nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2020‒09‒28
thirteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation, Firm Survival and Productivity: The State of the Art By Ugur, Mehmet; Vivarelli, Marco
  2. Declining Business Dynamism among Our Best Opportunities: The Role of the Burden of Knowledge By Thomas Astebro; Serguey Braguinsky; Yuheng Ding
  3. Entrepreneurial Recovery from COVID-19: Decentralization, Democratization, Demand, Distribution, and Demography By Naudé, Wim
  4. Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States By Pierre Azoulay; Benjamin Jones; J. Daniel Kim; Javier Miranda
  5. Collaborative knowledge creation: Evidence from Japanese patent data By Mori, Tomoya; Sakaguchi, Shosei
  6. Entry of malls and exit of stores - The role of distance and economic geography By Klaesson, Johan; Nilsson, Helena
  7. Global Competition, Worker Retention, and Immigrant Employment in Manufacturing SMEs By HASHIMOTO Yuki
  8. SME Bank Financing, from a European Perspective By Karen van der Wiel; Andrei Dubovik; Fien van Solinge
  9. The Geography of New Technologies By Nicholas Bloom; Tarek A. Hassan; Aakash Kalyani; Josh Lerner; Ahmed Tahoun
  10. Triple Helix Innovation Model: Inspiration from Germany By Wicaksono, Hendro
  11. How Important are Local Knowledge Spillovers of Public R&D and What Drives Them? By Leonie Koch; Martin Simmler
  12. Entrepreneurial Orientation of the Companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Importance of Contextual Factors By Veselinović, Ljiljan; Kulenović, Mirza; Šunje, Aziz
  13. The Effectiveness of Investment Promotion on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Thai Food Manufacturing By Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Stefanou, Spiro E.

  1. By: Ugur, Mehmet (University of Greenwich); Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: We review the theoretical underpinnings and the empirical findings of the literature that investigates the effects of innovation on firm survival and firm productivity, which constitute the two main channels through which innovation drives growth. We aim to contribute to the ongoing debate along three paths. First, we discuss the extent to which the theoretical perspectives that inform the empirical models allow for heterogeneity in the effects of R&D/innovation on firm survival and productivity. Secondly, we draw attention to recent modeling and estimation effort that reveals novel sources of heterogeneity, non-linearity and volatility in the gains from R&D/innovation, particularly in terms of its effects on firm survival and productivity. Our third contribution is to link our findings with those from prior reviews to demonstrate how the state of the art is evolving and with what implications for future research.
    Keywords: innovation, R&D, survival, productivity
    JEL: O30 O33
    Date: 2020–09
  2. By: Thomas Astebro; Serguey Braguinsky; Yuheng Ding
    Abstract: We document that since 1997, the rate of startup formation has precipitously declined for firms operated by U.S. PhD recipients in science and engineering. These are supposedly the source of some of our best new technological and business opportunities. We link this to an increasing burden of knowledge by documenting a long-term earnings decline by founders, especially less experienced founders, greater work complexity in R&D, and more administrative work. The results suggest that established firms are better positioned to cope with the increasing burden of knowledge, in particular through the design of knowledge hierarchies, explaining why new firm entry has declined for high-tech, high-opportunity startups.
    JEL: J24 J3 O3
    Date: 2020–09
  3. By: Naudé, Wim
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship, as re ected in the start-up of new firms, the growth and market exit of existing firms, and the ow of venture capital, has been severely curtailed by the lockdown and social distancing measures taken by governments around the world in the fight against COVID-19. This paper, after documenting preliminary evidence on these declines, argues that there is a strong possibility that the unintended damage to entrepreneurship, innovation and growth could be persistent. This requires that short-term economic and business rescue packages be complimented by measures aimed at the longer-term, and that these be based on at least five principles. These 5 principles (5Ds) refer to decentralization, democratization, demand, distribution and demography.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship,innovation,COVID-19,public policy,economic growth,development
    JEL: I18 L26 L53 M13
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Pierre Azoulay; Benjamin Jones; J. Daniel Kim; Javier Miranda
    Abstract: Immigration can expand labor supply and create greater competition for native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data resources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how these firms compare with those founded by U.S.-born individuals. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and that non-U.S. born founders play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship.
    JEL: J15 L26 M13 O3
    Date: 2020–09
  5. By: Mori, Tomoya; Sakaguchi, Shosei
    Abstract: In this paper, we quantitatively characterize the mechanism of collaborative knowledge creation at the individual researcher level a la Berliant and Fujita(2008) by using Japanese patent data. The key driver for developing new ideas is found to be the exchange of differentiated knowledge among collaborators. To stay creative, inventors seek opportunities to shift their technological expertise to unexplored niches by utilizing the differentiated knowledge of new collaborators in addition to their own stock of knowledge. In particular, while collaborators' differentiated knowledge raises all the average cited count, average (technological) novelty and the quantity of patents for which an inventor contributes to the development, it has the largest impact on the average novelty among the three.
    Keywords: Knowledge creation, Collaboration, Differentiated knowledge, Technological novelty, Technological shift, Recombination, Patents, Network, Strategic interactions
    JEL: C33 C36 D83 D85 O31 R11
    Date: 2018–08–29
  6. By: Klaesson, Johan (Center for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics); Nilsson, Helena (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: The empirical literature on the effects of external malls on incumbent stores is inconclusive, and quantitative research on this topic is limited. In an attempt to add to the literature, this study examines the effect of the entry of external retail malls on store survival. Using a full firm population panel dataset at the store level covering the period 2000-2014, we examine the effect of a change in the distance to an external retail mall on the probability of retail store exit. In doing this we explicitly model the economic geography. We measure the economic activity in the location where these stores are situated using a market potential measure to gauge the economic density. The main result of this study is that the effects differ depending on where the incumbent firm is located. The effects on firms located in low-density areas and those on firms located in high-density areas differ dramatically. In low-density areas we find complementary effects which means that the probability of incumbent store exit is lesser. In high-density areas the estimated effect is the opposite, the entry of a new external mall increases the probability of incumbent store exit. The strength of the effects is dependent on the distance between the incumbent firm and the newly established external mall. Additionally, the size of effects differs between different parts of the retail sector. Effects remain over a number of years after entry of external malls but become smaller over time.
    Keywords: external shopping malls; complements; retail; panel-data; firm-exit; market potential
    JEL: C33 D22 L81 P25
    Date: 2020–08–31
  7. By: HASHIMOTO Yuki
    Abstract: By focusing on Japanese manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were affected by global competition in the 1990s, we examine the interplay between global competition, immigrant employment, and research and development (R&D) investment in these organizations. To do this, we use firm-level survey data including information on the influence of past globalization, current challenges, and future plans for migrant hiring and R&D investment, showing the process by which firms move toward labor-intensive production as a result of import competition. Our major finding is that manufacturing SMEs facing fierce global competition are more likely to hire immigrant workers and invest less in R&D. In this process, the current poor retention of native young workers plays a substantial role as a channel between past globalization and future immigrant employment. On the other hand, intensifying global competition is directly linked to a decrease in future R&D investment. Neither the shortage of production workers nor the high growth rate in recent years are important determinants of subsequent immigrant hiring or R&D investment.
    Date: 2020–08
  8. By: Karen van der Wiel; Andrei Dubovik; Fien van Solinge
    Abstract: Bank loans continue to be the main source of external financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in both the Netherlands and other European countries. Businesses are using those loans for expansion, innovation or as working capital. But Dutch SMEs are applying for fewer bank loans, and those applications are often rejected by the banks. How does SME bank financing in the Netherlands relate to other European countries, and what are the reasons for the differences?
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Nicholas Bloom (Stanford University); Tarek A. Hassan (Boston University); Aakash Kalyani (Boston University); Josh Lerner (London Business School); Ahmed Tahoun (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We identify novel technologies using textual analysis of earnings conference calls, newspapers, announcements, and patents. Our approach enables us to document the rollout of 20 new technologies across firms and labor markets in the U.S. Four stylized facts emerge from our data. First, as technologies develop, the number of new positions related to them grows, but the average education requirements and wage levels of the positions drop. Second, as technologies develop, their employment impact diffuses across the country: initially, technologies are concentrated in local hubs, but over time, their adoption diffuses geographically. Third, despite this diffusion, the initial hubs retain a disproportionate share of employment in the technology, particularly at the high-skill end of the spectrum. Finally, technology hubs are more likely to arise in areas with universities and high skilled labor pools.
    Keywords: Technology, Geography, Employment, Innovation, R and D
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2020–06–15
  10. By: Wicaksono, Hendro
    Abstract: The presentation discusses the implementation of triple helix innovation model 3, where government, universities, and industries collaborate closely to create an integrated innovation environment. The implementation in Germany focuses on university spin-off, open research and innovation projects, strategic alliances and clusters, an collaborative innovation labs. Finally, implications on Indonesian context are presented.
    Date: 2020–08–10
  11. By: Leonie Koch; Martin Simmler
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the magnitude of local knowledge spillovers of public R&D in Germany and its determinants using patent application data. We identify three distinct transmission channels. First, firms file more patent applications when collaborating with (local) public institutions. Second, arms file more patent applications when citing a public patent. Third, local public R&D seems to increase the number of patent applications by local firms also via nonspecific knowledge spillovers. Using a fixed effect instrumental variable regression approach, we find evidence for substantial local spillovers and that these are driven by non-specific knowledge spillovers.
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Veselinović, Ljiljan; Kulenović, Mirza; Šunje, Aziz
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) represents a firm-level construct that captures innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking of the existing companies. The main focus of this paper is to present the EO of 477 companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to compare EO between companies operating within different contextual factors. We used descriptive statistics and statistical testing to draw conclusions. Our paper presents the mean values of entrepreneurial orientation for each NACE industry category. In addition, our results confirm that there are statistically significant differences in entrepreneurial orientation between (a) the companies operating in a more competitive environment and the companies operating in a less competitive environment; (b) the companies with acquired ISO certificates and high level of TQM practices and the companies without ISO certificates and low level of TQM practices; (c) the companies operating in predominantly export-oriented markets and the companies operating in predominantly local markets; and finally (d) the companies located in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the companies located in Republic of Srpska. However, there are no statistically significant differences in entrepreneurial orientation between the older companies (older than two, five and ten years) and younger companies; nor between companies of different sizes. By analyzing organizational contextual factors, this paper identifies key variables that may play an important role in designing more complex structural models. Additionally, this paper presents the current state of entrepreneurial orientation of existing companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation,contextual factors,firm behavior,entrepreneurship,Bosnia and Herzegovina
    JEL: L2
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Punjatewakupt, Piyawong; Stefanou, Spiro E.
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics
    Date: 2020–07

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