nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2021‒02‒22
five papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Attraction or Repulsion? Testing Coagglomeration of Innovation between Firm and University By Rudkin , Simon; He, Ming; Chen, Yang
  2. Do high-quality local institutions shape labour productivity in Western European manufacturing firms? By Ganau, Roberto; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  3. Активность и кооперация университета, бизнеса и государства в Акмолинской области Республики Казахстан By Myrzakhmet, Marat; Myrzakhmet, Zhanat; Myrzakhmet, Bolat
  4. Regional Public Policy on the Use of ICT to Support Innovation and Growth: How Can Micro-Businesses and SMEs Be Supported Through Collaborative Initiatives in Clusters? By Martine Gadille; Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain; Robert Tchobanian
  5. Informing Entrepreneurs: Public Corporate Disclosure and New Business Formation By John M. Barrios; Jung Ho Choi; Yael V. Hochberg; Jinhwan Kim; Miao Liu

  1. By: Rudkin , Simon (Swansea University); He, Ming (Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Chen, Yang (Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
    Abstract: Agglomeration theory supports and existing findings confirm the geographical proximity of similar firms and spatial attraction of firms to universities. In addition to that, we are able to identify whether universities as one type of innovative units are attracted by firm-type innovators and the size of such attraction. Testing the bidirectional spatial innovation linkage contributes to the debate on firm- or university-led innovation. Using a large patent dataset from Shenzhen, the first innovation-led city in the People’s Republic of China, and employing a spatial point process analysis technique, underutilized in the literature that allows the bidirectional testing of coagglomeration, we find varying attraction distances between the same type of innovative units and across university–firm innovation pairs. Attractions are not only limited to identical technology fields but also generate coagglomerations across different technology fields of firms and universities. We find the attraction from firms to universities is more than that from universities to firms. Support is offered to the integration of firms into the university-led innovation clusters in science parks; firm innovation in patent fields like human necessities, physics, and electrical deserve more policy focus to benefit university research and innovation.
    Keywords: agglomeration; innovation; patents; spatial distribution; universities
    JEL: O31 R11 R12
    Date: 2020–02–25
  2. By: Ganau, Roberto; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: We investigate the extent to which regional institutional quality shapes firm labour productivity in Western Europe, using a sample of manufacturing firms from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain, observed over the period 2009–2014. The results indicate that regional institutional quality positively affects firms' labour productivity and that government effectiveness is the most important institutional determinant of productivity levels. However, how institutions shape labour productivity depends on the type of firm considered. Smaller, less capital endowed and high-tech sectors are three of the types of firms whose productivity is most favourably affected by good and effective institutions at the regional level.
    Keywords: cross-country analysis; labour productivity; manufacturing firms; regional institutions; Western Europe
    JEL: C23 D24 H41 R12
    Date: 2019–08–01
  3. By: Myrzakhmet, Marat; Myrzakhmet, Zhanat; Myrzakhmet, Bolat
    Abstract: The paper is aimed at studying the interaction of regional universities with the environment (enterprises and regional authorities) in the regions of Kazakhstan with the mining and metallurgical industries. Regional universities and their surroundings are studied using webometric methods. Universities with large Internet sites are more inclined to cooperate in their innovation activities but are inert in terms of activity. At the same time, smaller universities are more active. Less cooperation or activity in the educational field, for example, may indicate that the university in the preparation and implementation of educational programs is more focused on its preferences and requirements of the state (which allocates grants for education), rather than on the market and the wishes of employers. Therefore, small universities focused on the local market are naturally more active. There are correlations between webometric data and data from enterprise reporting, for example, a direct relationship between innovation potential and the number of employees in an enterprise. The activity and innovative potential of enterprises correlate well with the number of employees, and the degree of popularity on the websites of the region and universities correlates well with the amount of income and tax paid. Regional universities should strengthen their structural flexibility (cooperation of factors within themselves) and as well as to establish broad interaction with enterprises in the region. The results of the study will analyze the current industrial policy and consider several management decisions facing both authorized bodies, in particular the Ministry of Industry and Infrastructure Development Republic of Kazakhstan and associations of industrialists and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Innovation potential, educational potential, resource potential, production potential, regional university, university model, webometric method, cooperation, Akmola region, Kazakhstan, mining industry.
    JEL: L16 O14 O25 P25 R11 R38 R58
    Date: 2021–02–14
  4. By: Martine Gadille (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Karine Guiderdoni-Jourdain (AMU - Aix Marseille Université, LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Robert Tchobanian (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We focus on meta-organisations at the subnational level, with regional governance and implementation at the heart of our analysis. There are parallels between that regional governance and the role of intermediaries in the economic development of regions (Cooke and Morgan 1998, Scott 1998). More recently, the new economic landscape has called for a review of the regional clusters policy and the adoption of a multilevel governance model that regulates commercial and non-commercial relations between the different regional and external stakeholders. This region-specific approach to innovation would be based on sectoral diversification, international openness and a high level of diversity among stakeholders to reduce the risks associated with lock-in effects and self-referential behaviours (Cappellin 2010, 2017). However, organisations of organisations are not designed to be tools for improving our understanding of the relationship between new types of region-specific government policies and the construction of collective identities through business associations. To answer our research question, we adopt a qualitative method that focuses on the analysis of three structurally different PRIDES: Culture Industries and Heritage, Business Tourism and Care Services.1 Despite the differences in their activities, the distinguishing feature of these types of cluster is that they have regional groups and administrative bodies as clients, suppliers, and trustees. After outlining our theoretical framework and methodology, we introduce the regional policy of the PRIDES as well as the geographical boundaries of each cluster. We then analyse how each meta-organisation has made use of the public incentives for innovation and development through the use of ICT. We conclude with a discussion on the relevance and limits of public policy with regard to the geographical boundaries of these very diverse business groupings, all of which include a significant number of SMEs.
    Abstract: Au début des années 2000, certains Conseils régionaux se sont lancés dans une politique de développement régional, inspirée du concept de "clusters" en faveur des micro-entreprises et des PME. L'objectif était d'élargir l'action collective au niveau régional menée par des groupements d'entreprises à travers des associations en faveur du développement économique et du soutien à l'innovation. Cette politique régionale de développement des clusters a été menée en Provence-Côte d'Azur (région PACA) à partir de 2006. Cette politique a consisté à labelliser des projets proposés par des groupements d'entreprises partageant des enjeux économiques, à partir d'un appel à projets pour la création de Pôles de Développement Economique Solidaire (SEDP - appelés PRIDES en France), qui sont des associations d'entreprises. Soutenus financièrement, ces associations d'entreprises ont alors pour mission d'activer cinq leviers dans leurs parcours stratégiques : l'innovation, l'international, la responsabilité sociale des entreprises, la formation des salariés et les TIC (technologies de l'information et de la communication). Le volet TIC attire notre attention car il s'agit d'un service transversal "innovation et économie numérique" du Conseil régional. Sa mission spécifique est de planifier et de stimuler l'action des autres services (économie, innovation et recherche) en termes de diffusion et d'appropriation des TIC. A travers ces actions TIC, la Région vise à avoir une position de leader, grâce à son aide autour de l'innovation numérique. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de ce chapitre est d'étudier la manière dont ces associations d'entreprises agissent en relation avec l'action publique pour la mise en commun de services, de ressources et d'outils à partir d'une appropriation des TIC. D'un point de vue théorique, nous mobilisons la notion de méta-organisation comme analyseur des effets d'une politique publique-privée de développement économique et d'innovation sur les TPE-PME. La méta-organisation est définie ici comme une structure de gouvernance dont les membres sont des organisations et non des individus, elle est en cela un transformateur de contexte fragile dans la mesure où elle pratique la gouvernance et non le gouvernement (Arnhes et Brunson, 2004 ; Dumez, 2008 ; Gadille et al. 2013a ; Berkowitz et Dumez, 2015). Cette notion permet de réfléchir à la relation entre l'organisation localisée dans les réseaux d'entreprises et l'action publique dans la construction de nouvelles territorialités. C'est la méta-organisation infranationale qui nous intéresse ici. Ce niveau de gouvernance et d'opérationnalisation est au cœur de notre analyse et fait écho au rôle des intermédiaires dans le développement économique des régions (Cooke et Morgan, 1998 ; Scott, 1998). Plus récemment, la nouvelle géographie économique a insisté sur une réorientation de la politique régionale des clusters, par l'adoption du modèle de gouvernance multi-niveaux dans la régulation des relations marchandes et non marchandes entre les différents acteurs régionaux et externes. Cette approche de l'innovation sur le territoire, serait basée sur la diversification sectorielle, l'ouverture internationale, la forte diversité des acteurs pour réduire les risques liés aux effets de confinement (lock-in) et aux comportements d'auto-référencement (Cappellin, 2010, 2017). Après avoir expliqué notre cadre théorique et notre méthodologie, nous présentons la politique régionale des PRIDES ainsi que la territorialité dans laquelle s'inscrit chaque pôle. Nous analysons ensuite comment chaque méta-organisme s'est approprié les incitations publiques à l'innovation et au développement par les TIC. Nous terminons par une discussion sur la pertinence et les limites de l'action publique vis-à-vis de la territorialité de ces groupements d'entreprises très divers, avec une forte présence de PME.
    Date: 2020
  5. By: John M. Barrios (University of Chicago - Booth School of Business); Jung Ho Choi (Stanford University - Stanford Graduate School of Business); Yael V. Hochberg (Rice University - Jones Graduate School of Business); Jinhwan Kim (Stanford University - Stanford Graduate School of Business); Miao Liu (University of Chicago - Booth School of Business)
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between public firm disclosure and aggregate new business formation. Consistent with the notion that public company disclosures provide information spillovers that reduce the extent of uncertainty about new investment opportunities, we find that increased public firm presence is positively associated with new business formation in an industry. Furthermore, using plausibly exogenous information shocks generated by new IPOs in a geographic area, we find that post-IPO, new business registration in the public company's geographic area rise by 4 to 10%, consistent with soft information channels serving to reinforce hard information in public disclosures. New IPOs are associated with significant increases in Edgar downloading activity in the IPOs’ geographic area, consistent with the notion that public firm disclosures are providing important investment opportunity information that facilitates new business formation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, financial disclosures, real effects, externalities, IPOs
    JEL: D80 D81 D83 L26 M41
    Date: 2020

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