nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2019‒05‒20
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Firm Size and Innovation in the Service Sector By David B. Audretsch; Marian Hafenstein; Alexander S. Kritikos; Alexander Schiersch
  2. R&D, innovation and productivity By Mohnen, Pierre
  3. The European venture capital landscape: an EIF perspective. Volume V: The economic impact of VC investments supported by the EIF By Pavlova, Elitsa; Signore, Simone
  4. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Knowledge Exchange Patterns between Major Technology and Innovation Management Journals (1999-2013) By Shikhar Sarin; Christophe Haon; Mustapha Belkhouja
  5. Les entreprises de la branche du numérique : modes d'acquisition des compétences par le recrutement et la formation. Une exploitation de l'enquête DEFIS du Céreq By Jean-Marie Dubois; Laurence Lize; Patrick Rousset
  6. "The race for innovation in the media and content industries: legacy players and newcomers. Lessons from the music and newspaper industries" By Pierre-Jean Benghozi; Elisa Salvador; Jean-Paul Simon
  7. The 'Distinctive Capacity': Managing the invention process by managing the prior art By Chipten Valibhay; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  8. Desarrollo económico regional, especializaciones productivas y cooperación empresarial. Un estudio comparado de Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay y Uruguay By Adrián Rodrí­guez Miranda; Pablo Galasso; Pedro Argumedo; Sebastián Goinheix; Camilo Martí­nez; Fernando Masi; Santiago Picasso; Ignacio Rodrí­guez; Paulina Sanhuezad; Belén Servin
  9. Domestic intellectual property rights protection and exports: Accessing the credit channel. By Ndubuisi, Gideon
  10. How internationalization and competitiveness contribute to get public support to innovation? The Portuguese case By Anabela Santos; Michele Cincera; Paulo Neto; Maria Manuel Serrano
  11. Ressources naturelles, innovation et développement économique : vers une nouvelle approche By Mounir Amdaoud
  12. The costs and benefits of formalization for firms: A mixed-methods study on Mozambique By Berkel Hanna
  13. On the persistence of growth for South African firms By Mamburu Mulalo
  14. Effect of Climate Change on Small and Medium Scale Agro-Allied Enterprises in Ogun State, Nigeria By Thompson, O.A.; Amos, T.T.

  1. By: David B. Audretsch (Indiana University Bloomington); Marian Hafenstein (German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)); Alexander S. Kritikos (German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), University of Potsdam, IZA (Bonn), IAB (Nuremberg)); Alexander Schiersch (German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin))
    Abstract: A rich literature links knowledge inputs with innovative outputs. However, most of what is known is restricted to manufacturing. This paper analyzes whether the three aspects involving innovative activity - R&D; innovative output; and productivity - hold for knowledge intensive services. Combining the models of Crepon et al. (1998) and of Ackerberg et al. (2015), allows for causal interpretation of the relationship between innovation output and labor productivity. We find that knowledge intensive services benefit from innovation activities in the sense that these activities causally increase their labor productivity. Moreover, the firm size advantage found for manufacturing in previous studies nearly disappears for knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: MSMEs, R&D, Service Sector, Innovation, Productivity, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L25 L60 L80 O31 O33
    Date: 2019–05
  2. By: Mohnen, Pierre (UNU-MERIT, and SBE, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews various technological indicators from innovation inputs to innovation outputs, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses and the consequent caution that is in order when using these data for economic analysis. It briefly explains the theoretical link between innovation and productivity growth and then compares the estimated magnitudes of that relationship using the different innovation indicators.
    Keywords: innovation, productivity, indicators
    JEL: D24 O31 O33 O47
    Date: 2019–05–06
  3. By: Pavlova, Elitsa; Signore, Simone
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of venture capital (VC) investments supported by the EIF on the financial growth and performance of young and innovative firms. Using a novel dataset covering European start-ups supported by VC in the years 2007 to 2014, we generate a counterfactual group of non-VCbacked firms through a combination of exact and propensity score matching. To offset the relatively limited set of observables allowed by our data, we estimate treatment propensity using a series of innovative measures based on machine learning, network theory, and satellite imagery analysis. Our results document the positive effects of EIF-supported VC investments on start-up performance, as measured through various financial indicators (e.g. assets, revenue, employment). We find that VC financing enables start-ups to prioritise long-term growth, trading off short- to medium-term profitability if necessary. Overall, our work provides meaningful evidence towards the positive effects of EIF-supported VC investment on the financial growth of young and innovative businesses in Europe.
    Keywords: EIF,venture capital,public intervention,real effects,start-ups,machine learning,geospatial analysis,network theory
    JEL: G24 L25 M13 O38
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Shikhar Sarin (Boise State University); Christophe Haon (GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management - Grenoble École de Management (GEM), IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Mustapha Belkhouja (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: This essay takes a longitudinal look at the knowledge flow patterns between major technology and innovation man- agement (TIM) journals and the effect on their impact factors. We analyze the flow of 29,776 citations from 4171 articles published in the top six dedicated TIM journals between 1999 and 2013. Findings indicate one subset of journals becoming more firmly rooted in the TIM domain, while the others becoming increasingly insulated from it. JPIM displays peculiar knowledge flow patterns, suggesting a broadening of its knowledge base and impact. Our bibliometric analysis provides one of the most comprehensive and detailed year-by-year looks at the intradomain knowledge exchange patterns over a 15-year period.
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Jean-Marie Dubois (CEREQ - Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications - ministère de l'Emploi, cohésion sociale et logement - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche); Laurence Lize (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Patrick Rousset (CEREQ - Centre d'études et de recherches sur les qualifications - ministère de l'Emploi, cohésion sociale et logement - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche)
    Abstract: In digital companies, in which value creation and therefore growth are strongly linked to innovation, the acquisition and adaptation of skills appears to be a major challenge for both companies and employees. The ability of companies to integrate into a collective process of innovation is fueled by two complementary dynamics. On the one hand, the recruitment of highly qualified and operational employees, in a competitive context, is necessary. On the other hand, the different types of continuing training (formal, non-formal and informal) are emerging as essential means of adapting the skills and knowledge of employees to the rapidity of technological change. The analysis of the Céreq DEFIS survey illustrates the recruitment and continuing training practices of companies in this branche.
    Abstract: Dans les entreprises du numérique, où la création de valeur et donc la croissance sont fortement liées à l'innovation, l'acquisition et l'adaptation des compétences apparaissent comme un enjeu majeur, aussi bien pour les entreprises que pour les salariés. La capacité des entreprises à s'intégrer dans un processus collectif d'innovation est alimentée par deux dynamiques complémentaires. D'un côté, le recrutement d'un personnel très qualifié et opérationnel, dans un contexte souvent concurrentiel, est nécessaire. D'un autre côté, les différents types de formation continue (formels, non formels et informels) apparaissent comme une solution indispensable pour adapter les compétences et les savoirs des salariés face à la rapidité des changements technologiques. L'exploitation de l'enquête DEFIS conçue par le Céreq illustre les pratiques des entreprises de cette branche en matière de recrutement et de formation continue.
    Keywords: digital,company,continuing training,qualification,recruitment,numérique,entreprise,formation continue,diplôme,recrutement
    Date: 2018–06
  6. By: Pierre-Jean Benghozi (X-DEP-MIE - Département de Management de l'Innovation et Entreprenariat de l'École polytechnique - X - École polytechnique); Elisa Salvador (ESSCA School of Management, 55 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92513 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France); Jean-Paul Simon
    Abstract: Cultural and creative industries (CCIs) are usually associated to "creativity" while high-tech industries are usually linked to "innovation". This distinction determines a sort of forgetfulness of the fact that also CCIs rely always on various series of updated technologies. As a consequence, the issue of innovation in CCIs is seldom dealt with. Nonetheless, one can wonder how do these industries really innovate and how they compete with powerful new competitors from the information technology (IT) world. This is the aim of this article focused on the music recording and the newspaper publishing industries. It explores how these industries are coping with subsequent waves of technologies. Recent findings provide a fresh understanding of the place and the very nature of innovation in these industries that, in fact, do not boil down to simply creating new contents. Instead, economic dynamics have recently been opened showing that CCIs are based on regular capacity for innovations which are nevertheless deployed in very different ways. The paper blends a general outlook that sets the scene of the transformations each industry went through with some selected case studies so as to highlight some innovative elements in every subsector. These case studies are followed by an analysis of the new players that build their position from technical intermediation functions. It reveals how "intermediaries"
    Keywords: creative industries,music industry,new middlemen,publishing industry,intermediaries,R&D and innovation
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Chipten Valibhay (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: While patents are recognized as a key resource to sustain innovation activities, patenting activities are mainly conceptualized as protective means quite unrelated to innovation issues. By conducting an exploratory case study of French IP advisor, this paper identifies four unusual patent practices oriented towards a strategic management of the inventive capacity of a firm. These practices offer the opportunity to introduce a new capability of a firm, the 'distinctive capacity', which describes the ability of a firm to manage and organize the relationship between its inventions and the prior art articulated and structured based on strategical considerations (competitive environment, legal risks, technological choices). Building upon 'dynamic capabilities', we claim that the 'distinctive capacity' of a firm allows to better characterize the features of a specific knowledge management adapted to increasing a firm's inventive capacity.
    Date: 2019–06–10
  8. By: Adrián Rodrí­guez Miranda (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Pablo Galasso (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Pedro Argumedo (Fundación Salvadoreña para el Desarrollo (El Salvador)); Sebastián Goinheix (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Camilo Martí­nez (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Fernando Masi (Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economí­a Paraguaya (Paraguay)); Santiago Picasso (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economí­a); Ignacio Rodrí­guez (Universidad de la Frontera (Chile)); Paulina Sanhuezad (Universidad de la Frontera (Chile)); Belén Servin (Centro de Análisis y Difusión de la Economí­a Paraguaya (Paraguay))
    Abstract: This research has two aims. First, it characterizes regional development in the four selected countries. Second, it analyzes cooperation networks between firms and organizations, in 24 clusters in different regions of the four countries. Regarding the first aim, the work analyzes in each region the generation of wealth, the development of small business sector and socioeconomic conditions of the environment, complemented by the identification of the productive specializations in each region. Results show that economic development is not evenly distributed in the territory. Certain sub-national patterns in terms of economic development were found. In addition, there is a strong concentration of economic activity in the regions where the national capitals are located (except for the regions rich in mining or energy resources). The analysis of local business development and the socioeconomic environment shows that, in addition to external factors, a region must develop its own local capacities to take advantage of these external impulses and transform them into local development. Regarding the second objective, the study of 24 cooperation networks in clusters proves that organizations are the key actors to keep the networks connected. On the other hand, the level of cooperation among firms is, on average, low. In this sense, the countries under study do not present, in general, regions with high levels of local business capacity that can be the main support of cooperation networks. Therefore, organizations play an intermediary role between firms and provide access to external sources of innovation that can be disseminated through the network. Finally, the combination of social network analysis with econometric regression techniques revealed a positive relationship between the cooperation in networks and the economic performance of firms.
    Keywords: regional development, productive specializations, clusters, social network analysis, business cooperation, Latin America
    JEL: O18 O31 O32 O54 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–02
  9. By: Ndubuisi, Gideon (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Recent studies on the export effects of domestic intellectual property rights protection focus on the innovation, border and technology transfer channels to underscore the pathways by which effective domestic IPRs protection influences own country's export. I extend this literature by arguing that another pathway domestic IPRs protection affects own country's export is via the credit channel i.e. firms access to external finance. Among many others, this occurs because effective domestic IPRs protection creates a scenario wherein exporters can use their intellectual properties in the same way they use tangible assets as collateral in order to overcome the huge variable and upfront fixed costs they face. To underscore this pathway, I evaluate the export effect of domestic IPRs protection within the comparative model framework and find empirical evidence for my hypothesis, with the results indicating that countries with more effective IPRs protection export more from sectors that depend more on external finance and that have more intangible assets.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Exports, Access to Finance
    JEL: F10 F13 F14 F36 O33 O34
    Date: 2019–05–06
  10. By: Anabela Santos; Michele Cincera; Paulo Neto; Maria Manuel Serrano
    Abstract: A wide range of empirical studies have analyzed which firm characteristics influence government evaluators on the decision to select specific firms for participating in Research and Development and Innovation subsidy programs. However, few authors have provided a precise analysis about the selection process of submitted applications for a public support. The aim of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness in the selection process and to understand which kind of projects are selected for being subsidized. The analysis is focused on the case study of applications submitted to the Portuguese Innovation Incentive System (SI Innovation) between 2007 and 2013. Once the selection criterion for accessing to this program is essentially based on competitiveness, namely in terms of internationalization and productivity, special attention was given on assessing the determinants of selection process regarding to these topics. Using a counterfactual analysis and Propensity Score Matching estimators, results show that the selection process to SI Innovation is more focused on expecting an increase of the internationalization and productivity of firms than in the efficiency of public expenditures and firm innovativeness. The conclusions of this paper could be useful for policy makers, once it identifies some failures in selection process, which according to other authors, could explain some disappointing results of public intervention in this field.
    Keywords: Subsidy, Innovation, Internationalization, Competitiveness, Propensity Score Matching
    JEL: O38 O31
    Date: 2019–05
  11. By: Mounir Amdaoud (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: Les ressources naturelles ont été souvent analysées dans la littérature économique comme étant non compatibles avec le développement économique (Auty, 2001 ; Gylfason, 2001 ; Sacks & Warner, 1995). L’objet de ce papier est de revenir sur l’analyse du lien qui caractérise les ressources naturelles et le développement économique. Pour ce faire, nous mobilisons une nouvelle approche basée sur les théories évolutionnistes et institutionnelle qui porte la focale sur l’importance de la dynamique d’apprentissage et de création de nouvelles connaissances notamment dans les économies riches en ressources naturelles. Les résultats obtenus dans notre étude sur près de 100 pays montrent que certaines des économies les plus avancés et les plus riches au monde sont des économies basées sur les ressources naturelles. Par conséquent, la malédiction serait davantage dans l’apprentissage et la construction de compétences que dans les ressources.
    Keywords: Ressources naturelles, rente, croissance économique, institutions, innovation, apprentissage, compétences.
    JEL: O13 O31 O43
    Date: 2019–05
  12. By: Berkel Hanna
    Abstract: This paper is the first to use a panel dataset from the African continent to investigate the relationship between formalization and firm outcomes.Instead of applying a binary formality indicator, it constructs a conceptual framework that regards informality as a continuum consisting of four degrees. The quantitative data includes 516 manufacturing enterprises which are analysed through a matched double difference approach. Moreover, the study explores participant observation as well as semi-structured interviews with government officials, experts, and entrepreneurs to explain the quantitative results and to examine additional effects of formalization.It suggests that the most informal firms do not benefit from formalization due to their underlying conditions. Other, more formal enterprises benefit but there is scope for increasing the benefits and decreasing the costs of formalization. Further, an improvement of the costs and benefits is not enough: better institutions are needed.
    Date: 2018
  13. By: Mamburu Mulalo
    Abstract: The growth of firms has been shown to have a meaningful impact on the health of firms and the economy in general. As the body of literature dedicated to understanding high-growth firms has expanded, an interest in the persistence of growth has become even more relevant.This is because persistence of growth has significant implications for the outcomes that might reasonably be expected from public policy explicitly targeting high-growth firms. Using firm-level data, this paper adopts a quantile-regression approach and analyses whether the performance of firms at the tails of the growth distribution is persistent.It finds a strong, negative serial correlation of growth among South African firms, particularly among smaller firms and those at the tails of the growth distribution. This suggests that a more nuanced approach by policymakers is necessary in regard to high-growth firms.
    Keywords: Firm growth,High-growth firms,Regression analysis
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Thompson, O.A.; Amos, T.T.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2017–10

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