regulations create further impediments to dynamic, job-creating economic growth. A set of policy recommendations is offered to mitigate labor demand and supply challenges to achieve better labor outcomes in Nepal.
    Keywords: entrepreneur; small and medium enterprise; Market Studies; market study; Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise; job growth; higher level of education; know how; sales revenue; use of technology; business support; high skilled labour; access to finance; full time equivalent; number of technologies; venture capital fund; reliance on foreign; high school education; job creation potential; business environment constraints; introducing new products; limited liability company; proportion of woman; parameter of interest; existing knowledge; tourism sector; market opportunity; economic census; agricultural product; rural business; retained earnings; value added; average employment; rural location; urban location; employment option; focus group; firm size; domestic demand; skilled labor; constituent assembly; total sample; other sectors; income supplement; industrial sector; daily wage; labour market; firm growth; microfinance institution; educated entrepreneur; Higher Education; postgraduate qualification; high employment; low risk; female entrepreneur; sole proprietorship; sampling frame; future research; new job; micro firms; Market Intelligence; trade mission; trade fair; financial readiness; financial packaging; networking event; seed capital; informant interviews; government representative; population profile; survey design; financial matter; sensitive topics; financial question; longer period; Food Services; company registration; population figures; new market; local development; employment opportunities; employment opportunity; rural setting; urban market; skilled people; solving problem; regression analysis; labour productivity; salaried employment; productivity increase; temporary worker; tourism business; quality improvement; passive attitude; business interest; external market; primary focus; international market; domestic consumer; international demand; in work; working capital; primary source; loan finance; additional saving; secure future; exporting firms; young people; Basic Education; piece rate; temporary labour; labour law; investment level; import product; food processor; foreign market; positive correlation; carpet manufacturer; international sale; tourism services; access market; Doing Business Reports; internal communication; stock control; Technical Training; production process; skilled operator; manufacturing technology; import tariff; market potential; modern world; business finance; entrepreneurship support; SME sector; overall assessment; research method; private consumption; considerable difference; innovative start-ups; labour intensive; investment finance; support for entrepreneur; affordable finance; investment climate; International Trade; outward migration; basic skill; unemployment rate; economic diversification; cultural elements; knowledge network; market failure; SME support; high-risk venture; industrial job; work force; industrial establishments; food processing
    Date: 2019–09–01
  3. By: Massimiliano CODA-ZABETTA; Christian CHACUA; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ; Julio RAFFO; Deyun YIN
    Abstract: In this chapter we look at the global network of innovative agglomerations, with a focus on their degree of internationalization and on the actors behind it – particularly high-skilled migrants. Using worldwide patent and publication geo-localized data, we identify all Global Hotspots of Innovation (GIHs) and Niche Clusters (NCs) worldwide, and study their success as a function of their international connections. In particular, we compare organizational ones, such as international collaborations orchestrated by multinational firms’ collaborations, to personal ones, which may derive from migration to/from the GIHs and NCs. We find a strong role of the latter, always comparable and sometimes larger than the former.
    Keywords: patents; publications; agglomeration; internationalization; migration
    JEL: O30 F20 F60
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Guido Caselli; Michele Costa; Flavio Delbono
    Abstract: The Italian region Emilia-Romagna ranks first among the world’s most important cooperative districts. Using a unique dataset covering all firms registered in the region, we investigate the performance of active firms in the period 2010-18. By focusing on employment, revenue and profits of cooperative firms as compared to conventional firms, we disentangle the differences between the average performance of the two types of companies and detect the presence of a “size effect” driving much of the difference between them. Moreover, our results strengthen previous empirical evidence about the countercyclical role of cooperative firms: they seem to optimize a mixture of employment and profits, assigning a greater weight to the former during downturns and stagnation. Finally, we examine the regional logistics industry and compare also the profitability of employees in the two segments of the sector.
    JEL: L21 L25
    Date: 2021–02
  5. By: Valeria Cirillo; Lucrezia Fanti; Andrea Mina; Andrea Ricci
    Abstract: New enabling technologies are shaping the transformation of production activities. This process of change is characterised by growing digitization, inter-connectivity and automation. The diffusion of new technologies is, however, very uneven, and firms display different adoption behaviours. By using panel data on a large representative sample of Italian firms, we explore the patterns and determinants of new digital technology adoption. We build our theoretical framework on the nexus between technology, skills and the organisation of work. We then provide novel econometric evidence on the positive effects of human capital and training. Among the notable results of the paper, labour flexibility does not seem to favour new technology adoption, whereas second-level collective bargaining plays a positive role in the process. Results also show heterogeneous effects between large vs. small and medium-size firms, and between manufacturing and service sectors.
    Keywords: Digital technologies; Industry 4.0; skills; human capital; work organisation.
    Date: 2021–02–05
  6. By: Dutta, Sourish
    Abstract: The crucial and growing role performed by different financial intermediaries such as venture capitalists and angel investors as well as more traditional intermediaries such as commercial banks in developing entrepreneurial or innovative firms and boosting product market innovations has led to great research interest in the economics of innovation and entrepreneurial finance. Besides this, there are some important factors or developments which have affected the entrepreneurial finance in general as well as its influence upon different entrepreneurial or innovative firms. Indeed, it is also true that the financial and ownership structures of the different entrepreneurial firms and the legal as well as the institutional environment, in which they operate, itself affects the product market innovations (Chemmanur and Fulghieri, 2014). Therefore, in this paper, I want to target a broad theme i.e. analysis of the mechanisms behind this scenario, especially, in the context of the Indian market system.
    Date: 2019–12–16
  7. By: Christmann, Gabriela B.
    Abstract: In fact, throughout Europe there is an abundance of innovative initiatives to be seen in the countryside (Olmedo/van Twuijver/O'Shaughnessy 2019), advanced by rural inhabitants, social entrepreneurs, or both in collaboration, and which is here termed "social innovation". To social innovation one can ascribe the potential for meeting the diverse challenges of our society. For some time, political decision makers have also placed hope in social innovation. Early on, the European Commission set itself the target of promoting the empowerment of people and the development of social innovation (Bureau of European Policy Advisers 2010; see also Jenson/Harrison 2013, Christmann 2020). There are, however, still many questions about the conditions in which social innovation emerges in rural areas, how its potential can be developed, and what support strategies can be used to assist it. The basis of this Policy Paper is empirical research that tackles these questions. By analysing innovative initiatives in the countryside, the conditions and the actor constellations necessary for their emergence has been reconstructed. The phases through which the processes of innovation are carried out have also been investigated, and critical junctures that could pose a threat to their further progress have been identified, as well as favourable factors. Using the example of failed initiatives, it has been possible to explore what conditions could be adverse, or what obstacles are insurmountable, for an innovative initiative.
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Mulaa, Josephine K.; Kilika, James M.; Namusonge, Mary J.; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: The literature on strategic management recognizes the pivotal role played by strategic innovation as a strategic choice in organizations in order to create a sustainable competitive advantage. However, although there are emerging calls for the adoption of strategic innovation in a firm’s strategic management process, the concept of strategic innovation is not well understood. The scanty empirical literature reviewed has methodological and conceptual gaps that affect the generalizability of findings even in similar contexts. In this paper, the authors have attempted to review Strategic Innovation and argued that the emerging phenomena from its deployment in firms invite the role of the firm structure and innovative capacity as the firm seeks to enhance its chances of survival in a rapidly changing firm context. The conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature reviewed identified diverse issues that present a case for a theoretical model suitable to advance the current understanding of strategic innovation and the emerging phenomenon in firms. This paper therefore proposes an integrated theoretical model conceptualizing strategic innovation in a firm context and identifies relevant implications for future research.
    Date: 2021–02–09
  9. By: Mathias Béjean (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Robert Picard (Forum LLSA); Gabrièle Breda (Altran Recherche et Innovation)
    Date: 2021
  10. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper examines how local-level policies can strengthen entrepreneurship and innovation in the region of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough in the United Kingdom. It investigates the quality of the local entrepreneurship ecosystem for generating innovative start-ups and scale-ups and the regional conditions for generating positive industry transitions by supporting the strategic sectors of life sciences, information technologies, agri-tech and advanced manufacturing. Key areas of focus are on skills development, entrepreneurship development and knowledge exchange for local economic development. A number of policy recommendations are offered based on the analysis together with international inspiring policy practice examples.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, industry transition, knowledge exchange, regional policy, skills
    JEL: J24 L52 L53 R58
    Date: 2021–02–02
  11. By: Isa, Filzah Md; Muhammad, Nik Maheran Nik; Ahmad, Azizah; Noor, Shaista; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: Women entrepreneur has gained utmost importance in the past few decades in Malaysia due to their significant contribution to the country's economic development. However, few business challenges create a constant obstruction for many women entrepreneurs such as lack of ICT knowledge, time constraint to learn ICT, lack of technological expertise, etc. The present study aims to identify the effect of ICT adoption on business performance and examine how ICT usage helped them handle operational business matters. The present study adopted the qualitative research strategy, and researchers interviewed ten (10) women entrepreneurs for this study. A semi-structured interview technique was applied, and six Malay and four Chinese entrepreneurs made the study population. The result highlights that Malay and Chinese entrepreneurs use ICT in their business operation such as warehousing system, purchasing system, HRM software and accounting system, purchase order system, production system, internal communication, and AutoCAD. The present study may support the prospective entrepreneurs in considering the ICT usage to embark on technology and innovation and provide inputs to policymakers to design a proper support system for Malaysian women entrepreneurs, particularly those new entrepreneurs who are mostly young and inexperienced.
    Date: 2021–02–09
  12. By: Daniele Archibugi (Department of Management, Birkbeck College, University of London); Rinaldo Evangelista (chool of Law, University of Camerino, Italy); Antonio Vezzani (Department of Economics, Roma Tre University, Italy)
    Date: 2021–01
  13. By: Miria A. Pigato; Simon J. Black; Damien Dussaux; Zhimin Mao; Miles Mckenna; Ryan Rafaty; Simon Touboul (CERNA i3 - Centre d'économie industrielle i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Date: 2020–03–24
  14. By: Thierry Isckia (LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management (EA 7363) - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School, MMS - Département Management, Marketing et Stratégie - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School); Mark de Reuver (TU Delft - Delft University of Technology); Denis Lescop (Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze how to orchestrate platform ecosystems in order to ensure the commercialization of constant flows of innovations. We focus on platform-owners and how they orchestrate the coupling process between the innovation part of the ecosystem and the business development part of the ecosystem. We apply a life-cycle perspective, analyzing how these two subsystems are dynamically aligned through this coupling process. Three emblematic case studies illustrate platform-owners' choices regarding the management of this coupling process. Existing accounts of ecosystem orchestration are quite scarce in the academic literature and do not systematically acknowledge that innovation and business development are subsystems. By considering the two parts of ecosystems, our paper contributes to a more fine-grained understanding of platform ecosystem orchestration.
    Keywords: Platform Ecosystems,Orchestration,Coupling Process,Sub-systems,Innovation
    Date: 2020–05
  15. By: Heinrich, Torsten; Yang, Jangho; Dai, Shuanping
    Abstract: Understanding the microeconomic details of technological catch-up processes offers great potential for informing both innovation economics and development policy. We study the economic transition of the PR China from an agrarian country to a high-tech economy as one example for such a case. It is clear from past literature that rapidly rising productivity levels played a crucial role. However, the distribution of labor productivity in Chinese firms has not been comprehensively investigated and it remains an open question if this can be used to guide economic development. We analyze labor productivity and the dynamic change of labor productivity in firm-level data for the years 1998-2013 from the Chinese Industrial Enterprise Database. We demonstrate that both variables are conveniently modeled as Lévy alpha-stable distributions, provide parameter estimates and analyze dynamic changes to this distribution. We find that the productivity gains were not due to super-star firms, but due to a systematic shift of the entire distribution with otherwise mostly unchanged characteristics. We also found an emerging right-skew in the distribution of labor productivity change. While there are significant differences between the 31 provinces and autonomous regions of the PR China, we also show that there are systematic relations between micro-level and province-level variables. We conclude with some implications of these findings for development policy.
    Date: 2021

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