nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2018‒10‒08
28 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Firms’ perceived benefits of shared facilities on Dutch science parks: empirical evidence. By Robin Junker; Wei Keat Benny Ng; Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek; Theo Arentze
  2. Small firms in the sustainable transformation of food industry: entangling entrepreneurship and activism in grassroots innovation processes By Emilie Lanciano; Séverine Saleilles
  3. Impact of Structural Change on Corporate Real Estate Ownership: Evidence from the German Corporate Real Estate Market By Julian Seger; Andreas Pfnür
  4. Actor Fluidity and Knowledge Persistence in Regional Inventor Networks By Michael Fritsch; Moritz Zöllner
  5. The Regional Emergence of Innovative Start-ups: A Research Agenda By Michael Fritsch
  6. Innovation Capital By Audretsch, David; Link, Albert
  7. Incubators, Accelerators and Regional Economic Development By Margarida Madaleno; Max Nathan; Henry Overman; Sevrin Waights
  8. Information communication technologies and environmental innovations in firms: joint adoptions and productivity effects By Davide Antonioli; Grazia Cecere; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  9. Patents For Evidence-Based Decision-Making And Smart Specialization By Bruno Brandao Fischer; Maxim Kotsemir; Dirk Meissner; Ekaterina Streltsova
  10. Green industrial path development in different types of regions By Grillitsch, Markus; Hansen, Teis
  11. Skills, entrepreneurship and new business models: Ways to rejuvenate the German industrial model By Bienert, Jörg; Deutsch, Klaus-Günter; Klös, Hans-Peter; Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
  12. Social Networks and Entrepreneurship. Evidence from a Historical Episode of Industrialization By Javier Mejia
  13. R4D Policy Brief 2016/4: The Role of Micro and Small Enterprises in Employment Creation By Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
  14. Innovative Open Spaces Impact on New Product Development Teams By Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
  15. Switching from Job Seekers to Job Creators: Transmogrifying Necessity Entrepreneurs and Ratifying Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe By Nyoni, Thabani
  16. Bengal silk industry and laisser-faire policies in the nineteenth century: Deindustrialisation revisited By Karolina Hutkova
  17. Innovative Business Models In The Strategic Adaptation Of Multinationals To Emerging Economy Environment By Alexey Bereznoy
  18. Assessing the Competitiveness of the Portuguese Chemical Sector By Ana Rita Marques; Cátia Silva
  19. Technical Measures, R&D Investment and Technical Progress: Firm-Level Evidence from Chinese Agricultural Exporters By Xie, Zhongmin; Zhu, Xinkai; Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Lin, Chungui
  20. Nowhere Else to Go: The Determinants of Bank-Firm Relationship Discontinuations after Bank Mergers By Oliver Rehbein; Santiago Carbo-Valverde
  21. Det koster at være lille. Grønlands hjemtagelser 1980 til 1993 og smådriftsulemper By Lund, Lars
  22. R4D Policy Brief 2016/2: The Impact of the Employment Equity Act on Employment Strategies of Firms By Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
  23. Local Foods as a Catalyst of Rural Manufacturing: The Role of New and Small Food Innovators in Employment Dynamics By Castillo, Marcelo J.; Low, Sarah A.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn D.
  24. Innovation reversing abandonment: a systematic literature review on regeneration of historic urban areas By Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Kaia Kask; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
  25. An Indicator of Credit Crunch using Italian Business Surveys By Girardi, Alessandro; Ventura, Marco; Margani, Patrizia
  26. R4D Policy Brief 2016/3: Technological Innovation and Employment in Ghana By Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
  27. The added value of the European university campus: challenges for collecting management information By Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
  28. The impact of institutions on innovation By Alexander Donges; Jean Marie Meier; Rui Silva

  1. By: Robin Junker; Wei Keat Benny Ng; Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek; Theo Arentze
    Abstract: Science parks as area developments have existed for decades and have captivated the attention of academics and policy-makers for their supposedly positive impact on resident organisations and regions. To date there is mixed empirical evidence to indicate the performance enhancing effects of specific science park features on research & development, economic output or improved collaboration between users. Furthermore, limited attention is given to the demands and perceptions of science park users. This study focuses on one of the main features of science parks, namely the shared facilities and services on-site and how users perceive the benefits of these facilities.An online survey is distributed to 594 resident organisations on eight science parks in the Netherlands to which 112 participated. Within the questionnaire respondents are inquired on organisational characteristics in order to distinguish tenant types through clustering on aspects, such as R&D activity, organisation size, sector diversity. Then respondents indicate the benefits they perceive for specific presented shared facilities and services retrieved from science park literature based on their importance. Finally, respondents indicated meaningful associations between shared facilities and benefits. Results show that among resident organisations three distinguishable clusters emerge; ‘non-R&D organisations’, ‘R&D start-ups’, and ‘R&D small-medium enterprises’ with each cluster mentioning different benefits that they value . In general, knowledge sharing and on-site collaboration are most frequently mentioned as important science park benefits and are mostly associated to training programs and information access. Both ‘R&D start-ups’ and ‘non-R&D organisations’ value the opportunity to be near customers for different reasons, while ‘R&D small medium entrepreneurs’ perceive social events as a means to be close to the university or other higher educational institutions. The associations between various types of shared facilities and benefits that residents seek provide insights for practitioners in terms of the design and management of science parks and add to the body of knowledge of science park literature.
    Keywords: Perceived Benefits; Quantitative Analysis; science parks; Shared Facilities
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  2. By: Emilie Lanciano (COACTIS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne]); Séverine Saleilles (SAF - Laboratoire de Sciences Actuarielle et Financière - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon)
    Abstract: The literature in Social Movement Theory, Organization Studies and Entrepreneurship emphasizes on the linkages between social movement action and economic organization. Indeed, social entrepreneurship and social movement studies tend to be more and more linked: activists and social entrepreneurs do not represent separate and distinct actors with different logics of action, but tend to transfer their tactics, such as framing, mobilization, protest and negation. This paper explores how activism and entrepreneurship can be combined in an innovative way by small firms in order to contribute to an industry's transformation towards sustainable development. We specially investigate the field of food industry and Alternative Food Networks. In a context of growing interest and sensitivity towards more sustainable food models, how do small firms combine activism and entrepreneurship to frame grassroots innovation processes and translate this frame into organizational model?
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Julian Seger; Andreas Pfnür
    Abstract: In the last decades US non-property companies have opened up increasingly to alternatives to real estate ownership and thus have reduced their holdings. European companies followed this trend in a more cautious way still showing generally higher ownership ratios. Incentives might become stronger in the future though, if owning real estate competes with new business requirements and thus harms firm performance. Despite the great number of articles analyzing the contribution of real estate ownership to non-property company’s performance, the business environment and especially external trends are rarely considered. Therefore, this paper addresses two main questions: Firstly, how real estate ownership affects organizational performance in general and secondly, whether the contribution of ownership changes considering future market trends. Using the example of German non-property companies, the article analyzes whether firms affected by structural change demonstrate a higher willingness to reduce corporate real estate (CRE) ownership holdings. The paper begins with a literature based elaboration of the term structural change followed by a comparison of international ownership holdings. In a next step the relationship between ownership and its impact on organizational performance considering influences of business environment is summarized in a theoretical framework. Hereafter, a multivariate cluster analysis is performed on a dataset taken from the study by Just and Pfnuer (2016). In a last step, the identified firm clusters are tested regarding their tendency to reduce ownership holdings. The article provides diverse explanations of why ownership could harm firm performance if market trends are considered. In accordance with these findings, the results of the multivariate analysis suggest that the higher firms are affected by structural change, the higher is their willingness to reduce ownership by sale-and-rent-back transactions.This article differs from existing literature in two ways. Instead of using balance sheet data, the analysis applied in this article is based on a dataset of surveyed CRE managers. Moreover, the paper takes a broader view on ownership and firm performance by including the business environment. First hints show that structural change and associated new business requirements change the relevance of CRE ownership. In order to avoid competitive disadvantages, especially European firms should scrutinize their high ownership ratios.
    Keywords: Cluster Analysis; Corporate real estate; Firm Performance; Ownership; Structural Change
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  4. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration); Moritz Zöllner (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The development of inventor networks is characterized by the addition of a significant number of new inventors, while a considerable number of incumbent inventors discontinue. We estimate the persistence of knowledge in regional inventor networks using alternative assumptions about knowledge transfer. Based on these estimates we analyze how the size and structure of a network may influence knowledge persistence over time. In a final step, we assess how persistent knowledge as well as the knowledge of new inventors effect the performance of regional innovation systems (RIS). The results suggest that the knowledge of new inventors is much more important for RIS performance than old knowledge that persists.
    Keywords: Innovation networks, knowledge, RandD cooperation, patents, persistence
    JEL: O3 R1 D2 D8
    Date: 2018–09–26
  5. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the empirical evidence concerning the regional emergence of innovative new businesses. It is argued that analyses using aggregate data that focus on the regional level and do not account for career patterns of innovative founders are of limited value in guiding policy that is aimed at fostering the emergence of innovative new businesses. Progress can be mainly expected from research that investigates the family backgrounds, education, and employment careers of potential founders. Moreover, it would be helpful to develop clearer empirical definitions of what constitutes an innovative new business, and the distinctions between different types of innovative businesses.
    Keywords: Innovative start-ups, universities, employment career
    JEL: L26 D22 O31 R12 R30
    Date: 2018–09–24
  6. By: Audretsch, David (Indiana University); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we compare the relationship between a firm’s innovation capital and the likelihood that a firm will commercialize an invention. Our index of innovation capital is the product of the firm’s human capital, social capital, and reputational capital. We find from our empirical experiment, which uses Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) data, that innovation capital is a statistically more important entrepreneurial input to the innovation output of commercialization than any of its components.
    Keywords: innovation capital; human capital; social capital; reputational capital; entrepreneurship; commercialization;
    JEL: L31 O31 O38
    Date: 2018–09–21
  7. By: Margarida Madaleno; Max Nathan; Henry Overman; Sevrin Waights
    Abstract: A growing wave of co-location programmes promises to boost growth for young firms. Despite great public and policy interest we have little idea whether such programmes are effective. This paper categorises accelerators and incubators within a larger family of 'co-location' interventions. We then develop a single framework to theorise workspace-level impacts. We summarise available evaluation evidence and sketch implications for regional economic policy. We find clear evidence programmes are effective overall. But we know little about how effects operate - or who benefits. Providers and policymakers should experiment further to establish optimal designs.
    Keywords: incubators, accelerators, entrepreneurship, clusters, cities, economic development
    JEL: L26 O32 R30 R58
    Date: 2018–09
  8. By: Davide Antonioli (Università degli Studi "G. D'Annunzio" di Chieti-Pescara, Italy); Grazia Cecere (Télécom Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-Télécom, Paris, France); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy)
    Abstract: Information communication technology (ICT) and environmental innovation (EI) are relevant waves of the ongoing technological revolution. We study the complementarity in innovation adoption to test the research hypothesis that the higher the diffusion and intensity of usage of ICT and EI, the higher a firm’s productivity performance might be. However, it is not certain that the use of different innovations stemming from different innovation paths generates higher productivity. To test our hypothesis we use original survey data concerning manufacturing firms in Northeast Italy including detailed information on both ICT and EI. Empirical evidence shows that there are still wide margins to improve the integration between EI and ICT in order to exploit their potential benefits on productivity. The awareness of specific synergies seems to mainly characterize the heavy polluting firms that are subject to more stringent environmental constraints, while some trade-offs tend to emerge for the remaining firms.
    Keywords: ICT, environmental innovations, polluting sectors, complementarity, labour productivity
    Date: 2018–11
  9. By: Bruno Brandao Fischer (University of Campinas); Maxim Kotsemir (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina Streltsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper compares and contrasts the patent-based indicators, traditionally used to assess a country’s technological capacities and specialization. It seeks to determine how a chosen metric might affect the results of such an analysis, sometimes being misleading. Empirically, the paper is based on the statistical information on patent activity of the top-10 patenting countries. It concludes with a clear demonstration of the need to employ a complex of patent-related indicators to make deliberate solutions on managing technological development of a country. Also the authors offer a taxonomy of technological capacities, which might further help understanding their current status and prospects for future progress. Above the methodological implications, the paper might be of an interest for policy-makers and practitioners as it analyzes the patent profiles and technological specialization of the global leaders
    Keywords: technological development, technological specialization, patent statistics
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O57
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Grillitsch, Markus (Lund University); Hansen, Teis (Lund University)
    Abstract: As response to environmental challenges such as global warming and the extinction of species sustainable regional development has become a key policy objective. Regions, however, vary in their preconditions for green industrial path development. Taking existing regional industrial specialization patterns as a starting point, this paper develops a new typology linking regional preconditions to various pathways for green industrial path development. This provides the foundation for identifying place-based policy implications for growing clean industries in different types of regions, grounded in the emerging perspective in innovation studies on policies for transformative change. The paper thereby helps to understand the pathways for greening the economy in different regional contexts and how such green pathways can be promoted through policy.
    Keywords: Green growth; regional development; cleantech; industrial path development; place-based policy; regional policy
    JEL: O30 O38 P48 Q50 Q58 R10 R58
    Date: 2018–09–27
  11. By: Bienert, Jörg; Deutsch, Klaus-Günter; Klös, Hans-Peter; Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
    Abstract: New business models are at the heart of the global competitive challenge. In several areas of manufacturing and closely related services industries, new market participants, business models and technologies lead to faster change in market conditions and the competitive environment. These developments pose new challenges for the successful German industrial system. Strategic treatment of innovation, a stronger focus on disruptive technologies or business models, organ-izational experimentation such as spin-outs to retain entrepreneurial employees, less intra-cor-porate bureaucracy in such ventures and the interaction with new business partners are key elements to master the evolving challenges. Entrepreneurship, new business models and inno-vation in rapidly changing markets should be fostered by focused approaches of management and general economic policies. This includes measures to facilitate to entrepreneurship educa-tion, an entrepreurial culture and corporate training. [...]
    JEL: H25 L53 L60 O32
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Javier Mejia (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between social networks and entrepreneurship by constructing a dynamic social network from archival records. The network corresponds to the elite of a society in transition to modernity, characterized by difficult geographical conditions, market failures, and weak state capacity, as in late 19th- and early 20th-century Antioquia (Colombia). With these data, I estimate how the decision to found industrial firms related to the position of individuals in the social network. I find that individuals more important bridging the network (i.e. with higher betweenness centrality) were more involved in industrial entrepreneurship. However, I do not find individuals with a denser network to be more involved in this type of activity. The rationale of these results is that industrial entrepreneurship was a highly-complex activity that required a wide variety of complementary resources. Networks operated as substitutes for markets in the acquisition of these resources. Thus, individuals with network positions that favored the combination of a broad set of resources had a comparative advantage in industrial entrepreneurship. I run several tests to prove this rationale.
    Date: 2018–09
  13. By: Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
    Abstract: For the full text of the Policy Brief, please click the link below.
    Date: 2018–09–13
  14. By: Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
    Abstract: It is a new trend in knowledge-based industries to pay attention to the physical and social aspects of their office. Workspaces for new product development (NPD) teams are meant to support creativity and innovation (Coradi et al., 2015). Our research objective is to further explore the relationship between project teams and their workspaces. Indeed ""As leaders consider their workspace needs, they should be informed of workspace fads versus workspace intent"" (Blakey, 2015, p. 107).Certain characteristics of a space stand out as having significant impact: the modularity of elements that make up meeting rooms and individual workspaces, the possibility of transforming spaces according to needs and work styles, and the connectivity and intelligence of spaces (Vischer, 2008). Employees are also affected by density, the proximity of team colleagues, privacy and control over one's environment. Kristensen (2004) concludes that spaces affect individuals' well-being, impact channels of communication and the availability of knowledge tools, and influence coherence and continuity. McElroy and Morrow (2010) argue that changing a workplace layout can have a number of positive impacts. It can nurture lateral relationships among individuals on the same team or different teams, which in turn fosters innovation and creativity. To summarize, the literature points to positive effects between the physical and architectural characteristics of the space dedicated to project teams. Part of this influence is supposed to come from the impact on communication and collaboration (aggregated to team integration) between members and sub-teams, which improves their creativity and effectiveness. We report here the results of survey of ten teams in the same companie but different locations. The tested model includes two dependent variables: team creativity and effectiveness and a mediating variable: team integration. The independent variables are space variety, interior environment quality, satisfaction with large meeting room, project commitment, IT environment, workstation. Control variable is team size. The Cronbach's alpha are good ranging from 74.1 to 87.6. Our main results support the literature: the impact of innovative spaces on the efficiency and creativity of teams go through their effect on integration (measured by collaboration and communication).
    Keywords: corporate property management; Innovation; Open Space; team-based workplace; workplace creativity
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  15. By: Nyoni, Thabani
    Abstract: Zimbabwe is open for business. Indeed, after a period of over three decades of self – inflicted economic stagnation; Zimbabwe is finally open for business! This is a meritorious development in the history of this country. The limitation to a new Zimbabwe, the new Zimbabwe that we all desire; is the serious lack of entrepreneurs, opportunity – based entrepreneurs. Without opportunity entrepreneurs, the unemployment puzzle in Zimbabwe is likely to remain unsolved. Opportunity entrepreneurs have the capacity to solve the unemployment problem, especially considering the fact that Zimbabwe is a beautiful country characterized by many business opportunities. It’s high time we must switch from seeking jobs to creating jobs. While there are a number of entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe, it is not surprising that their contribution to economic growth remains minimal because the bulk of them are necessity instead of opportunity entrepreneurs. For the economy of Zimbabwe to grow in a sustainable manner, there is need to transmogrify necessity entrepreneurs into opportunity entrepreneurs. The time to do away with the job seeking mentality is now! Zimbabwe is open for business; indeed, Zimbabwe is open for job creators. This paper looks at entrepreneurship, but from an interesting point of view: opportunity – based entrepreneurship view. I systematically make it clear why policy makers in Zimbabwe need to prioritize opportunity entrepreneurs as opposed to necessity entrepreneurs. Policy implications from this analysis are envisioned to assist policy makers in light of enhancing entrepreneurship, promoting sustainable economic growth and fostering job creation in the new Zimbabwe.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship, Job creation, Necessity - based entrepreneurship, Opportunity - based entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2018–09–04
  16. By: Karolina Hutkova (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: "In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Bengal was, with over 40% share on total imports, quantitatively the most important exporter of raw silk into Britain. The English East India Company (EEIC) played an important role in Bengal’s dominance. During the period of 1760s-1830s the Company developed a value chain in raw silk manufacturing and integrated cocoon procurement, reeling, warehousing, transport, advertising and the organisation of sale among its business activities. The EEIC relied on economies of scale which gave it an advantage. Moreover, thanks to learning-by-doing the Company also developed an expertise in silk manufacturing. This expertise built on the adoption of ‘best practices’, on acquiring new knowledge through sending silk experts to Bengal, and on granting patents for innovations of silk technologies. The Company offered its knowledge and services such as warehousing, transportation, marketing, sales and guidance about new technologies, innovations and best practices also to private entrepreneurs. When the 1833 EEIC Charter forced the Company to withdraw from raw silk manufacturing, the sector lost entrepreneurial guidance. In comparison to the EEIC, private entrepreneurs had little access to specialised knowledge and skills, and could not take advantage of economies of scale. In the post-1833 period innovative activities were not successful, no major innovation was adopted and the share of Bengal raw silk on the total imports of raw silk to Britain decreased to around 13%. "
    JEL: N00
    Date: 2017–04
  17. By: Alexey Bereznoy (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the frequently neglected role of business model innovation (BMI) as a key instrument of strategic adaptation of Western multinational enterprises to emerging economy enviroment. Despite an abundance of studies on BMI, prior works have paid little attention to how specific characteristics of emerging economy environment force MNEs to change their business models. In order to fill this gap the author developed the analytical framework allowing to trace potential directions of this changing impact, and suggested a typological classification of respective innovative business models responding to concrete challenges posed by emerging economies to MNEs. The paper identifies the main directions of influence exerted by emerging economy environment on various building blocks of MNEs’ business models, thus enabling related innovative activities. These growing BMI activities entail very serious implications for MNEs’ strategy and organization, and innovation governance mechanisms, which are increasingly required to enhance their abilities to support multiple business models adapted to specific environment in all major host countries
    Keywords: Business model innovation, Multinational enterprises, Emerging economies environment.
    JEL: F23 L22 O33
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Ana Rita Marques; Cátia Silva
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the set of variables that determine competitiveness in the Portuguese Chemical sector. By performing a micro-econometrics analysis, whose temporal gap ranges between 2010 and 2016, and using data from the Portuguese firms’ population, two models were constructed: the first aims to identify what features influence the export-status of a firm while the second one, a Fixed-effect regression, has the goal of spotting the characteristics associated with higher exports’ volume. It was possible to conclude that the only variables that are associated with a positive impact on both dependent variables are the Export Persistency and the Share of Investment in Innovation. Interesting and unusual results were found regarding the statistical significance and impact of firms’ age and size on their competitiveness.
    Keywords: Chemical, Exports, Competitiveness, Firm-level data
    JEL: D22
    Date: 2018–09
  19. By: Xie, Zhongmin; Zhu, Xinkai; Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Lin, Chungui
    Keywords: International Trade, International Development, Agribusiness Economics and Management
    Date: 2018–06–20
  20. By: Oliver Rehbein; Santiago Carbo-Valverde
    Abstract: The decision to change or terminate a bank-firm relationship has been demonstrated to be crucial for firm performance following bank mergers. We find both competition and the available firm collateral to be important factors in enabling firms to switching banks, instead of dropping their bank relationships. We also provide novel evidence that firms who are able to \textit{add} a bank relationship following a merger exhibit much stronger post-merger performance. Our findings are consistent with the interpretation that bank-mergers cause a reduction in lending to most firms, leading them to search for alternative sources of finance.
    Keywords: bank mergers, relationship banking, competition
    JEL: G21 G34
    Date: 2018–09
  21. By: Lund, Lars (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: After home rule in 1979 Greenland gradually takes over expenditure of general government from Denmark during the 1980ies. Step by step Denmark gives a subsidy to Greenland covering what were the Danish expenditures. Nearly the entire subsidy comes in four lumps, 1980, 1985, 1987 and 1992. Subsequently the subsidies have been regulated according to the increase in costs for the Danish general government in providing services. Supposing government expenditures being a constant fraction of GDP, we calculate what would have been the hypothetical Danish expenditures to the four areas and then compare these to the actual Greenlandic expenditures in 1994 and 2014. Actual expenditures are much higher than the projected Danish ones. Especially this is true for general public services and education where the level is more than twice the projection. The article’s point of view is that a large part of the overshooting is due to small scale diseconomies.
    Keywords: Greenland; Governemt Expenditure; Small Scale Disadvantages
    JEL: E62 O52 R50
    Date: 2017–12–01
  22. By: Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
    Abstract: For the full text of the Policy Brief, please click the link below.
    Date: 2018–09–13
  23. By: Castillo, Marcelo J.; Low, Sarah A.; Thilmany McFadden, Dawn D.
    Keywords: Rural/Community Development, Food and Agricultural Marketing, Household and Labor Economics
    Date: 2018–06–20
  24. By: Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Kaia Kask; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
    Abstract: The abandonment and decay of urban historic areas, including heritage buildings, has been a major challenge in cities. This process is the result of the co-evolution of social, economic and technological developments experienced by industrialised countries, in adopting the knowledge-based economy. Some of these areas have been targeted as urban renewal projects, while others remained vacant and abandoned. For the latter, a focus on innovation in cities has presented an opportunity to shine again in redefined ways. Recently, some historic areas have been brought back to life by accommodating research and entrepreneurial activities. Based on these posted novel views, there has been drawn upon also the recommendations by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO 2011) for the management of historic urban landscapes (HULs) (Berg 2017) or areas. In addition, those recommendations have been started to take into account and successfully implement also in several EU-level topical projects (e.g., Horizon 2020) as a leading course of actions. Although implementing regeneration processes has not always been successful, the transformation of historic areas into innovation hubs seems to offer the potential to deal with challenges such as social tension, gentrification, and over-reliance on unpredictable sectors. The presence of creative sectors, students, start-ups, social innovation, and cultural activities are seen as factors to reap the potential of regenerating these areas into innovation hubs. However, more research into these factors is needed. This paper aims to identify the critical factors to successfully regenerate historic urban areas and looks at the potential role of universities and other stakeholders facilitating the transformation of these areas into innovation hubs. Thus, this paper asks: What are the critical factors to regenerate historic urban areas and what is the current/future role of universities in it?Through a systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis, this paper seeks to identify the current state-of-the-art in urban regeneration of historic urban areas, linking various theories and fields of studies explaining the phenomenon. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual model providing an overview of the strong and weak foundations of urban regeneration to set the course of future empirical research into the role of universities.
    Keywords: Heritage; historic urban areas; innovation hubs; universities; Urban Regeneration
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  25. By: Girardi, Alessandro; Ventura, Marco; Margani, Patrizia
    Abstract: This paper presents a two-step procedure to derive a credit crunch indicator for the Italian manufacturing sector. Using qualitative firm-level data over the years 2008-2018, nonlinear discrete panel data techniques are first applied in order to identify the loan supply curve controlling for firm-specific observable characteristics. In the subsequent step, the variation of the estimated supply curve that cannot be explained by proxies for loan demand is interpreted as the degree of credit squeeze prevailing in the economy at a given point in time. The empirical evidence shows that credit crunch episodes are less likely to occur during periods of sustained economic growth, or when credit availability for the manufacturing sector is relatively abundant. In contrast, a tight monetary policy stance or a worsening of the quality of banking balance sheets tend to increase the likelihood of experiencing a credit squeeze
    Keywords: business survey, credit crunch, access to credit
    JEL: C23 G30 G32
    Date: 2018–09
  26. By: Francois, Joseph; Oberdabernig, Doris
    Abstract: For the full text of the Policy Brief, please click the link below.
    Date: 2018–09–13
  27. By: Flavia Teresa de Magdaniel; Alexandra den Heijer; Monique Arkesteijn
    Abstract: Universities are key agents in the knowledge-based economy and their campuses are increasingly seen as resources enabling regional innovation. Previous research outlining the university campus as a European asset (Den Heijer & Tzovlas, 2014) collected various indicators about universities’ goals, finances, users and spaces across 866 European universities. This research also found limitations for comparison (e.g. differences in university types, socio-economic contexts and data collection techniques). Both, the value of such management information and challenges to collect comparable data are addressed here. This paper aims to compare campus management information (CMI) in universities of technology located in Europe’s innovative regions. This scope allows comparing campus management in universities with a similar knowledge-base and located in similar socio-economic contexts. In order to do so, this research asks: What is the current state of the tech-campus in Europe’s most innovative regions?Four perspectives of campus management were used to develop a structured survey targeting 1) university country organisations and 2) university real estate management departments. The survey containing 19 indicators across the four perspectives was sent via email in spreadsheet format. The review of documents and statistical datasets generated by country organisations was also used as data source. Available data from country documents and statistics datasets focused on one or two types of indicators. From 62 universities contacted in 12 countries, 13 universities in 8 countries agreed to participate. The respondents provided most of the indicators and/or sent links to relevant documents to retrieve them. However, the overview of the current state of the tech-campus in Europe is limited to this relatively small sample of respondents. Although the added value of the campus for universities and Europe is relevant, collecting CMI to improve this practice is still a challenge for CREM researchers. First, the indicators in our framework integrate various perspectives and their collection may be challenged by the availability of CMI in different departments. Second, some universities may lack structural information databases and do not want to share incomplete data for comparison. Last, the benefits of collecting CMI may not (yet) seem to exceed the costs of investing time on it in absence of structured databases. These lessons can be used to improve further research.
    Keywords: campus management; European Universities; Management Information; Strategic Management; University Campus
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  28. By: Alexander Donges (University of Mannheim); Jean Marie Meier (University of Texas at Dallas); Rui Silva (London Business School)
    Abstract: "We study the impact of inclusive institutions on innovation using novel, hand- collected, county-level data for Imperial Germany. We use the timing and geography of the French occupation of different German regions after the French Revolution as an instrument for institutional quality. We find that the number of patents per capita was more than twice as high in counties with the longest occupation as in unoccupied counties. The impact of institutions on innovation is amplified in counties with a devel- oped banking sector, suggesting that financial development and inclusive institutions are complements in the production of innovation."
    Keywords: "Innovation, Patents, Institutions, Institutional Reform, Economic Growth"
    JEL: G38 O31 O43 N13 K40
    Date: 2017–04

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.