nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2019‒04‒01
sixteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Do companies benefit from public research organizations? The impact of the Fraunhofer Society in Germany By Comin, Diego; Licht, Georg; Pellens, Maikel; Schubert, Torben
  2. Use and sharing of big data, firm networks and their performance By KIM YoungGak; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  3. Digitalization of manufacturing process and open innovation: Survey results of small and medium sized firms in Japan By MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  4. Effects of multilevel policy mix of public R&D subsidies: Empirical evidence from Japanese local SMEs By Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Junichi
  5. Innovative Events By Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
  6. The relationship of policy induced R&D networks and inter-regional knowledge diffusion By Marcel Bednarz; Tom Broekel
  7. Innovation waves and technological transitions: Sweden, 1909-2016 By Taalbi, Josef
  8. Size, Internationalization and University Rankings: Evaluating and Predicting Times Higher Education (THE) Data for Japan By McAleer, M.J.; Nakamura, T.; Watkins, C.
  9. SMEs: Key drivers of green and inclusive growth By Shashwat Koirala
  10. Spirituality and Entrepreneurs: Analysis of Entrepreneurial Motivation By Ni Putu Nursiani
  11. Business Strategy as a Mediation of Management Capabilities and Entrepreneurial Orientation in Business Performance By Giriati
  12. Survey on Actual and Potential Entrepreneurs and Angel Investors in Japan (Japanese) By NAKAMURA Hiroki; HONJO Yuji
  13. An Analysis on the Domestic Sales and Exports: A Dynamic Model for the Turkish Manufacturing Firms By Selcuk Gul
  14. Unravelling the forces underlying urban industrial agglomeration By Neave O'Clery; Samuel Heroy; Francois Hulot; Mariano Beguerisse-Diaz
  15. Die Rolle von Startups im Innovationssystem: Eine qualitativ-empirische Untersuchung By Böhm, Markus; Hein, Andreas; Hermes, Sebastian; Lurz, Martin; Poszler, Franziska; Ritter, Ann-Carolin; Setzke, David Soto; Weking, Jörg; Welpe, Isabell M.; Krcmar, Helmut
  16. Diversificación productiva y especializaciones sectoriales en Chile By Ignacio Rodríguez Rodríguez; Paulina Sanhueza Martínez

  1. By: Comin, Diego; Licht, Georg; Pellens, Maikel; Schubert, Torben
    Abstract: Among available policy levers to boost innovation, investment in applied research organisations has received little empirical attention. In this paper, we analyse the case of the Fraunhofer Society, the largest public applied research organization in Germany. We analyse whether project interaction with Fraunhofer affects the performance and strategic orientation of firms. To that end, we assemble a unique dataset based on the confidential Fraunhofer-internal project management system and merge it with the German contribution to the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), which contains panel information on firm performance. Using instrumental variables that exploit the scale heteroscedasticity of the independent variable (Lewbel, 2012), we identify the causal effects of Fraunhofer interactions on firm performance and strategies. We find a strong, positive effect of project interaction on growth in turnover and productivity. In particular, we find that a one percent increase in the size of the contracts with FhG leads to an increase in growth rate of sales by 1.3 percentage points, and to an increase in the growth rate of productivity by 0.8 percentage points in the short-run. We also provide evidence of considerable long-run effects accumulating to 18% growth in sales and 12% growth in productivity over the course of 15 years. More detailed analyses reveal, amongst others, that the performance effects become stronger the more often firms interact with Fraunhofer and that interactions aiming at generation of technology have a stronger effect than interactions aiming merely at the implementation of existing technologies. Finally, we provide evidence on the macroeconomic productivity effects of Fraunhofer interactions on the German economy. Our results indicate that doubling Fraunhofer revenues from industry (+€ 0.68 bn.) would increase overall productivity in the German economy by 0.55%.
    Keywords: innovation,R&D,diffusion,applied research,Fraunhofer
    JEL: O33 O38
    Date: 2019
  2. By: KIM YoungGak; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: RIETI conducted the Survey of Big Data Use and Innovation in Japanese Manufacturing Firms in 2015. This paper uses this survey data, linked with TSR data of inter-firm transactions, to examine the relationship between supplier and customer (business partner) network structures and the data sharing with these business partners. It is found that, in general, the number of suppliers is positively correlated with the likelihood of internal use of data and data sharing with suppliers, customers, and other third-party firms. On the contrary, the number of customers is negatively correlated with data use and sharing, especially with customers. The analysis results also show that long-term relationships with suppliers contribute negatively to data sharing, but contribute positively to data sharing with customers. Interestingly, the more customers a firm's suppliers have, or the more suppliers a firm's customers have in their transaction networks, the less likely it is that the firm shares big data with other third-party firms. We find that data sharing has a positive and significant impact on firm productivity. However, we find no positive contribution of data sharing to attracting new customers or suppliers. We do not find any significant effect of data sharing on the extensive margin of transactions.
    Date: 2019–03
  3. By: MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: Digitalization has a transformative impact on innovation in firms and industry. In this paper, the results of the Survey on the Changing Nature of Manufacturing Processes and New Product Development are presented to show how the nature of Japanese SMEs in manufacturing industry is changing in the new IT era (AI, big data and IoT). It is found that a firm applying new IT, such as data analytics by machine learning, is likely to be involved in delivering digital services as well as new products (servitalization) and innovation ecosystem, interacting with multiple firms. Such firms address wider customer needs, instead of just meeting existing customer requirements, meaning that its product innovation is likely to happen in new business fields. In addition, a firm which extensively uses its customer data gains more sales and profit contributions from its new product.
    Date: 2019–03
  4. By: Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Junichi
    Abstract: Regional innovation policies have been implemented in several countries. In Japan, controlled decentralization of traditionally centralized innovation policy is ongoing, so that we can observe multilevel policy mix of public R&D subsidies by national, prefecture and city governments. Based on original survey data and financial data of manufacturing SMEs, we empirically estimate their TFP (Total Factor Productivity) and investigate the effects of public R&D subsidies by national, prefecture and city governments. We employ firm-level fixed effect panel estimation in order to control for the effects of any time-invariant factors. We find that only the prefecture subsidy has a positive and significant impact on the TFP of recipient firms, while interactive effect with city subsidy is also positive and significant, if we consider remaining effects after subsidy period. These results suggest that multilevel policy mix of R&D subsidies significantly increase recipients' productivity and that this effect if durable.
    Keywords: R&D subsidy, local authority, multilevel policy mix, SMEs, policy evaluation
    JEL: H71 O38 R58
    Date: 2019–03
  5. By: Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
    Abstract: We take a fresh look at firms' innovation-productivity linkages, using novel data capturing new aspects of innovative activity. We combine UK administrative microdata, media and website content to develop experimental metrics - new product/service launches - for a large panel of SMEs. Extensive validation and descriptive exercises show that launches complement patents, trademarks and innovation surveys. We also establish connections between launches and previous innovative activity. We then link IP, launches and productivity, controlling for media exposure and firm heterogeneity. Launch activity is associated with higher SME productivity, especially in the service sector. High-quality launches and medium-size firms help drive this result.
    Keywords: innovation, productivity, ICT, data science
    JEL: L86
    Date: 2019–03
  6. By: Marcel Bednarz; Tom Broekel
    Abstract: Knowledge diffusion is argued to be strongly influenced by knowledge networks and spatial structures. However, empirical studies primarily apply an indirect approach of measuring their impact. Moreover, little is known about how policy can influence the spatial diffusion of knowledge. This paper seeks to fill this gap by empirically testing the effects of policy induced knowledge networks on the propensity of inter-regional patent citations. We use patent citation data for 141 labor market regions in Germany between 2000 to 2009, which is merged with information on subsidized joint R&D projects. Based on the latter, we construct a network of subsidized R&D collaboration. Its impact on inter-regional patent citations is evaluated with binomial and negative binomial regression models. Our findings do not indicate that inter- regional network links created by public R&D subsidies facilitate patent citations and hence, inter-regional knowledge diffusion.
    Keywords: knowledge diffusion, subsidized R&D-networks, gravity model, negative binomial regression, proximity, spillover
    JEL: L14 O18 O33 O38 C31 D83 O18
    Date: 2019–03
  7. By: Taalbi, Josef (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: There are important unresolved questions about long-term trends of in- novation activity and the nature of the interplay between innovation and economic development and transformation. This study explores the promise of a literature-based innovation output indicator, constructed for the Swedish engineering industry, 1909-2016. The findings suggest a long-run increasing trend in innovations per capita. Meanwhile, product innovations have also become more complex and it is suggested that crude innovation counts underestimate the long-run innovation performance. In order to analyse innovation and economic development across different frequencies, the study uses a wavelet decomposition approach. The results suggest that innovation activity has surged in periods of intense industry rationalization and struc- tural crisis (1930s, 1970s and 2010s) and that such pulses were intimately connected to the second and third industrial revolutions.
    Keywords: Innovation; Wavelet analysis; Technological systems
    JEL: N13 O14 O31
    Date: 2019–03–20
  8. By: McAleer, M.J.; Nakamura, T.; Watkins, C.
    Abstract: International and domestic rankings of academics, academic departments, faculties, schools and colleges, institutions of higher learning, states, regions and countries, are of academic and practical interest and importance to students, parents, academics, and private and public institutions. International and domestic rankings are typically based on arbitrary methodologies and criteria. Evaluating how the rankings might be sensitive to different factors, as well as forecasting how they might change over time, requires a statistical analysis of the factors that affect the rankings. Accurate data on rankings and the associated factors is essential for a valid statistical analysis. In this respect, the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings is one of the three leading and most influential annual sources of international university rankings. Using recently released data for a single country, namely Japan, the paper evaluates the effects of size (specifically, the number of Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) students, or FTE(Size)) and internationalization (specifically, the percentage of international students, or IntStud) on academic rankings using THE data for 2017 and 2018 on 258 national, public (that is, prefectural or city), and private universities. The results show that both size and internationalization are statistically significant in explaining rankings for all universities, as well as separately for private and non-private (that is, national and public) universities, in Japan for each of 2017 and 2018
    Keywords: International and domestic rankings, Size, Internationalization, National, public, and private universities, Changes over time.
    JEL: C18 C81 I23 Y1
    Date: 2019–03–01
  9. By: Shashwat Koirala
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”) are important stakeholders for both environmental and economic policymaking. Among OECD countries, they represent roughly 99.7% of all enterprises and 60% of total employment. Simultaneously, while their individual environmental footprint is small, on aggregate, SMEs contribute up to 70% of industrial pollution in Europe. Thus, they have tremendous potential as drivers of green and inclusive growth. Through a comprehensive literature review, this issue paper assesses the trade-offs and synergies between SMEs’ ability to deliver green growth – through greening processes like eco-innovation and adoption of green measures - and their ability to contribute to inclusive growth – through job creation and inclusive business models. This issue paper also reviews relevant policy measures that can help SMEs navigate the opportunities and challenges in delivering green and inclusive growth.
    Date: 2019–03–29
  10. By: Ni Putu Nursiani (Faculty of Economics and Business, Nusa Cendana University Author-2-Name: Rolland Epafras Fanggidae Author-2-Workplace-Name: Villa College, 20373, Male,' Maldives Author-3-Name: Ronald P.C Fanggidae Author-3-Workplace-Name: Nusa Cendana University, Adisucipto, 85228, Kupang, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Samuel Messakh Author-4-Workplace-Name: Nusa Cendana University, Adisucipto, 85228, Kupang, Indonesia Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective – Cultural change in the economy has given rise to what might be called 'spiritual entrepreneurship'. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship and spirituality, even though these two terms are somewhat contradictory. Methodology/Technique – The sample in this study consists of 63 members of the Full Gospel Business Fellowship International (FGBMFI) which is a membership consisting of male businessmen who come from various churches with different business backgrounds. The method used in this study is descriptive analysis. The data was collected using a questionnaire that led to the excavation of information based on previous theoretical studies. The informant selection technique used in this research is accidental. Findings – The results of this study support the findings of previous research in the field of "Spirituality Workplace" and introduces a new model in the field of entrepreneurship. Novelty – Spirituality is a process of human reason in which individual's aim to reach and understand God. On the other hand, entrepreneurs are people who have the courage to take risks to create a business. Hence, in this study, spiritual entrepreneurs refers to people who run their business in line with the values of ethics and religion. Those entrepreneurs interpret their work as worship, honesty and gratitude in addition to usual entrepreneurial behavior (innovation, proactive, competitive aggressiveness, risk taking, autonomy).
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Spirituality; Spiritual Entrepreneurs
    JEL: M30 M39
    Date: 2019–03–06
  11. By: Giriati (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Indonesia. Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective – This article aims to analyze the influence of mediating Business Strategy variables on Management Capabilities (MC) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) toward Business Performance. Methodology/Technique – This study was conducted on group of students of Economics and Business Department who practiced as entrepreneurs, using Path Analysis (Amos,18.0). Findings – The results of the analysis show that the management capabilities do not support the indirect influence of business strategies on business performance. However, entrepreneurial orientation supports the indirect influence of business strategies on business performance. Meanwhile, management capabilities have a significant direct effect on business performance. Novelty – Without going through a business strategy, entrepreneurial orientation does not have a significant direct effect on business performance, because business strategy supports business performance or direct influence. Type of Paper: Empirical
    Keywords: Business Strategy; Management Capabilities; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Business Performance.
    JEL: M16 M21 M29
    Date: 2019–03–18
  12. By: NAKAMURA Hiroki; HONJO Yuji
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is essential to social and economic growth. However, when compared globally, entrepreneurship in Japan remains relatively low. To address these issues, there is an ever-growing number of national and local initiatives in industry, government and academia that are meant to promote entrepreneurship and angel investment. However, it is not yet certain which initiatives have contributed to increasing entrepreneurial activity and/or angel investment in Japan. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide a clearer picture of Japan's actual entrepreneurs and angel investors and the potential for others to become entrepreneurs and/or angel investors. Specifically, based on the results of a survey conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade, and Industry, 10,001 Japanese resident respondents were categorized into the following entrepreneurial types: "actual entrepreneurs," "potential serial entrepreneurs," "former entrepreneurs," "potential entrepreneurs," or as having "general entrepreneurial interests" or "no entrepreneurial interests." They were also categorized into the following angel investor category types: "actual angel investors," "potential angel investors," "ordinary investors," or as being "interested in angel investing," "generally interested in investing," or "not interested in investing." The numbers and percentages of the total sample occupied by each category, the category characteristics, and the measures they considered necessary to promote entrepreneurship were then described.
    Date: 2019–03
  13. By: Selcuk Gul
    Abstract: This study examines the relation between real domestic sales and real exports for Turkish manufacturing firms. Dynamic panel data estimations based on firm level data for the period 2004 to 2014 suggest that the two variables are substitutes. Holding other factors constant, we estimate that a 10 percent decline in real domestic sales increases the real exports by about 2.6 percent, on average. However, this correlation differs among manufacturing sub-sectors, which are defined according to 2-digit NACE classification. Results indicate that substitutability between domestic and foreign sales is stronger for export-oriented, low-leveraged and younger firms. In addition, we observe that the degree of substitution between real domestic sales and exports strengthens significantly when the domestic demand conditions are weak. This shows that exporter firms in manufacturing industry have the elasticity to shift from domestic to international markets as a response to domestic demand shocks.
    Keywords: Domestic sales, Exports, Domestic demand, Dynamic panel data
    JEL: C23 D22 F14
    Date: 2019
  14. By: Neave O'Clery; Samuel Heroy; Francois Hulot; Mariano Beguerisse-Diaz
    Abstract: As early as the 1920's Marshall suggested that firms co-locate in cities to reduce the costs of moving goods, people, and ideas. These 'forces of agglomeration' have given rise, for example, to the high tech clusters of San Francisco and Boston, and the automobile cluster in Detroit. Yet, despite its importance for city planners and industrial policy-makers, until recently there has been little success in estimating the relative importance of each Marshallian channel to the location decisions of firms. Here we explore a burgeoning literature that aims to exploit the co-location patterns of industries in cities in order to disentangle the relationship between industry co-agglomeration and customer/supplier, labour and idea sharing. Building on previous approaches that focus on across- and between-industry estimates, we propose a network-based method to estimate the relative importance of each Marshallian channel at a meso scale. Specifically, we use a community detection technique to construct a hierarchical decomposition of the full set of industries into clusters based on co-agglomeration patterns, and show that these industry clusters exhibit distinct patterns in terms of their relative reliance on individual Marshallian channels.
    Date: 2019–03
  15. By: Böhm, Markus; Hein, Andreas; Hermes, Sebastian; Lurz, Martin; Poszler, Franziska; Ritter, Ann-Carolin; Setzke, David Soto; Weking, Jörg; Welpe, Isabell M.; Krcmar, Helmut
    Abstract: Unternehmensgründungen wird meist ein wichtiger Beitrag zur gesamtwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung eines Landes zugeschrieben (u.a. Bhawe/Zahra 2017; Kollmann et al. 2017). Gemessen an traditionellen Kennzahlen fällt dieser Beitrag jedoch sehr gering aus. Darüber hinaus zeichnet sich eine kontinuierliche Verringerung an Unternehmensgründung ab und politische Gegenmaßnahmen erzielen geringe Wirksamkeit in der Förderung der deutschen Gründungskultur. Vor diesen Hintergründen ergibt sich das Ziel der Studie die Geschäftsmodelle, Entwicklungen, Unternehmensstrategien, Finanzierungen und Hemmnisse innovativer Startups darzustellen und zukünftige Handlungsbedarfe sowie geeignete Politikmaßnahmen in Bezug auf gründungsfreundliche Rahmenbedingungen abzuleiten. Die Studie umfasst eine qualitativ-empirische Vorgehensweise. Systematische Literaturanalysen dienen der Erfassung des aktuellen Forschungsstands sowie der Ableitung der Forschungsfragen. Insgesamt wurden 50 Startups und 8 Innovationsintermediäre interviewt. Zur Triangulation der Datenquellen wurden die Webseiten und Crunchbase-Einträge der Startups herangezogen. Die Datenanalyse setzt sich aus qualitativen Inhaltsanalysen und einer fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis zusammen [...].
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Ignacio Rodríguez Rodríguez (Universidad de La Frontera); Paulina Sanhueza Martínez (Universidad de La Frontera)
    Abstract: El trabajo busca explorar las condiciones de diversificación o concentración productiva de las regiones en Chile, identificando sus especializaciones sectoriales relativas. Para lo anterior, para cada región se calculan indicadores de diversificación/concentración productiva -Índice de Herfindahl (IH)- e indicadores de especialización sectorial -Coeficiente de Especialización (CE)- utilizando fuentes de información secundaria. Los resultados indican que, en general, las regiones de Chile se muestran como territorios diversificados. En efecto, algunas regiones se especializan en actividades económicas para las cuales disfrutan de ventajas comparativas, como es el caso de las regiones mineras del norte, mientras que otras se benefician de la diversificación de su base productiva, como ocurre en la Región Metropolitana. No obstante, en algunas regiones, y a nivel nacional, existe una excesiva dependencia de los recursos naturales, lo cual puede comprometer el potencial de desarrollo de las regiones, y del país en su conjunto.
    Keywords: Desarrollo económico regional, desarrollo endógeno, especialización productiva, Chile.
    JEL: R11 R58 O18
    Date: 2019–02–01

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