nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2018‒06‒11
fifteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Geographic Proximity and Science Parks By Link, Albert; Scott, John
  2. Innovation and business performance for Spanish SMEs: new evidence from a multi-dimensional approach. By Alfonso Expósito; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  3. An international comparison of the contribution to job creation by high growth firms By Anyadike-Danes, Michael; Bjuggren, Carl Magnus; Dumont, Michel; Gottschalk, Sandra; Hölzl, Werner; Johansson, Dan; Maliranta, Mika; Myrann, Anja; Nielsen, Kristian; Zheng, Guanyu
  4. Do personal data related innovation boost firm value? By Koski, Heli
  5. Outside Board Directors and Start-Up Firms’ Innovation By Baum, Christopher F; Lööf, Hans; Stephan, Andreas; Viklund-Ros, Ingrid
  6. Factors Affecting Variation in SMES' Export Intensity By Mohamad D. Revindo; Christopher Gan
  7. Investor attention and technology salience: Does personal data related innovation boost firm value? By Koski, Heli; Luukkonen, Juha
  8. The Impact of Formal Networking on the Performance of SMEs By Davide Vannoni
  9. R&D financing and growth By Luca, Spinesi; Mario, Tirelli
  10. New ventures in Cleantech: opportunities, capabilities and innovation outcomes By Lööf, Hans; Andreas, Andreas; Wulandari, Febi
  11. The Impact of Immigration on Firm-Level Offshoring By Olney, William W.; Pozzoli, Dario
  12. Does Public Debt Crowd Out Corporate Investment? International Evidence By Huang, Yi; Panizza, Ugo; Varghese, Richard
  14. Marginal Entrepreneurs By Bernstein, Shai; Colonnelli, Emanuele; Malacrino, Davide; McQuade, Timothy James
  15. Analysing intermediary organisations and their influence on upgrading in emerging agricultural clusters By Ramirez, Matias; Clarke, Ian; Klerkx, Laurens

  1. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John (Dartmouth College)
    Abstract: Science parks, also called research parks, technology parks, or technopolis infrastructures, have increased rapidly in numbers as many countries adopted the approach of bringing together in a park research-based organizations. A science park’s cluster of research and technology-based organizations is often located on or near a university campus. The juxtaposition of ongoing research of both the university and of the park tenants creates a two-way flow of knowledge; knowledge is transferred between the university and firms, and all parties develop knowledge more effectively because of their symbiotic relationship. Theory and evidence support the belief that the geographic proximity that a science park provides for the participating organizations creates a dynamic cluster that accelerates economic growth and international competitiveness through the innovation-enabling exchanges of knowledge and the transfer of technologies. The process of creating innovations is more efficient because of the agglomeration of research and technology-based firms on or near a university campus. The proximity of a park to multiple sources of knowledge provides greater opportunities for the creation and acquisition of knowledge, especially tacit knowledge, and the geographic proximity therefore reduces the search and acquisition costs for that knowledge. Understanding the mechanisms by which the innovative performance of research and technology-based organizations is increased by their geographic proximity in a science park is important for formulating public and private sector policies toward park formations because successful national innovation systems require the two-way knowledge flow, among firms in a park and between firms and universities, that is fostered by the science park infrastructure.
    Keywords: science park; research park; technology park; geographic proximity; technology transfer; clusters; location; innovation; knowledge spillovers; patents; regional growth and development;
    JEL: O31 O32 O34 R11 R12
    Date: 2018–05–31
  2. By: Alfonso Expósito (Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, University of Seville, Calle San Fernando 4, 41004 Sevilla (Spain).); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (Department of Economic Structure, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain).)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of product, process, and organisational innovations on two alternative dimensions of business performance: finance and operations. Two indicators capture financial performance: sales increase and production cost reduction. Operational firm performance is captured by two alternative indicators: productive capacity augmentation and quality improvement of product/service provided by the firm. Using a wide-ranging sample of Spanish SMEs, our findings highlight the existence of significant impacts of innovation on both these dimensions of business performance, although these impacts differ regarding the type of innovation and the performance indicator considered. Furthermore, our results indicate that the relationship between innovation choices in SMEs and business performance should be analysed from a multidimensional approach. These findings reveal significant implications for innovation policies and innovation strategies for SMEs.
    Keywords: innovation, business performance, multi-dimensional analysis, SME, Spain
    JEL: O32 L25 C25
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Anyadike-Danes, Michael (Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, UK); Bjuggren, Carl Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Sweden); Dumont, Michel (Federal Planning Bureau and Ghent University, Belgium); Gottschalk, Sandra (ZEW, Germany); Hölzl, Werner (Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)); Johansson, Dan (Örebro University School of Business); Maliranta, Mika (ETLA and University of Jyväskylä, Finland); Myrann, Anja (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway); Nielsen, Kristian (Aalborg University, Denmark); Zheng, Guanyu (Productivity Commission, New Zealand)
    Abstract: This paper addresses three simple questions: how should the contribution of HGFs to job creation be measured? how much does this contribution vary across countries? to what extent does the cross-country variation depend on variation in the proportion of HGFs in the business population? The first is a methodological question which we answer using a more highly articulated version of the standard job creation and destruction accounts. The other two are empirical questions which we answer using a purpose-built dataset assembled from national firm-level sources and covering nine countries, spanning the ten three year periods from 2000/03 to 2009/12. The basic principle governing the development of the accounting framework is the choice of appropriate comparators. Firstly, when measuring contributions to job creation, we should focus on just job creating firms, otherwise we are summing over contributions from firms with positive, zero, and negative job creation numbers. Secondly, because we know growth depends in part on size, the ’natural’ comparison for HGFs is with job creation by similar-sized firms which simply did not grow as fast as HGFs. However, we also show how the measurement framework can be further extended to include, for example, a consistent measure of the contribution of small job creating firms. On the empirical side, we find that the HGF share of job creation by large job creating firms varies across countries by a factor of two, from around one third to two thirds. A relatively small proportion of this cross-country variation is accounted for by variations in the influence of HGFs on job creation. On average HGFs generated between three or four times as many jobs as large non-HGF job creating firms, but this ratio is relatively similar across countries. The bulk of the cross-country variation in HGF contribution to job creation is accounted for by the relative abundance (or rarity) of HGFs. Moreover, we also show that the measurement of abundance depends upon the choice of measurement framework: the ’winner’ of a cross-national HGF ’beauty context’ on one measure will not necessarily be the winner on another.
    Keywords: high-growth firms; firm growth; job creation
    JEL: D22 E24 L11 L25 L26 M13
    Date: 2018–05–08
  4. By: Koski, Heli
    Abstract: Personal data is increasingly used in business value creation. Data from the years 2007–2014 suggest that firms’ personal data related innovations and knowledge stocks in technology domains of location-based services and artificial intelligence contributed substantially to firm value. The premiums gained from personal data related innovation were particularly significant for data giants holding knowledge stocks in the location-based service domain. Empirical findings indicate that a strong positive relationship between personal data related knowledge stocks of the location-based services domain and firm value relates primarily to investor attention intensified during periods of media hype. The data provide new insights into the market valuation of intangible assets: investors seem to overweight more salient right tails of firms’ knowledge stocks of emerging technologies while neglecting salient left tails.
    Keywords: Firm value, data economy, personal data, innovation, investor attention, technology salience
    JEL: D22 L2 O3
    Date: 2018–05–25
  5. By: Baum, Christopher F (Boston College and DIW Berlin); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Stephan, Andreas (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Viklund-Ros, Ingrid (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: We exploit increased access to detailed employer-employee data to assess whether outside board members affect innovation performance among start-up firms. Using data for all new limited companies in Sweden born during 1999–2013 which have no more then 10 employees when formed, we provide structural equation estimates that deal with the endogenous selection of board directors. Our empirical findings show that an increase in the board’s expertise, measured by the relative productivity of the firms where outsiders are employed, has a significant and positive impact on the new firm’s propensity to apply for both patents and trademarks.
    Keywords: Start-ups; outside directors; innovation; patents; trademarks; productivity; endogeneity
    JEL: D24 O33
    Date: 2018–06–01
  6. By: Mohamad D. Revindo (Research Associate, Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Bussiness , University of Indonesia, Jakarta); Christopher Gan (Professor in Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Agribusiness and Commerce, Department of Finance and Business System, Lincoln University, New Zealand)
    Abstract: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are more constrained to participate in export market than their large counterparts despite various export assistance provision by the government. Extant literature on SME internationalization mostly focus more on how non-exporting SMEs can become exporters than on how exporting SMEs can sustain and expand their export. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting SMEs’ export intensity with reference to the case of Indonesia. Fractional-logit regressions were used to identify the influence of export-exhibiting factors, export-inhibiting factors, and firm and owner characteristics on SMEs’ export intensity. The evidences were collected from 497 SMEs in seven provinces in Jawa, Madura and Bali regions. The findings show that SMEs’ export intensity is affected by some firm characteristics including firm age and total employees. Export intensity is also affected by some exhibiting factors including owners’ overseas and MNC/exporting firm work experience, central government agencies’ assistance, network relationships with non-government actors, location, export market of choices and years of exporting. By contrast, export intensity is adversely affected by perceived difficulties in overcoming informational and human resources barriers, distribution, logistics and promotional barriers, financial barriers, foreign government barriers, procedural barriers and price barriers. The policy and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: SMEs — internationalization — export intensity — export barriers — Indonesia
    JEL: F23 L25 M13 M16 O17
    Date: 2018–05
  7. By: Koski, Heli; Luukkonen, Juha
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyzes how markets value personal data related innovation in four prominent domains, in which firms’ potential to exploit value from data is identified to be considerable: finance, health, location-based services and artificial intelligence. We link the innovation economics literature to psychology-grounded financial economics theories of investor attention and salience theory. Our data from 117 large technology companies active in the ICT sector from the years 2007–2014 suggest that firms’ personal data related innovations and knowledge stocks in technology domains of location-based services and artificial intelligence contributed substantially to firm value. The premiums gained from personal data related innovation were particularly significant for data giants holding knowledge stocks in the location-based service domain. Our empirical results indicate that a strong positive relationship between personal data related knowledge stocks of the location-based services domain and firm value relates primarily to investor attention intensified during periods of media hype. Our data provide new insights into the market valuation of intangible assets: investors seem to overweight more salient right tails of firms’ knowledge stocks of emerging technologies while neglecting salient left tails.
    Keywords: Firm value, innovation, personal data, investor attention, saliency theory, technology salience
    JEL: D22 L2 O3
    Date: 2018–05–25
  8. By: Davide Vannoni (Department of Economics and Statistics)
    Abstract: Using a large sample of Italian small and medium enterprises (SMEs), we investigate the effect of membership in a formal business network (?contratto di rete?) on firms? economic performance. We find that network participation has a positive effect on value added and exports, but not on profitability. The advantages of networking are stronger in the case of: smaller SMEs, firms operating in traditional and in more turbulent markets, firms located in less developed areas and firms not already exploiting the weaker ties offered by industrial districts. Network characteristics, such as size, geographical dispersion and diversity, are also found to influence performance.
    Keywords: formal business network, small and medium firms, economic performance
    JEL: D22 L25 M21
    Date: 2018–04
  9. By: Luca, Spinesi; Mario, Tirelli
    Abstract: R&D investment are an important engine of growth and development. Yet economists have often claimed underinvestment, also due to the asymmetric information between inside investors and outside investors and financiers, and the consequent capital and financial market imperfections. Some recent empirical evidence robustly supports these claims. Motivated by this evidence, we study the effects of asymmetric information and financial frictions on R&D investment within a dynamic GE economy of Shumpeterian tradition. The model and equilibrium concept we propose is rich enough to represent investment and innovation decisions, financial decisions and decisions regarding technology adoption/diffusion through patent licensing. Qualitative predictions indicate that the financial policy of the firm matters in explaining both entrepreneurial production and innovation decisions. Young R&D-intensive firms might rely more heavily on internal sources and equity than on debt financing, relatively to what would otherwise be observed in absence of frictions. These findings contribute to explain the type of financial hierarchy recently highlighted in the empirical studies.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, Shumpeterian growth, firm financial structure, asymmetric information, financial markets, general equilibrium.
    JEL: D5 D53 D92 O31 O33 O34 O4
    Date: 2018–04–30
  10. By: Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Andreas, Andreas (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS) & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Wulandari, Febi (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS))
    Abstract: Facing the challenge of climate change, innovations that imply environmental benefits create business opportunities for entrepreneurs. This paper analyzes innovation capabilities of startups in Cleantech and how the innovation outcomes of those startups develop over time. Based on the Mannheim Foundation Panel and applying propensity score matching, a cohort of 566 Cleantech startups is analyzed and compared with a control group of non-Cleantech startups. We find that startups in Cleantech have, on average, higher innovation capabilities compared with all startups. However, Cleantech startups are a heterogeneous group including ventures using common technology and those developing new technology. Our econometric evidence shows that, ceteris paribus, Cleantech startups are more likely to combine existing technology in a novel way. Finally, we find that Cleantech startups do, on average, develop more market novelties in later years compared to theirs peers.
    Keywords: Innovative startups; green innovations; Cleantech; capabilities; policies
    JEL: M13 O13 O25 O31
    Date: 2018–06–01
  11. By: Olney, William W. (Williams College); Pozzoli, Dario (Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between immigration and offshoring by examining whether an influx of foreign workers reduces the need for firms to relocate jobs abroad. We exploit a Danish quasi-natural experiment in which immigrants were randomly allocated to municipalities using a refugee dispersal policy and we use the Danish employer-employee matched data set covering the universe of workers and firms over the period 1995-2011. Our findings show that an exogenous influx of immigrants into a municipality reduces firm-level offshoring at both the extensive and intensive margins. The fact that immigration and offshoring are substitutes has important policy implications, since restrictions on one may encourage the other. While the multilateral relationship is negative, a subsequent bilateral analysis shows that immigrants have connections in their country of origin that increase the likelihood that firms offshore to that particular foreign country.
    Keywords: immigration, offshoring
    JEL: F22 F16 J61 F23
    Date: 2018–04
  12. By: Huang, Yi; Panizza, Ugo; Varghese, Richard
    Abstract: Using data for advanced and emerging economies, we show that there is a negative correlation between public debt and corporate investment. Industry-level regressions show that high levels of government debt are particularly damaging for industries that need more external financial resources. Firm-level regressions show that government debt increases the sensitivity of corporate investment to cash flow. These results indicate that the relationship between public debt and investment is likely to be causal and that public debt crowds out corporate investment by tightening credit constraints.
    Keywords: Credit Constraints.; Crowding out; investment; public debt
    JEL: E22 E62 H63
    Date: 2018–05
  13. By: Lamia SABOUR ALAOUI (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales)
    Abstract: In Morocco the concept of corporate social responsibility has become present in academic research as in the business world. Each company must integrate in its strategy, the implementation of a societal responsibility approach to attract new national and international market. The big Moroccan companies are aware of the importance of this trend, but this notion is still new for Moroccan SME (small and medium enterprise). The purpose of this article is to determine societal responsibility practices in Morocco and in SMEs in the province of El Jadida in particular. SMEs in this region have an important role in national industrial development. The first part is devoted to defending social responsibility in general and in Morocco in particular. Next, we identify the social responsibility practices that differentiate the Moroccan SME. For the third part we will present the research methodology and show the results obtained from the survey.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, SME, development
    Date: 2018–04
  14. By: Bernstein, Shai (Stanford University); Colonnelli, Emanuele (Stanford University); Malacrino, Davide (IMF); McQuade, Timothy James (Stanford University)
    Abstract: Firm entry plays an important role in the amplification and propagation of aggregate economic shocks. In this paper, we study the characteristics of the actual individuals who drive firm entry response to aggregate shocks, the marginal entrepreneurs. We use employer-employee matched data from Brazil and develop an empirical strategy that links fluctuations in global commodity prices to municipality level agricultural endowments to identify local demand shocks. We find that increases in global commodity prices lead to a significant increase in new firm creation and this effect is almost entirely driven by young individuals. Within the young, we further document that the most responsive individuals are those who are more educated and who work in occupations that require generalist, managerial skills. In contrast, we find no such response among older skilled and educated individuals. Municipalities with better access to finance and higher concentrations of skilled individuals see a stronger entrepreneurial response by the young. These findings shed light on the potential ramifications of aging populations on the entrepreneurial responsiveness of economies to aggregate shocks.
    Date: 2018–03
  15. By: Ramirez, Matias; Clarke, Ian; Klerkx, Laurens
    Abstract: This paper analyses intermediary organisations in developing economy agricultural clusters. The paper critically engages with a growing narrative in studies of intermediaries that have stressed the ownership structure of intermediaries as a key driver for enabling knowledge transfer, inter-firm learning and upgrading of small producers in clusters. Two case studies of Latin American clusters are presented and discussed. The study suggests that in addition to ownership structure, cluster governance and the embeddedness of intermediaries in clusters are critical factors that need to be taken into account in understanding the influence of intermediaries in the upgrading of small producers in clusters.
    Keywords: Intermediary; cluster; development; agriculture; inclusive development
    Date: 2017–11–14

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