nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2020‒08‒31
24 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Scientific Output of a Database on Commercialized Patents By Svensson, Roger
  2. Business Ecosystems Policy in Stra.Tech.Man Terms: The Case of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Region By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  3. Patent Puzzle, Inflation, and Internal Financial Constraint By Suzuki, Keishun
  5. Partnership for inclusive growth: Can linkages with large firms spur the growth of SMEs in Tanzania? By Josaphat Kweka; Fadhili Sooi
  6. Strategy Perception and Implementation on Less Developed Business Ecosystems Micro and Small Enterprises: The Service Sector of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  7. Schumpeter, Neo-Schumpeterianism, and Stra.Tech.Man Evolution of the Firm By Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Vlados, Charis
  8. The COVID-19 shock and equity shortfall: Firm-level evidence from Italy By Carletti, Elena; Oliviero, Tommaso; Pagano, Marco; Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.
  9. Crisis and Entrepreneurship in Greece: Present, Past and Evolving Trends By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  10. The effect of spatial concentration on the business performance in various types of Russian cities By Andrey Pushkarev; Oleg Mariev; Natalia Davidson
  11. Firm’s innovation strategies and employment: new evidence from Uruguay By Carlos Bianchi; Hugo Laguna
  12. University-Industry-Government Linkages and the Helix Theory on the Fourth Industrial Revolution By Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Vlados, Charis
  13. The European Patent System: A Descriptive Analysis By Georg von Graevenitz; Antanina Garanasvili
  14. Characteristics of Firms Transmitting Data Across Borders: Evidence from Japanese Firm-level Data By TOMIURA Eiichi; ITO Banri; KANG Byeongwoo
  15. Does Emigration Drain Entrepreneurs? By Massimo Anelli; Gætano Basso; Giuseppe Ippedico; Giovanni Peri
  16. Exploring Change Management and Innovation in Strategy-Technology-Management (Stra.Tech.Man) Terms By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  17. Theoretical Evolution of Growth Poles and Clusters Analysis: Analytical Divergences and Convergences By Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Vlados, Charis
  18. Service characteristics and the choice between exports and FDI: Evidence from Belgian firms By Leo Sleuwaegen; Peter M. Smith
  19. Entrepreneurship Boosting Policies in Europe: The European South Case By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Demertzis, Michail
  20. The Leveraging of Silicon Valley By Jesse Davis; Adair Morse; Xinxin Wang
  21. Does Innovation Affect the Demand for Employment and Skilled Labor? By Adriana Peluffo
  22. Science, technology, innovation, theory and evidence: the new institutionality in Colombia By Alexander Cotte Poveda; Clara Inés Pardo
  23. Inovação no Brasil: Cooperação e Origem do Capital por Intensidade Tecnológica By Tessarin, Milene Simone; Suzigan, Wilson; Martins Guilhoto, Joaquim José
  24. Are Green Inventions really more complex? Evidence from European Patents. By Fusillo, Fabrizio

  1. By: Svensson, Roger (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to present a unique database on commercialized patents and to illustrate how it can be used to analyze the commercialization process of patents. The dataset is based on a survey of Swedish patents owned by inventors and small firms with a remarkably high response rate of 80 percent. It contains some key variables on commercialization not found anywhere else, including whether, when and how (acquisition, licensing, existing or new firm) patents were commercialized as well as whether this commercialization was profitable or not. Thus, this patent database measures technological innovation. The dataset is complemented with indicators of patent quality (patent renewal, forward citations, and patent family) from archive sources. Basic statistics for the key variables are described. Finally, the scientific output in terms of published articles in peer-reviewed journals shows how this database can be used to analyze the commercialization process of patents. The dataset has, for instance, been used to 1) evaluate government loan programs for inventors; 2) analyze the different roles of the inventor and the Schumpeterian entrepreneur during commercialization; 3) estimate the transfer of tacit knowledge when patents are sold or licensed; and 4) analyze the entry strategy among inventors in oligopolistic markets.
    Keywords: Patents; Commercialization; Innovation; Small firms; Inventors; Acquisition; Licensing; New start-up firms; Forward citations; Renewal; Patent equivalents; Financing; Entry strategy; Venture capital
    JEL: G24 G34 L10 L20 M13 O30 O31 O32 O34 O38
    Date: 2020–08–12
  2. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In the current state of globalization’s restructuring, numerous studies are examining policies to strengthen local entrepreneurship and productive systems, in terms of clusters and ecosystems. In this article, we apply and extend the Stra.Tech.Man approach to entrepreneurial dynamics as an alternative base of articulating a business ecosystems development policy. By studying the case of the Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region, one of the less developed regions in Greece, we find that there are possibilities for using the Stra.Tech.Man approach to imprint, record and, by extension, give the possibility of strengthening the strategic, technological, and managerial capacity of the “cells” of specific business ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this study is to outline a new possible direction for policy planning and implementation, in order to expand the local business ecosystems’ innovative and competitive competence, especially in the context of a less developed region, by the usage of the ILDI (Institutes of Local Development and Innovation) mechanism. In this direction, we present an “introductory” and qualitative field research we carried out in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, on a sample of SMEs, in diagnostic terms of Stra.Tech.Man physiology.
    Keywords: business ecosystems policy; clusters; Stra.Tech.Man physiology; small and medium entrepreneurship; Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region; globalization dynamics
    JEL: L26 L50 R58
    Date: 2019–08–26
  3. By: Suzuki, Keishun
    Abstract: Although Schumpeterian growth models typically predict that stronger patent protection enhances innovation-driven economic growth, the empirical evidence does not support this idea. We explore the unclear relationship at work by shedding light on the financing of R&D investment. Empirically, R&D-intensive firms preferentially rely on their internal cash flows rather than external funds. We develop a simple monetary Schumpeterian growth model in which R&D firms face an endogenous financing choice that is consistent with this evidence. In our model, the scale of R&D investment may be financially constrained by internal cash because external financing is costly. Our model shows that the relationship between patent protection and growth can be either N-shaped, inverted-U shaped, or positive depending on the inflation rate. Specifically, we find that the growth effect of the pro-patent policy is likely to be negative under a high inflation rate, while the growth effect is always positive under the Friedman rule.
    Keywords: Innovation, Patent Protection, Inflation, Financing of R&D
    JEL: E44 O31 O34
    Date: 2020–07
    Abstract: This paper investigates the flair for business, hard work, big ideas, disruptive innovation, the intangible characteristics of an entrepreneur that determines the success of the business, by bringing in small and medium enterprises, a set of modern tools to raise the level of entrepreneurial approaches - from capitalizing on know-how and research in partnership with the business environment, to strengthen transdisciplinary entrepreneurial approaches.Among the many qualities that help him cope with the challenges involved in developing a company, there are three essential things that every entrepreneur must possess: courage, innovation and resistance to stress.Innovations need entrepreneurs, but the reciprocal is also valid for a successful business, it is necessary to satisfy a need that has not been satisfied so far, to offer a lower price, an innovation process is necessary.Without the element of novelty, an entrepreneur is weak in the business world. That is why I say that innovation and entrepreneurship are two indestructibly linked fields. Promoting entrepreneurial approaches can start to generate positive results if the vision of young entrepreneurs, the development of skills related to entrepreneurship and innovation are correlated.
    Keywords: disruptive innovation, entrepreneurship, novelty, entrepreneurial approaches.
    JEL: J24 A00 A10
  5. By: Josaphat Kweka; Fadhili Sooi
    Abstract: A recent strand of literature on small and medium enterprise (SME) development identifies linkages with large firms as some of the enablers of development and competitiveness. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we assess the extent and determinants of linkages between SMEs and large firms in Tanzania and to what degree the linkage is an important driver of SME performance.
    Keywords: SMEs, firm linkages, firms, SME growth
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This article aims to find out how micro and small enterprises on a less developed regional business ecosystem perceive and implement some of the fundamental dimensions of business strategy. We analyze 16 critical strategic concepts and construct a strategy perception and implementation index consisting of 16 corresponding queries. We then present the findings of field research conducted in micro and small enterprises in the service sector of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region in Greece. The results of the strategy perception an implementation index suggest that the “physiologies” of these firms are adjacent to each other and, as expected, these firms record similar scores and share common attributes. These results also point to an explicit — although not strong — tendency of these firms to transform their strategic perception and implementation into more systematic methodologies that seem to approach the benchmark set by the relevant literature. However, a long distance still exists between the actual perception and implementation of these firms and the standards set by the corresponding literature on the subject.
    Keywords: Small business strategy; Strategic management; Less developed business ecosystems; Strategy perception and implementation index; Eastern Macedonia and Thrace; Stra.Tech.Man approach
    JEL: L19
    Date: 2019–07–01
  7. By: Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The Schumpeterian way of thinking for the analysis of innovation, as an evolutionary socioeconomic phenomenon, seems to be still of particular usefulness while the fundamental contribution by Nelson and Winter with the “evolutionary theory of economic change” is nowadays one of the most widely cited references in the contexts of “neo-Schumpeterianism.” In a similar evolutionary concern, Vlados (2004) also examines the “dynamics of the triangle of strategy, technology, and management” (Stra.Tech.Man synthesis). The aim of this article is, in particular, to find out to what extent the Stra.Tech.Man approach utilizes and enriches some of the fundamental neo-Schumpeterian contributions by focusing mostly on the evolutionary theory of the firm, the use of evolutionary biology on analyzing socioeconomic phenomena, and the interpretation of structural change into the context of global dynamics. To achieve this goal, we first distinguish some of the criteria/filters that allow for evaluating whether a research contribution can be of neo-Schumpeterian direction. These criteria also help to identify generic concepts of recent neo-Schumpeterian trends in order to formulate a new analytical background based on the Stra.Tech.Man approach.
    Keywords: Schumpeter; Neo-Schumpeterianism; Evolutionary Economics; Evolutionary firm theory; Stra.Tech.Man approach; Global dynamics
    JEL: B15 B52
    Date: 2019–12–22
  8. By: Carletti, Elena; Oliviero, Tommaso; Pagano, Marco; Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.
    Abstract: We employ a representative sample of 80,972 Italian firms to forecast the drop in profits and the equity shortfall triggered by the COVID-19 lockdown. A 3-month lockdown generates an aggregate yearly drop in profits of about 10% of GDP, and 17% of sample firms, which employ 8.8% of the sample's employees, become financially distressed. Distress is more frequent for small and medium-sized enterprises, for firms with high pre-COVID-19 leverage, and for firms belonging to the Manufacturing and Wholesale Trading sectors. Listed companies are less likely to enter distress, whereas the correlation between distress rates and family firm ownership is unclear.
    Keywords: COVID-19,pandemics,losses,distress,equity,recapitalization
    JEL: G01 G32 G33
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The current global socioeconomic crisis and restructuring brings various transformations to the dynamics of entrepreneurship. The competitive capabilities of survival of the different socioeconomic systems in globalization also determine the overall global development prospects. Within the context of the particular Greek structural crisis, this paper attempts to highlight how the entrepreneurship crisis is structurally evolving within the Greek socioeconomic system. In this perspective, this article explores the evolution of the Greek business environment, by highlighting the structural morphology of the Greek entrepreneurial ecosystem and noting the required adaptation for the Greek enterprises in “Stra.Tech.Man” terms (synthesis of strategy-technology-management).
    Keywords: Global socioeconomic crisis; Entrepreneurship crisis; Greek socioeconomic crisis; Stra.Tech.Man approach
    JEL: F63 L26
    Date: 2019–05–30
  10. By: Andrey Pushkarev (Ural Federal University); Oleg Mariev (Ural Federal University); Natalia Davidson (Ural Federal University)
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes the effect of spatial concentration of economic activities on enterprise productivity, using Russian firm-level data. Panel data allows us to control for endogeneity biases associated with estimation of agglomeration economies, using fixed effects method. Our results show that Russian firms benefit from the share of similar enterprises in the total city revenue and urbanization, also that these advantages differ by city type. We also find a lack of connection between the level of wages and the revenues of firms for cities within agglomerations (while for other types of cities this effect is significant and positive). We assume that this is primarily due to the role of the agglomeration center, which determines the level of wages in all cities of the agglomeration. The results show that for the optimal development of territories it is necessary to pursue a diversified regional policy.
    Keywords: spatial concentration, localization, urbanization, home market potential, Russian cities
    JEL: D24
  11. By: Carlos Bianchi (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Hugo Laguna (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración)
    Abstract: A large and rich body of literature has shown that the relationship between innovation and employment is complex and dynamic in nature. From a firm’s level analysis, recent researches have shown heterogeneous empirical patterns for developed and developing countries. This paper contributes by inquiry in the role of innovation strategies as determinants of the firm’s employment growth in a Latin American small middle-income country. Adapting econometric structural models currently in vogue, we discuss the effects of three innovation strategies (Make, Buy, Make&Buy) on the firm’s workforce growth. In line with the literature, we identify a significant positive relation between product innovation associated with Make and Make&Buy strategies, however, on the contrary to most recent research we find a positive and significant effects of process innovation associated to Buy strategies. Considering technological, sectoral and firm characteristics, our findings show a clear positive effect of any innovation strategy in the growth of the firm’s workforce. Meanwhile, no innovative strategies negatively affect workforce growth. Our findings contribute by deepening the understanding of the firm level determinants of employment in developing countries. We analyze our result in the light of a recent but extensive evidence on the relationship between innovation and employment at firm’s level in Uruguay. In particular, we discuss the traditional explanation on the firm’s technological behavior in Latin America, to discuss the effects on employment of integrative innovation strategies in Uruguay.
    Keywords: innovation strategies, employment, Latin America, Uruguay
    JEL: O33 D22 J23
    Date: 2020–05
  12. By: Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In the current era of the fourth industrial revolution, the creation of new knowledge and the production and diffusion of innovation constitute the most critical dimensions of development and under-development. In this direction, for over two decades, a useful conceptual contribution is the triple-helix theory: the interconnection of universities, firms, and governmental policies. The aim of this study is through a periodization of the helix theory literature to understand how this approach is related to new perceptions of innovation and to describe its possible future analytical perspectives. Within the present phase of the fourth industrial revolution, the institutional dimensions of a socioeconomic system (including universities, industries, and government policies) are following complex and co-evolving development trajectories and we must perceive them in their specific historical and spatial configurations.
    Keywords: helix theory; socioeconomic development; the fourth industrial revolution; university-industry-government linkages; local development
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2019–05–30
  13. By: Georg von Graevenitz (QMUL School of Business and Management); Antanina Garanasvili (Centre for Intellectual Property Policy and Management, Bournemouth University)
    Abstract: The European Patent System consists of national patent offices (NPOs) and the supranational European Patent Office (EPO). EPO and the NPOs have granted patents in Europe side-by-side since 1980. The resulting patent system is complicated and less coordinated than might be expected. Firms must consider a number of variables when selecting the route of patenting they take within this system: price, rigour of examination, duration of examination, quality of legal redress. To date there is little descriptive evidence on how firms choose between EPO and national offices. This paper provides a rich descriptive analysis of patenting in Europe. We analyze how origin, size and technological focus of companies, affect how they choose among patent offices within the EPS and report differences in examination durations and grant rates across patent offices.
    Date: 2018–10–01
  14. By: TOMIURA Eiichi; ITO Banri; KANG Byeongwoo
    Abstract: Cross-border data flows are increasingly critical for our economies in the digital age, but only a limited fraction of firms regularly transfer data across national borders or collect data from overseas. Based on our unique survey on cross-border data transfers linked with firm-level data derived from official statistics in Japan, we find that high-productivity firms tend not only to be active in global activities, such as exporting and foreign direct investment, but also to intensively transmit data across borders. Globalized and productive firms are also more likely to introduce 3D printers.
    Date: 2020–05
  15. By: Massimo Anelli; Gætano Basso; Giuseppe Ippedico; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: Emigration of young, motivated individuals may deprive countries-of-origin of entrepreneurs. We isolate exogenous variation in a large emigration wave from Italy between 2008 and 2015 by interacting diaspora networks with economic pull factors in destination countries, and find that larger emigration rates reduced firm creation and innovative start-ups. We estimate that for every 100 emigrants, 26 fewer firms were created. An accounting exercise shows that 37 percent of the effect was due to the disproportionate loss of young people. The remaining effect was due to selection into emigration of highly entrepreneurial individuals, as well as negative spillovers on firm creation.
    Keywords: emigration, demography, brain drain, entrepreneurship, innovation, EU integration
    JEL: J61 H70 O30 M13
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The present article explores how the concept of change management evolves within the context of the current restructuring of globalization and, more specifically, how a new approach to the phenomenon of organizational change is built in terms of the Stra.Tech.Man evolutionary triangle (Strategy-Technology-Management). Change management in Stra.Tech.Man terms is a process which can synthesize adaptively the different perspectives of organizational change in order for an organization to innovate effectively. In conclusion, organizational success is articulated in a continuous cycle of five consecutive Stra.Tech.Man steps, where every step has its own conditions of successful innovation and evolution.
    Keywords: Change management; Organizational change; Evolutionary Stra.Tech.Man triangle; Innovation
    JEL: L20 L22 O32
    Date: 2019–06
  17. By: Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The theories of growth poles and clusters occupy a prominent position in the debate of regional development and underdevelopment. This article aims to identify focal points of the concept of growth poles and the analytical model of clusters by trying to distinguish differences as well as prospects for future analytical convergence based on recent developments in the field of spatial socio-economic sciences. To achieve this goal, we classify about ten foundational publications and another ten recent contributions to growth poles, along with corresponding publications on the clusters concept. We analyse the evolution of the theoretical perspective and recent developments of growth poles theory and practice in conjunction with the most disseminated ideas of the clusters concept and recent theoretical trends. Some of the main findings are that growth poles remain within the boundaries of economic geography, while clusters/industrial districts withhold a multidisciplinary perspective. Clusters analyses are heading towards a growing study of micro-dynamics, which is not the case in the growth poles, which are limited to the meso domain of analysis (industry, region). These observations help to figure out whether there are opportunities and possibilities for synthesising these two analytical perspectives.
    Keywords: growth poles; clusters; socio-economic development; spatial sciences; micro-level analysis
    JEL: O19 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–10–22
  18. By: Leo Sleuwaegen (MSI, KU Leuven , Belgium, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 B Leuven); Peter M. Smith (MSI, KU Leuven , Belgium, Naamsestraat 69, 3000 B Leuven)
    Abstract: The decision to serve foreign markets through exports or foreign direct investment (FDI) has been studied within proximity-concentration models of location, mainly in the context of trade in goods. This paper adapts these models to account for the specific nature of services that are traded across borders. We show how services can be characterized by a bundle of attributes that collectively describe the service. These attributes are then tested to show how they affect the choice between exports and FDI using service-level data for firms in Belgium selling services abroad. Three different types of characteristic are shown to affect the export versus FDI decision: intangibility, the searchexperience-credence framework and the requirement for either the supplier or the client to physically move to the point of production.
    Keywords: Services; International Trade; Exports; Foreign Direct Investment; Service characteristics.
    JEL: F14 M16 L8
    Date: 2020–07
  19. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Demertzis, Michail (Democritus University of Thrace, School of Law)
    Abstract: Τhere is growing awareness concerning the crucial role of entrepreneurship in the process of socio-economic development. Developed countries address the issue of fostering entrepreneurship in a variety of ways. This study aims to find out in preliminary terms whether there are converging or diverging entrepreneurial policies for different European countries. We examine four different European economies of the European South (Portugal, Italy, Croatia, and Greece) and their approaches to facilitating entrepreneurship. Using data provided by the World Bank as the primary source, we identify the entrepreneurial measures each country has taken from the beginning of the global crisis (2008) until very recently (2018) and classify them according to their economic level of action – “macro-meso-micro.” The results of the study reveal policy mixes on behalf of all four countries, acting on both the micro and the macro-level; the meso-level seems neglected. These policy mixes include, among others, reforms aiming at the reduction of bureaucracy as well as efficient ways for contract enforcement and business start-up through digitisation. It also becomes apparent that regardless of the country, the most frequent reforms favouring entrepreneurship are those that act in more than one levels. In conclusion, it seems that the countries lagging in entrepreneurship policies in absolute terms should follow the example of those that keep reforming on many areas and levels. Moreover, although there are signs of convergence among the different national approaches to entrepreneurship policies, fostering entrepreneurship in Europe takes various forms.
    Keywords: European entrepreneurship policies; micro-meso-macro; business reforms; European South
    JEL: L26 L53
    Date: 2019–10–22
  20. By: Jesse Davis; Adair Morse; Xinxin Wang
    Abstract: Early-stage firms utilize venture debt in one-third of financing rounds despite their general lack of cash flow and collateral. In our model, we show how venture debt aligns incentives within a firm. We derive a novel theoretical channel in which runway extension through debt increases firm value while potentially lowering closure. Consistent with the model's mechanism, we find that dilution predicts venture debt issuance. Empirically, treatment with venture debt lowers closure hazard by 1.6-4.4% and increases successful exits by 4.3-5.3%. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest $41B, or 9.4% of invested capital, remains productive due to venture debt.
    JEL: G24 G32 L26 O3
    Date: 2020–07
  21. By: Adriana Peluffo (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of innovation on labor demand, particularly, the level of employment and the skills composition of the labor force, in level and growth rates. Additionally, we analyze the ratio of skilled to unskilled labor and wages. The data for this study come from the Innovation Surveys for Uruguayan manufacturing and service firms over the 2000-2015 period matched with the Industrial Surveys of Economic Activity. We analyze the whole sample and each sector according to technological/knowledge intensity and firm size. Our results for ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, and generalized method of moments show positive effects of innovation in the level of total employment and skilled workers, its rate of growth, and wages. Product and Enhancing productivity innovation show positive impact on employment. Splitting by manufacturing firms we observe that product innovation affect growth in employment for high-tech firms while organizational innovation and productivity enhancing innovation affects growth in skilled labor with a greater effect for low-tech firms, while organizational innovation affects growth in skilled labor and in the share of skilled labor. Small manufacturing and service firms are less responsive to innovation. Growth in employment of service firms are affected mainly by organizational innovation and productivity enhancing innovation. Thus, enhancing productivity innovation and its component of organizational innovation seems to play an important role on employment growth.
    Keywords: Employment, Skilled Labor, Product Innovation, Process Innovation
    JEL: D2 J23 L1 O31 O33
    Date: 2020–07
  22. By: Alexander Cotte Poveda; Clara Inés Pardo
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that the design and application of suitable and robust science, technology and innovation (STI) policies and appropriate STI institutions promote development, economic growth and competitiveness in the long run. This paper analyses the dynamics of STI in Colombia over the 1995–2019 period to determine its relationship with its most important determinants and its collateral relationship with economic growth as an input afecting diferent issues; this work takes into account the creation of the new ministry of science, technology and innovation (MSTI) and uses diferent time series techniques. According to the analysis, a positive relationship exists between investments in research and development, STI activities, and the independence and transparency of STI management by the new MSTI, which could generate higher productivity, technological change, economic growth and development. The results of the models also demonstrate the longrun relationship and short-run dynamics related to STI investment and research results and the importance of transparency and independence. It is important to establish adequate STI governance and allow new ministries to play an important role to achieve a society based on knowledge that produces relevant research, technology and innovation based on the needs and resources of the country
    JEL: O10 O30 O38
    Date: 2020–08–21
  23. By: Tessarin, Milene Simone; Suzigan, Wilson; Martins Guilhoto, Joaquim José (Departamento de Economia, Universidade de São Paulo)
    Abstract: A inovação brasileira está esganada, mesmo o país hospedando multinacionais inovadoras mundialmente. Este artigo busca entender isso ao comparar o esforço inovativo das empresas manufatureiras que cooperaram para inovar das que inovaram sem cooperação, segmentadas por categorias tecnológicas e origem do capital controlador. Utilizou-se uma tabulação especial da Pintec/IBGE com informações não exploradas. O estudo contribui ao contrapor empresas que inovaram com cooperação ou não, pois esta comparação não foi estudada. Resultados mostraram que a cooperação é decisiva para diferenciar os esforços inovativos, independente da categoria tecnológica. Já a origem do capital não representou fator distintivo. A cooperação foi essencialmente feita com clientes e fornecedores, e outra empresa do grupo no exterior para firmas estrangeiras, a despeito da literatura focar na cooperação com universidades e institutos de pesquisa. Conclui-se que inovar com cooperação gera esforços inovativos melhores, assim, estimular empresas a cooperarem pode aumentar a inovação brasileira.
    Keywords: technological innovation; strategic cooperation; capital investment; multinational companies; Brazil
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Fusillo, Fabrizio (University of Turin)
    Abstract: A large body of existing literature extensively studied the economic deter-minants and effects of environmental innovations. However, only a few studiesanalyzed the specific features of green technologies in the early phasesof theinvention process. The aim of this paper is to investigate knowledgerecombi-nation patterns in the green domain. The focus is on identifying whether andhow different bodies of technology are combined and integrated. Exploitinga large sample of European patent data, from 1980 to 2012, the paper inves-tigates the degree of diversity in the knowledge sources and the generationphase of green inventions. Using the Integration Score as an index of techno-logical diversity we compare the recombinant features of Green Technologieswith a control sample of “Traditional Technologies†, accurately drawn fromthe universe of all patent applications. Empirical results suggest that, aftercontrolling for a number of typical characteristics which may affect diversity,Green Technologies systematically show a higher degree of diversitywhencompared to non-green ones.
    Date: 2020–06

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