nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2019‒10‒14
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Skill Shortages as a Barrier to Women’s Start Ups: A Model with Evidence from Eswatini By Zuzana Brixiová; Thierry Kangoye
  2. Startups In Russia: Ownership Vs. Performance By Olga Guseva; Anastasia Stepanova
  3. Industry Concentration in Europe and North America By Matej Bajgar; Giuseppe Berlingieri; Sara Calligaris; Chiara Criscuolo; Jonathan Timmis
  4. The Effect of High-Tech Clusters on the Productivity of Top Inventors By Moretti, Enrico
  5. Use of AI and Its Impact on Business: Updated Evidence from a Firm Survey (Japanese) By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  6. Government support of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in Russia By Barinova Vera; Zemtsov Tsepan; Tsareva Yulia
  7. International Talent Inflow and R&D Investment: Firm-level Evidence from China By Hao Wei; Ran Yuan; Laixun Zhao
  8. Fiscal Decentralization and Public R&D Policy: A Country Panel Analysis By Daniel Gama e Colombo; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez
  9. Effects of Offshore Production and R&D on Domestic Innovation Activities By YAMASHITA Nobuaki; YAMAUCHI Isamu
  10. Effects of R&D subsidies on regional economic dynamics: Evidence from Chinese provinces By Eberle, Jonathan; Böing, Philipp
  11. The corruption growth relationship: Do political institutions matter? By Sen Kunal; Saha Shrabani
  12. Out of Sight: A Study of Uncited Patents By Crystal, Michael; Gandal, Neil; Shilony, Royee; Shur-Ofry, Michal
  13. International knowledge flows between industry inventors and universities: The role of multinational companies By Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica
  14. Innovation mechanisms of fintech start-ups: insights from SWIFT Innotribe competition By Gozman, Daniel; Liebenau, Jonathan; Mangan, Jonathan
  15. The Firm Size and Leverage Relationship and Its Implications for Entry and Concentration in a Low Interest Rate World By Satyajit Chatterjee; Burcu Eyigungor
  16. Transition Towards a Green Economy in Europe: Innovation and Knowledge Integration in the Renewable Energy Sector By Mancusi, Maria Luisa; Conti, Chiara; Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca; Sestini, Roberta
  17. Fiction Lagging Behind Or Non-Fiction Defending The Indefensible? University-Industry (et al.) Interaction In Science Fiction By Azagra-Caro,Joaquín M.
  18. Policies for stronger productivity growth in Latvia By Naomitsu Yashiro; Caroline Klein; Olga Rastrigina; Ania Thiemann
  19. Essays on corporate ownership and human capital By Hébert, Camille
  20. SME Financial Inclusion for Sustained Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia By Mishel Ghassibe; Maximiliano Appendino; Samir Elsadek Mahmoudi
  21. Efficient design of set-aside auctions for small businesses: an empirical analysis By Andrey Tkachenko; Paola Valbonesi; Elena Shadrina; Gegam Shagbazian
  22. Products or Markets: What Type of Experience Matters for Export Survival? By Martina Lawless; Zuzanna Studnicka
  23. The Impact of Market Orientation and Dynamic Marketing Capability on the Marketing Performance of 'Make-To- Order' SMEs By Yosef Budi Susanto
  24. The effect of public sector efficiency on firm-level productivity growth: The Italian case By Milenko Fadic; Paula Garda; Mauro Pisu
  25. The Origins of Creativity: The Case of the Arts in the United States since 1850 By Borowiecki, Karol Jan

  1. By: Zuzana Brixiová; Thierry Kangoye
    Abstract: The shortages of entrepreneurial skills, both perceived and actual, have lowered the rate of opportunity-driven women’s entrepreneurship. This paper contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship, gender and development with a theoretical and empirical analysis linking gender differences in entrepreneurial outcomes to skills and business training. The role of skills, including self-confidence, and training for the entrepreneurial performance is tested on a survey of urban entrepreneurs in Swaziland. The results help explain why narrow business training programs for female entrepreneurs have often limited success in improving performance of women-run firms. Training programs for women entrepreneurs encompassing advanced business and technical (e.g. hard) skills as well as networking and confidence building (e.g. soft skills) could be more effective.
    Keywords: women’s entrepreneurship, firm performance, hard and soft skills, model, micro data
    JEL: L53 O12 J4
    Date: 2018–12
  2. By: Olga Guseva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anastasia Stepanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines how ownership characteristics affect the performance of small and medium technology startups in Russia. We focus on how different types of owners (e.g. founders, state, venture capital and corporate firms) contribute to startup performance. Using an unbalanced panel of startups from Skolkovo, the largest Russian innovation cluster, from 2010 to 2016, we found evidence of a negative relationship between a support from government-related organisations and chosen indicators of startup performance. Our findings confirmed the positive impact of venture capital on ROA, especially for the Space cluster startups. While family members as owners were not found to have a significant impact on startups, we identified a positive ontribution from managerial ownership to ROA. The study highlights the importance of other ownership characteristics, which were found to be significant in previous studies of emerged markets. We discuss potential interpretations of the findings and provide strategic management insights for startup owners and investors.
    Keywords: Startups; Ownership; Development institutes; Emerging markets
    JEL: M13 G32 G34 O38
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Matej Bajgar; Giuseppe Berlingieri; Sara Calligaris; Chiara Criscuolo; Jonathan Timmis
    Abstract: This report presents new evidence on industry concentration trends in Europe and in North America. It uses two novel data sources: representative firm-level concentration measures from the OECD MultiProd project, and business-group-level concentration measures using matched Orbis-Worldscope-Zephyr data. Based on the MultiProd data, it finds that between 2001 and 2012 the average industry across 10 European economies saw a 2-3-percentage-point increase in the share of the 10% largest companies in industry sales. Using the Orbis-Worldscope-Zephyr data, it documents a clear increase in industry concentration in Europe as well as in North America between 2000 and 2014 of the order of 4-8 percentage points for the average industry. Over the period, about 3 out of 4 (2-digit) industries in each region saw their concentration increase. The increase is observed for both manufacturing and non-financial services and is not driven by digital-intensive sectors.
    Keywords: Industry concentration, business dynamics, measurement
    JEL: D4 L11 L25
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Moretti, Enrico
    Abstract: The high-tech sector is increasingly concentrated in a small number of expensive cities, with the top ten cities in "Computer Science", "Semiconductors" and "Biology and Chemistry", accounting for 70%, 79% and 59% of inventors, respectively. Why do inventors tend to locate near other inventors in the same field, despite the higher costs? I use longitudinal data on top inventors based on the universe of US patents 1971 - 2007 to quantify the productivity advantages of Silicon-Valley style clusters and their implications for the overall production of patents in the US. I relate the number of patents produced by an inventor in a year to the size of the local cluster, defined as a city * research field * year. I first study the experience of Rochester NY, whose high-tech cluster declined due to the demise of its main employer, Kodak. Due to the growth of digital photography, Kodak employment collapsed after 1996, resulting in a 49.2% decline in the size of the Rochester high-tech cluster. I test whether the change in cluster size affected the productivity of inventors outside Kodak and the photography sector. I find that between 1996 and 2007 the productivity of non-Kodak inventors in Rochester declined by 20.6% relative to inventors in other cities, conditional on inventor fixed effects. In the second part of the paper, I turn to estimates based on all the data in the sample. I find that when an inventor moves to a larger cluster she experiences significant increases in the number of patents produced and the number of citations received. Conditional on inventor, firm, and city * year effects, the elasticity of number of patents produced with respect to cluster size is 0.0662 (0.0138). The productivity increase follows the move and there is no evidence of pre-trends. IV estimates based on the geographical structure of firms with laboratories in multiple cities are statistically similar to OLS estimates. In the final part of the paper, I use the estimated elasticity of productivity with respect to cluster size to quantify the aggregate effects of geographical agglomeration on the overall production of patents in the US. I find macroeconomic benefits of clustering for the US as a whole. In a counterfactual scenario where the quality of U.S. inventors is held constant but their geographical location is changed so that all cities have the same number of inventors in each field, inventor productivity would increase in small clusters and decline in large clusters. On net, the overall number of patents produced in the US in a year would be 11.07% smaller.
    Date: 2019–09
  5. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: This study, based on an original survey of Japanese firms, presents evidence on the use of AI, big data, and robots as well as firms' perception about the impacts of these new technologies on business and employment. The major findings can be summarized as follows. First, the number of firms already using AI and big data is small, but the number of firms interested in using these technologies for their business is large and increasing. Second, the use of AI and big data is positively associated with the share of highly educated employees, but this relationship is weak for the use of robots in the manufacturing industry. Third, the use of the new technologies has a strong positive association with the innovation probability of the firms. Fourth, the majority, and an increasing number of firms view the impact of these new technologies on their future business positively. Fifth, relatively large numbers of firms expects that the use of these new technologies is likely to reduce their employees.
    Date: 2019–08
  6. By: Barinova Vera (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Zemtsov Tsepan (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Tsareva Yulia (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Support of the small and medium sized entrepreneurship (SME) sector is recognized to be one of Russia’s economic policy priorities2,3. It is customary to speak of that sector’s low level of development compared with other countries. However, when comparable estimates are applied, the gap does not appear to be catastrophic. The relative share of SMEs in the value added produced by Russia’s business sector amounts to about 44 percent, in the developed countries – OECD member states it amounts on average to 55 percent, in the USA – to 48 percent, and in Canada – to 30 percent. The problems faced by Russian SMEs, in qualitative terms, are as follows: the percentage of exporters and technological startups is low, and a greater part of that sector is unregulated; in 2018, the relative share of medium sized firms and the number of technological startups shrank even further. The conditions for and specific features of the SME sector’s development vary across Russia’s regions, and this fact is completely overlooked by prevailing legislation. According to our estimations, entrepreneurial activity in the regions does not depend on government support, instead responding to macroeconomic and institutional changes. In 2018, in a majority of Russian regions, the number of SME subjects and their turnover declined in response to shrinking personal income, especially in the regions with a high relative share taken up by the shadow sector, while the same indices increased in those regions that hosted the FIFA World Cup events.
    Keywords: Russian economy, small businesses, medium-sized enterprises
    JEL: C53 E37 L21 L52
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Hao Wei (Department of International Economics, Beijing Normal University); Ran Yuan (Department of International Economics, Beijing Normal University); Laixun Zhao (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: Using firm-level R&D data with regional international talent data, we find that international talent increases the R&D investment of Chinese manufacturing firms, a result that is further confirmed with patent data and under a number of robustness checks. These findings stem from two mechanisms: international talent boosts human capital accumulation and provides a diversified labor force. Further, the R&D promoting effect is stronger if firms are located in eastern China rather than in other regions, of small and medium-sized rather than large-sized, of domestic ownership rather than foreign ownership. The policy implication is, the introduction of international talent can be a new way to promoting R&D investment, especially for skilled-labor constrained countries.
    Keywords: International talent inflow, Manufacturing firms, R&D, Patent application
    JEL: F16 F22 O32
    Date: 2019–09
  8. By: Daniel Gama e Colombo (Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (Inep), Brasília, Brazil); Jorge Martinez-Vazquez (International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, USA)
    Abstract: This paper presents a first analysis of the potential link between the level of fiscal decentralization of a country and its public investment in innovation. We present a theoretical model where a ‘benevolent government’ invests in R&D aiming at maximizing net income, and R&D results are subject to interregional knowledge spillovers. The model predicts that decentralization leads to a lower level of public spending on innovation, and to a lower share of basic research in the government R&D budget. These hypotheses are empirically tested using country aggregate data. The results provide empirical support to the mentioned hypotheses, as we find evidence that higher levels of both expenditure and revenue decentralization are associated with a lower intensity of basic research in public R&D and with a lower level of R&D spending. The strength of the evidence, however, is weakened by the small sample size and shortcomings of the indicators used in the analysis.
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: YAMASHITA Nobuaki; YAMAUCHI Isamu
    Abstract: There has been a global shift in the distribution of manufacturing jobs and activities away from high-wage countries to low-wage countries for the past few decades. This paper examines a largely unexplored channel of the effects of offshore production on onshore (domestic) innovation performance. Controlling for the endogeneity, we find that increased offshore employment and R&D do not have positive impact on the domestic innovation measured by the number of patent applications and the number of forward citations on average. However, offshore R&D increases the quality of domestic innovation when the firms expand R&D function to the developed countries while it has a negative effect in the developing countries. We also find a synergistic effect between production and R&D activities. Therefore, separating the two activities can decrease the efficiency of resource allocation on the domestic innovation.
    Date: 2019–09
  10. By: Eberle, Jonathan; Böing, Philipp
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of research and development (R&D) subsidies on R&D inputs of large- and medium-sized firms and on additional innovation and economic activities in Chinese provinces. A panel vector autoregressive (VAR) model and corresponding impulse response function (IRF) analysis allow us to differentiate between direct and indirect effects, which add up to total effects. We find that an increase of R&D subsidies significantly decreases private R&D investments, although there is a significant positive effect on the R&D personnel employed in firms. We interpret these findings as a partial crowding-out effect because public funds substitute some private funds while total R&D inputs still increase. Complementarily, we find a positive secondary effect on the provincial patent activity, our measure of technological progress. Interestingly, we also find potentially unintended effects of R&D subsidies on increases in the investment rate in physical capital and residential buildings. Although R&D subsidies fail to incentivise private R&D expenditures, firms increase total R&D inputs, and provincial economies benefit from secondary effects on technological progress and capital deepening.
    Keywords: China,R&D subsidies,regional economic development,panel VAR,impulse response function
    JEL: C33 R11 R58 O38 O47
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Sen Kunal; Saha Shrabani
    Abstract: Corruption is widely believed to negatively affect economic growth. However, many East and Southeast Asia countries either achieved or currently are achieving impressively rapid economic growth despite widespread corruption — the ‘East Asian Paradox’. Is this negative relationship equally likely to hold for autocracies and democracies? This paper examines the role of political institutions in mediating the corruption–growth relationship using panel data over one hundred countries for the period 1984–2016. We find clear evidence that corruption–growth relationship differs by the type of political institution, and the growth enhancing effect of corruption is more likely in autocracies than in democracies. The perceived credibility of long-term ruling political elites by promoting economic freedom to do business gives confidence to the firms, vital for investment and growth. Our findings provide suggestive evidence in support of the East Asian Paradox.
    Keywords: Panel data analysis,Democracy,Corruption,Economic growth
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Crystal, Michael; Gandal, Neil; Shilony, Royee; Shur-Ofry, Michal
    Abstract: Scientific understanding of innovation processes and of the patent system increasingly relies on big data analyses of patent citations. Much of that research focuses on highly cited patents. This study, conversely, offers the first systematic exploration of uncited patents-patents that receive no citations. Analyzing data on all US patents issued between 1976 and 2008, we focus on the ratio of uncited patents out of all patents granted each year. We track the changes in the percentage of uncited patents during that period, and across technological fields, controlling for patents' age. We also investigate traits of uncited patents by examining the association between lack of citations and various factors including the number of inventors, number of technological subclasses, number of backward citations, and number of claims in the patent. We find a robust pattern whereby the percentage of uncited patents declined between 1976 and the mid 1990s, but has been significantly increasing since then. These findings are consistent across technological fields and hold after controlling for patent characteristics. We discuss these and additional findings, and propose possible explanations. We suggest that the trend of increase in uncited patents raises, and reinforces, concerns regarding patent quality and "patent explosion". More broadly, our focus on "negative information" embedded in patent data opens up a new avenue for further research that can deepen our understanding of the patent system.
    Keywords: Big Data; Innovation; Negative Knowledge; networks; Patent Citations; Uncited Patents
    Date: 2019–09
  13. By: Fassio, Claudio (Lund University); Geuna, Aldo (University of Torino); Rossi, Federica (University of London)
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of industry researchers’ interactions with universities in different localities, distinguishing between local and international universities. We analyze the extent to which local and international interactions are enabled by different types of individual personal networks (education, career based), and by their access to different business networks through their employer companies (local vs. domestic or international multinational company networks). We control for selection bias and numerous other individual and firm-level factors identified in the literature as important determinants of interaction with universities. Our findings suggest that industry researchers’ personal networks play a greater role in promoting interactions with local universities (i.e. in the same region, and other regions in the same country) while researcher employment in a multinational is especially important for establishing interaction with universities abroad.
    Keywords: University-industry interaction; international knowledge flows; MNEs; social network; education network; career network
    JEL: F23 I23 L24 O31
    Date: 2019–10–04
  14. By: Gozman, Daniel; Liebenau, Jonathan; Mangan, Jonathan
    Abstract: The emergence of nascent forms of financial technology around the globe is driven by efforts to de-construct and reimagine business models historically embedded within financial services. Entrepre-neurial endeavors to this end are diverse. Indeed, the propensity towards complexity across the fintech landscape is considerable. Bridging as it does a diverse range of financial services, markets, innova-tions, industry participants, infrastructures and technologies. This study aims to improve the compre-hension of the global fintech landscape. It is based on the analysis of start-ups who participated in SWIFT’s Innotribe competition over a three-year period. We used cluster analysis to group 402 fintech start-up firms, and then selected representative cases to create a foundational understanding of the structure of the fintech landscape. We found that six clusters capture the variety of firms and their activities. The main findings of this work are: (1) the development of fintech clusters to classify core services, business infrastructures and underlying component technologies, which characterize the fintech landscape; (2) an analysis of how fintechs synthesize different technologies to restructure and coordinate flows of financial information through competitive and cooperative mechanisms of disin-termediation, extension of access, financialization, hybridization and personalization; (3) an analysis of related strategies for value creation connected with the competitive and cooperative mechanisms that were identified. Collectively, our results offer new insights into the diversity and range of emer-gent innovations and technologies which are transforming the financial services industry worldwide.
    Keywords: business models; cluster analysis; data analytics; financialization; fintech start-ups; SWIFT Innotribe; technology ecosystems; technological innovation; value proposition
    JEL: J50 F3 G3
    Date: 2018–03–30
  15. By: Satyajit Chatterjee (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Burcu Eyigungor (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Larger firms (by sales or employment) have higher leverage. This pattern is explained using a model in which firms produce multiple varieties and borrow with the option to default against their future cash flow. A variety can die with a constant probability, implying that bigger firms (those with more varieties) have lower coefficient of variation of sales and higher leverage. A lower risk-free rate benefits bigger firms more as they are able to lever more and existing firms buy more of the new varieties arriving into the economy. This leads to lower startup rates and greater concentration of sales.
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Mancusi, Maria Luisa; Conti, Chiara; Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca; Sestini, Roberta
    Abstract: This paper investigates the fragmentation of the EU innovation system in the field of renewable energy sources (RES) by estimating the intensity and direction of knowledge spillovers over the years 1985-2010. We modify the original double exponential knowledge diffusion model proposed by Caballero and Jaffe (1993) to provide information on the degree of integration of EU countries’ RES knowledge bases and to assess how citation patterns changed over time. We show that EU RES inventors have increasingly built “on the shoulders of the other EU giants”, intensifying their citations to other member countries and decreasing those to domestic inventors. Furthermore, the EU strengthened its position as source of RES knowledge for the US. Finally, we show that this pattern is peculiar to RES, with other traditional (i.e. fossil-based) energy technologies and other radically new technologies behaving differently. We provide suggestive, but convincing evidence that such decrease in fragmentation around the turn of the century emerged as a result of the EU increased support for RES taking mainly the form of demand-pull policies.
    Keywords: EU integration; renewable energy technologies; knowledge flows
    JEL: O31 Q42 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2018–12
  17. By: Azagra-Caro,Joaquín M.
    Abstract: University-industry interaction has many supporters and some detractors in the scholarly literature. Framings for science, technology and innovation (STI) policy emphasise that universities interact with stakeholders other than industry and that these interactions contribute to a wide set of goals, such as environmental sustainability. Given the importance of discourse to shape public opinion, we wonder whether academic and policy actors have transmitted this positive attitude towards university interactions. We seek the answer in the representation of university interactions in popular culture. Because public opinion conversely shapes science, we also ask whether this method opens new research questions. Our sample is science fiction novels that have won three of the most prestigious awards in the genre (Hugo, Nebula and Locus), from the 1970s to date. The use of an objective corpus of the literature increases external validity, a methodological novelty in the study of the representations of science. We illustrate how science fiction has been predominantly critical to university interactions, indicating the lack of a convincing institutional narrative about their benefits. In particular, fears to interaction with industry and other stakeholders are equivalent. Other insights include the recommendation for studies on knowledge transfer policy to incorporate critical views of university-industry interaction, including threats to sustainability; the opening of new research questions regarding the defence of non-disclosure of information for political reasons; and visionary examples of conflicts of equity due to the lack of promotion of ‘disengaged’ academics.
    Keywords: University-industry interaction, research stakeholders, conflicts, representations of science
    Date: 2019–10–04
  18. By: Naomitsu Yashiro; Caroline Klein; Olga Rastrigina; Ania Thiemann
    Abstract: Latvia’s productivity growth is held back by weak innovation and inefficient resource allocation. The shortage of skilled workers which constrains innovation and the adoption of digital technologies must be addressed through further alignment of vocational and tertiary education with labour market demand. Strengthening the innovation ecosystem by improving the quality of research and collaboration between firms and research institutions would help to diffuse digital technologies more widely across the economy. Fighting widespread informality, improving the low debt recovery through a more efficient insolvency regime, and reducing substantial state ownership would improve the allocation of resources. Latvia also relies heavily on EU funds to finance its important structural policies. The continuity of the most effective EU funded policy instruments needs to be ensured in the medium term, by integrating them into the national budget.This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Latvia( ys/latvia-economic-snapshot/)
    Keywords: Access to credit, Competition, EU Structural funds, Informality, Innovation, Latvia, Productivity, Skills shortage
    JEL: G28 I28 J08 L30 O17 O20 O38 O43 O52
    Date: 2019–10–10
  19. By: Hébert, Camille (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: This thesis consists of three chapters and studies the firm's organizational structure at a different stage of its life cycle: early-stage, growth, business group. The first chapter investigates the underlying reasons for the gender funding gap in the venture capital industry. It highlights a significant role for investors' stereotypes that ultimately impedes minority-founded startups' growth. The second chapter identifies conditions under which firms choose to grow by buying an incumbent company as opposed to building on their pre-existing human capital resources. The third chapter focuses on large business groups. It provides evidence that investors are not always aware of the boundaries of the firm and miss predictive information released at another level of the group.
    Date: 2019
  20. By: Mishel Ghassibe; Maximiliano Appendino; Samir Elsadek Mahmoudi
    Abstract: This paper offers empirical evidence that greater financial inclusion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can promote higher economic growth and employment, especially in the Middle East and Central Asia regions. First, we show that countries with higher SME financial inclusion exhibit more effective monetary policy transmission and tax collection. Second, we find substantial employment and labor productivity growth gains at the firm level from access to credit, gains that are higher for SMEs. We also obtain evidence of a substantial positive impact on SME employment and labor productivity growth from improved credit bureau coverage and insolvency regimes. Finally, cross-country aggregate evidence confirms the employment and growth gains from SME financial inclusion, which appear larger in the Middle East and Central Asia than in other regions.
    Date: 2019–09–27
  21. By: Andrey Tkachenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation and Bocconi University); Paola Valbonesi (Department of Economics and Management, University of Padova and National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation); Elena Shadrina (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation); Gegam Shagbazian (Department of Economics and Management, University of Padova)
    Abstract: Government support to small business enterprises (SBEs) through set-aside (SA) public procurement auctions is a common practice. The effect of the SA mechanism is, however, ambiguous. On the one hand, SA auctions can attract more SBEs to compete; on the other hand, SA auctions restrict the entry of—possibly—more cost-efficient large firms. We investigate SA auctions’ effect by exploiting an original Russian database on public procurement e-auctions for granulated sugar (a largely homogeneous good) in the period 2011-2013. To identify the causal effect of SA auctions, we overcome two endogeneity issues: procurers’ choice of SA format and firms’ decision to bid. In an empirical setting where confounding elements are minimized, we found that SA auctions’ effect largely depends on both the reserve price value and the level of competition. We found that there exists an optimal interval for the reserve price where SA auctions record lower procurement prices, as compared to non-SA auctions.
    Keywords: affirmative action, preferential treatment, public procurement, set-aside auctions, e-auctions, small businesses enterprises (SBEs), small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
    JEL: D44 H11 H57
    Date: 2019–10
  22. By: Martina Lawless; Zuzanna Studnicka
    Abstract: Previous research has generally shown that increased export experience has a positive impact on the subsequent survival of newly launched export relationships of a firm. In this paper, we find that there are important differences in the effects of firm experience on export survival depending on the source of the experience. Specifically, experience built up by a firm from previously exporting a particular product before launching it in a new market has a strong positive impact on the survival of a new product-market relationship. In contrast, experience within a market prior to adding a new product has a mainly negative effect on the survival probability of the additional product. This shows that taking a successful product to new markets is more likely to succeed than expanding product range within a market.
    Keywords: Duration of trade; Firm survival; Export experience; Multi-product firms
    JEL: F10
    Date: 2019–10
  23. By: Yosef Budi Susanto (Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Jl. Boulevar Gading Serpong, Tangerang, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Literature suggest that companies should focus their Market Orientation (MO) on good marketing and business performance. However, previous research in this area deals mostly with large companies. The objective of this research is to study the significance of MO for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with the specific production strategy of Make-To-Order.Methodology/Technique - The sample of this study is 111 Indonesia SMEs. The descriptive research design is supported by exploratory research. The structural model is analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling approach with LISREL 8.8 and SPSS 16.00.Finding - The result shows that MO does not have a significant impact on Marketing Performance. In the context of MTO, SMEs do not need to have a high Market Orientation to have satisfactory performance. It is more important for them to take care of the relationship with their principal companies. Government regulations, such as raw material regulations, also have an impact on SMEs performance. It is recommended that future research explore the types of capabilities of SMEs relating with the era of Industry 4.0. Other strategic orientations, such as production orientation, could be considered as factors in future research. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Strategic Leadership Competence; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Market Orientation; Dynamic Marketing Capability; Business Environment; Marketing Performance; Maklun (MTO Strategy).
    JEL: M3 M30 M31
    Date: 2019–09–20
  24. By: Milenko Fadic; Paula Garda; Mauro Pisu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the causal effect of public administration efficiency on firm-level productivity. To this purpose, we combine newly available data from Italy on public administration efficiency of subnational governments with geo-localised firm-level data for the years 2004-2014. Italy provides a relevant setting to examine the relationship between public administration efficiency and firm productivity because of large and persistent spatial disparities in economic performance and local administrative capacity. The identification strategy exploits discontinuities that occur in local public-administration efficiency across provincial borders. The results suggest that local public administration efficiency has a large effect on firms’ productivity growth. Increasing local public administration efficiency from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile would raise the firm-level labour productivity in Italy by 2.4 percentage points.
    Keywords: firm growth, firm performance, interjurisdictional differentials, local government expenditures, local public services, productivity, public administration, public goods, public services
    JEL: D24 H41 H72 H73 L25
    Date: 2019–10–14
  25. By: Borowiecki, Karol Jan (Department of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This research illuminates the historical development of creative activity in the United States. Census data is used to identify creative occupations (i.e., artists, musicians, authors, actors) and data on prominent creatives, as listed in a comprehensive biographical compendium. The analysis first sheds light on the socio-economic background of creative people and how it has changed since 1850. The results indicate that the proportion of female creatives is relatively high, time constraints can be a hindrance for taking up a creative occupation, racial inequality is present and tends to change only slowly, and access to financial resources within a family facilitates the uptake of an artistic occupation. Second, the study systematically documents and quantifies the geography of creative clusters in the United States and explains how these have evolved over time and across creative domains. Third, it investigates the importance of outstanding talent in a discipline for the local growth of an artistic cluster.
    Keywords: Creativity; artists; geographic clustering; agglomeration economies; urban history
    JEL: N33 R10 Z11
    Date: 2019–10–07

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