nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2018‒01‒29
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. R&D and Innovation across Global Value Chains: Insights for EU Territorial Innovation Policy By Mafini Dosso; Lesley Potters; Alexander Tuebke
  2. Knowledge Interactions in Regional Innovation Networks: Comparing Data Sources By Michael Fritsch; Mirko Titze; Matthias Piontek
  3. Regional Knowledge, Entrepreneurial Culture and Innovative Start-ups over Time and Space - An Empirical Investigation By Michael Fritsch; Michael Wyrwich
  4. The Exit and Survival Patterns of Immigrant Entrepreneurs: The Case of Private Incorporated Companies By Ostrovsky, Yuri; Picot, Garnett
  5. Firm heterogeneity and aggregate business services exports: micro evidence from Belgium, France, Germany and Spain By Andrea Ariu; Elena Biewen; Sven Blank; Guillaume Gaulier; María Jesús González; Philipp Meinen; Daniel Mirza; César Martín Machuca; Patry Tello
  6. Good Times, Bad Times: Innovation and Survival over the Business Cycle By Elena Cefis; Orietta Marsili
  7. Estimating territorial business R&D expenditures using corporate R&D and patent data By Petros Gkotsis; Hector Hernandez; Antonio Vezzani
  8. Why is Business Model Innovation so poorly innovative ? Uncovering the critical role of collaborative design in Business Model Innovation By Maxime Thomas; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  9. Did the bank capital relief induced by the supporting factor enhance SME lending? By Sergio Mayordomo; María Rodríguez-Moreno
  10. Clustering regional business cycles By M. D. Gadea-Rivas; Ana Gómez-Loscos; Eduardo Bandrés
  11. Fostering Collaborative Project Emergence Through Divergence of Opinion By Julien Ambrosino; Dimitri Masson; Abi Akle; Jérémy Legardeur
  12. Entrepreneurial storytelling : A mean for legitimacy and opportunity exploitation By Yosr Ben Tahar; Sarah Mussol
  13. Public Funding and Corporate Innovation By Beck, Mathias; Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich
  14. The effect of cultural environment on entrepreneurial decisions By Morales, Marina; Velilla, Jorge
  15. Patent Protection, Optimal Licensing, and Innovation with Endogenous Entry By Suzuki, Keishun
  16. Exploitation of Research Findings as a Source of Well-being By Kotiranta, Annu; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi
  17. Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship and Firm Performance in Developing Countries By Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso
  18. The Employer Penalty, Voluntary Compliance, and the Size Distribution of Firms: Evidence from a Survey of Small Businesses By Casey B. Mulligan
  19. Services, Service Innovation and the Ecological Challenge By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  20. Les réseaux d’innovation public-privé dans les services (RIPPS) : une nouvelle expression des réseaux d’innovation dans une économie des services et du développement durable By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  21. Entrepreneurial Success and Subjective Well-Being: Worries about the Business Explain One's Well-Being Loss from Self-Employment By Martin Binder
  22. Optimizing value creation and value capture with a digital multi-sided business model By Romain Gandia; Guy Parmentier
  23. Understanding social innovation in services industries By Faïz Gallouj; Luis Rubalcaba; Marja Toivonen; Paul Windrum
  24. Use of knowledge-intensive services in the Chilean wine industry By Farinelli, Fulvia; Fernández-Stark, Karina; Meneses, Javier; Meneses, Soledad; Mulder, Nanno; Reuse, Karim
  25. Moving to higher ground: building innovation capabilities to overcome conceptual biases in new product development By Antoine Thuillier; Matthew Fuller; Albert David

  1. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission - JRC); Lesley Potters (European Commission - JRC); Alexander Tuebke (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: * Firms organise innovation activities across a wider range of geographically dispersed and specialized units, as compared to previous decades. Moreover corporate innovation processes are broken up into ever finer stages and tasks at the global scale. * The global dispersion of R&D and innovation activities occurs at a higher pace and goes hand in hand with a stronger regional polarization. Yet, corporate R&D remains a domestic activity, although functional and industry-specific patterns can be observed. * The increased internationalisation of R&D and innovation activities does not imply the hollowing-out of domestic ones. Foreign innovation activities may actually support domestic increases in innovation. * The internal and external connections of national and regional systems matter for their innovation performance. The quality of the regional learning and innovation systems is important to attract "relevant activities or segments" of the GVC. On the other hand, better connecting regions to the global innovation networks is important for local growth and employment. * The extent to which firms co-locate production and innovation activities depends on industry, product and process-specificities. * Evidence is needed on how R&D and innovation activities are sliced and diced across GVCs, on how these global corporate dynamics interact with national and regional innovation systems and on how they impact on local growth and employment.
    Keywords: R&D, Innovation Policy, Industrial Policy, Innovation.
    Date: 2017–09
  2. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena); Mirko Titze (Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), Germany); Matthias Piontek (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany)
    Abstract: The value of social network analysis is critically dependent on the comprehensive and reliable identification of actors and their relationships. We compare regional knowledge networks based on different types of data sources, namely, co-patents, co-publications, and publicly subsidized collaborative R&D projects. Moreover, by combining these three data sources, we construct a multilayer network that provides a comprehensive picture of intraregional interactions. By comparing the networks based on the data sources, we address the problems of coverage and selection bias. We observe that using only one data source leads to a severe underestimation of regional knowledge interactions, especially those of private sector firms and independent researchers. The key role of universities that connect many regional actors is identified in all three types of data.
    Keywords: Knowledge interactions, social network analysis, regional innovation systems, data sources
    JEL: O30 R12 R30
    Date: 2018–01–08
  3. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena); Michael Wyrwich (FSU Jena)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of entrepreneurship culture and the historical knowledge base of a region on current levels of new business formation in innovative industries. The analysis is for German regions and covers the time period 1907-2014. We find a pronounced positive relationship between high levels of historical self-employment in science-based industries and new business formation in innovative industries today. This long-term legacy effect of entrepreneurial tradition indicates the prevalence of a regional culture of entrepreneurship. Moreover, local presence and geographic proximity to a technical university founded before the year 1900 is positively related to the level of innovative start-ups more than a century later. The results show that a considerable part of the knowledge that constitutes an important source of entrepreneurial opportunities is deeply rooted in history. We draw conclusions for policy and for further research.
    Keywords: Innovative start-ups, universities, regional knowledge, regional cultures of entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 L60 L80 O18 R12 R30
    Date: 2018–01–08
  4. By: Ostrovsky, Yuri; Picot, Garnett
    Abstract: There is only a small body of international literature and little Canadian evidence related to exit and survival patterns of immigrant-owned businesses. This paper addresses this gap by answering two questions. First, do exit and survival patterns (durations) of firm ownership differ between immigrants and individuals born in Canada? Second, what characteristics are associated with lower (or higher) exit rates from business ownership and longer ownership spells among immigrants? The analysis is limited to ownership of private incorporated firms.
    Keywords: Business ownership, Business performance and ownership, Employment and unemployment, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Labour, Labour market and income
    Date: 2018–01–19
  5. By: Andrea Ariu (University of Geneva, Switzerland, Georgetown university, USA, and Crenos, Italy); Elena Biewen (Deutsche Bundesbank); Sven Blank (Deutsche Bundesbank); Guillaume Gaulier (Banque de France and CEPII); María Jesús González (Banco de España); Philipp Meinen (Deutsche Bundesbank); Daniel Mirza (University François Rabelais de Tours, LEO-CNRS (Orleans), Banque de France and CEPII); César Martín Machuca (Banco de España); Patry Tello (Banco de España)
    Abstract: This paper uses detailed micro data on service exports at the firm-destination-service level to analyse the role of firm heterogeneity in shaping aggregate service exports in Belgium, France, Germany and Spain from 2003 to 2007. We decompose the level and the growth of aggregate service exports into different trade margins paying special attention to firm heterogeneity within countries. We find that the weak export growth of France is at least partly due to poor performance by small exporters. By contrast, small exporters are the most dynamic contributors to the aggregate exports of Belgium, Germany and Spain. Our results highlight the importance of firm heterogeneity in understanding aggregate export growth.
    Keywords: service exports, firm heterogeneity, micro data panel
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2017–10
  6. By: Elena Cefis; Orietta Marsili
    Abstract: High-potential new ventures are a source of economic growth, which policy makers call upon in times of crisis when entrepreneurship is seen as a remedy to economic downturn. Yet at these times new ventures face intensified selection, and survival hinges on heterogeneous capabilities. We examine how the innovative capabilities of new firms created in the Netherlands in 2001-2006, affected their survival likelihood before, during and after the 2007-2008 global financial crisis. We estimate a piecewise exponential model linking survival times, observed in the time period from 2001 to 2015, to longitudinal innovation data from the CIS. Our results show that new ventures innovating within two years from founding benefit of a long-term adaptive survival premium during and after the crisis. This premium and its duration over the stages of the crisis are contingent to the form of innovation: technological innovations entail a more effective and enduring premium, as compared to managerial innovations, which can be even detrimental for survival. Our study has implications for entrepreneurial management, by highlighting how the development of innovative capabilities at founding, lays the foundations for organisational adaptation and resilience in the longer term. Furthermore, our results can inform a policy approach that aims at sheltering from the storm of a financial crisis, those new ventures that do possess the specific and necessary adaptive capabilities, but that are also vulnerable because of the liabilities of newness and smallness. Such an approach could help to maintain alive the process of entrepreneurial experimentation during the crisis, and to boost economic recovery, without dispersing precious resources.
    Keywords: firm survival; environmental jolts; financial crisis; organisational adaptation; technological and non-technological innovation
    Date: 2018–01–09
  7. By: Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC); Hector Hernandez (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This note describes a methodology to estimate territorial business R&D expenditure funded by the business sector, using R&D and patent data from top R&D investing companies. Since company data are available with a short delay, the aim is to provide timeliness estimations for business R&D in anticipation of its publication by official statistics. The estimation is made for worldwide industrial R&D expenditures, breaking down figures for main world regions and focusing on the EU and its top member states. The industrial coverage comprises main innovative industries, focusing on manufacturing and knowledge intensive services.
    Keywords: industrial R&D, innovation, BERD, estimation
  8. By: Maxime Thomas (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper we propose to analyze two cases of business model innovation process Uber and a French health care company-with the models developed by design theory. In particular we demonstrate, relying on C-K theory, how the traditionally unchallenged figure of a lone firm performing business model innovation has implications on the outcomes of the process, preventing innovative business models to emerge. In particular we show that the coordination structure chosen by the firms engaging in business model innovation has major consequences. Therefore we propose a categorization of business model innovation process based on the level of implication of each firm. We argue that a more collaborative approach in designing business models that overcomes the difficulties raised by collective design is needed so that the outcomes are innovative. We discuss the implications of this result for business model innovation literature, disruptive innovation theory and design theory. Introduction In this paper, we propose, using recent advances in design theory, to discuss the innovative power of business model innovation. We thus propose analysing two business model innovation processes: the case of Uber business model and an ongoing business model innovation project in a French Health care company. The first case is famous among practitioners as it is used as an example of current disruptions occurring in several industries. The second project is an example of such a process in an incumbent company. Although the study of business models (Amit and Zott, 2001) and in particular business model innovation (Chesbrough, 2010) opens new fields for the innovation literature, the literature seems to focus on the model of a focal firm performing alone a business model innovation process (Amit and Zott,
    Keywords: Business Model Innovation,Design
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Sergio Mayordomo (Banco de España); María Rodríguez-Moreno (Banco de España)
    Abstract: The introduction of the SME Supporting Factor (SF) allows banks to reduce capital requirements for credit risk on exposures to SME. This means that banks can free up capital resources that can be redeployed in the form of new loans. Our study documents that the SF alleviates credit rationing for medium-sized firms that are eligible for the application of the SF but not for micro/small firms. These results suggest that European banks were aware of this policy measure and optimized both their regulatory capital and their credit exposures by granting loans to the medium-sized firms, which are safer than micro/small firms.
    Keywords: SME, credit access, supporting factor, bank lending
    JEL: E51 E58 G21
    Date: 2017–12
  10. By: M. D. Gadea-Rivas (UNIVERSITY OF ZARAGOZA); Ana Gómez-Loscos (Banco de España); Eduardo Bandrés (UNIVERSITY OF ZARAGOZA)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show the usefulness of Finite Mixture Markov Models (FMMMs) for regional analysis. FMMMs combine clustering techniques and Markov Switching models, providing a powerful methodological framework to jointly obtain business cycle datings and clusters of regions that share similar business cycle characteristics. An illustration with European regional data shows the sound performance of the proposed method.
    Keywords: business cycles, clusters, regions, finite mixture Markov models
    JEL: C22 C32 E32 R11
    Date: 2017–12
  11. By: Julien Ambrosino (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA), IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Dimitri Masson (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Abi Akle (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Jérémy Legardeur (IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA))
    Abstract: In the context of the emergence of collaborative innovation projects between competitiveness clusters, the animation of creative sessions permits to identify new opportunities. The number of ideas generated is a lot more important than the number of collaborative innovation projects implemented subsequently. To improve this ratio, we verify that group discussions could be facilitated by improving the ideation and evaluation phases of ideas during innovation process. Especially, in this article, we test many hypotheses in order to show that divergence of opinions can foster collaborative project emergence.
    Abstract: Dans le contexte de l'émergence de projets d'innovation collaborative entre les clusters et les pôles de compétitivité, l'animation d'ateliers de créativité permet d'identifier de nouvelles opportunités. Le nombre d'idées générées est beaucoup plus important que le nombre de projets d'innovation collaborative mis en œuvre par la suite. Pour améliorer ce ratio, nous vérifions que les discussions de groupe pourraient être facilitées en améliorant les phases d'idées et d'évaluation des idées au cours du processus d'innovation. Surtout, dans cet article, nous testons de nombreuses hypothèses afin de montrer que la divergence d'opinions peut favoriser l'émergence d'un projet collaboratif.
    Keywords: Cluster,Collaborative design,Creativity,Evaluation,Innovation
    Date: 2017–08–21
  12. By: Yosr Ben Tahar (DD - Dynamiques du droit - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM - Université de Montpellier); Sarah Mussol (Marketing - MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Stories are an important tool to create shared meanings about ventures and entrepreneurs. To analyze how storytelling contributes to legitimacy, identity and resources access, data was collected from press articles (2005-2016) about a french small business Michel & Augustin. Thematic analysis of the 275 press articles shows that the balance between alignment with norms and uniqueness is crucial for entrepreneurial identification and acceptance. Further perspectives of this research relate to the effects of developing effective mediatic storytelling on customer relationships and human resources strategy.
    Abstract: Les histoires sont un outil important pour créer des significations partagées sur les entreprises et les entrepreneurs. Pour analyser comment le storytelling contribue à la légitimité, à l'identité et à l'accès aux ressources, des données ont été collectées à partir d'articles de presse (2005-2016) sur Michel & Augustin, une petite entreprise française. L'analyse thématique de 275 articles de presse montre que l'équilibre entre l'alignement sur les normes et la création d'une identité unique est crucial pour l'identification et l'acceptation entrepreneuriales. D'autres perspectives de cette recherche portent sur les effets de l'élaboration de récits médiatiques efficaces, et leur utilisation dans le développement des relations avec les consommateurs et dans la stratégie des ressources humaines.
    Keywords: storytelling,legitimacy,opportunities,customer relationship
    Date: 2017–06–29
  13. By: Beck, Mathias (ETH Zurich); Junge, Martin; Kaiser, Ulrich (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: We review and condense the body of literature on the economic returns of public R&D on private R&D and find that: (i) private returns to R&D appear to be large and larger than the returns to alternative investments; (ii) private R&D and R&D subsidies are positively correlated and there is no evidence for crowding out; (iii) R&D cooperation increases private R&D; (iv) there appear to exist complementarities between alternative sources of funding; (v) the mobility of R&D workers, particularly of university scientists, is positively related to innovation; (vi) there are many university spin-offs but these are no more successful than non-university spin-offs; (vii) universities constitute important collaboration partners and (viii) clusters enhance collaboration, patents and productivity. Key problems for economic policy advice are that the identification of causal effects is problematic in most studies and that little is known about the optimal design of policy measures.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, R&D tax credits, cooperation, labor mobility, returns to R&D, university spin-offs, R&D clusters, public-private knowledge transfer
    JEL: C54 J6 I28 O3 L52
    Date: 2017–12
  14. By: Morales, Marina; Velilla, Jorge
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines whether the cultural environment plays a role in entrepreneurial decisions in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. To explore this issue, we use data from the Adult Population Survey (APS) of 2010 to 2015 provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). To calculate the cultural factor, we utilize data from the GEM National Expert Survey (NES) data and apply a probit model to measure the effect of culture based on an unobserved latent variable of satisfaction, measured through a dichotomous variable identifying entrepreneurs. Results show a positive and statistically significant relationship between the cultural factor and the individual choice of entrepreneurial activity, suggesting that cultural environment is important, especially in European and Mediterranean countries. Our findings are robust to the introduction of several country variables, and to the use of different subsamples. Further, they do not qualitatively depend on the age of individuals.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship. Culture. Developed countries. GEM Data.
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2018–01–10
  15. By: Suzuki, Keishun
    Abstract: How does patent policy affect innovation when patent licensing is crucial for firms? To address this question, the present paper incorporates voluntary patent licensing between an innovator and followers, which has been discussed in the literature of industrial organization, into a dynamic general equilibrium model. Unlike in existing studies, both the licensing fee and the number of licensees are endogenously determined by the innovator’s maximization and the free-entry condition. Using this model, we show that strong patent protection does not enhance innovation, economic growth, and welfare. Furthermore, the extended analysis provides a policy implication that the effect of patent policy depends on how difficult further innovation is without patent licensing of the current leading technology.
    Keywords: innovation, patent protection, optimal patent licensing, endogenous market structure.
    JEL: L24 O31 O34
    Date: 2017–11–15
  16. By: Kotiranta, Annu; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi
    Abstract: In Finland, universities have the explicit mandate to support the transformation of high-quality knowledge into profitable business, as well as to promote the creation of new businesses and workplaces within the boundaries of their so-called third mission. This report looks at how Finnish universities perform in the task. The results point at a clear lack of dedicated resources. The underlying reason is systemic: performance is not linked to incentives in the form of public university funding. Currently, resources for the implementation of the third mission are largely obtained via competition from external sources, endangering the continuity of the technology transfer function and creating disincentives to invest in its development. The lack of incentives is echoed among researchers: Nearly half of the scientists who, according to their own view, have made economically valuable findings state they do not find the time to promote their exploitation. The report proposes several remedies: (1) the performance of universities in their third mission needs to be metered. (2) These metrics need to be linked to earmarked public university funding; (3) Individual-level metrics concerning the exploitation of their findings should encourage researchers and promote their academic careers. In order to support more rapid cultural change, universities could (4) recruit professors directly from the business world; and (5) set up cooperative, joint laboratories with industry in their respective strategic research areas.
    Keywords: Technology transfer, third mission, commercialization, university, higher education
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O38 O43 O52 D02 I23 I25 I28
    Date: 2018–01–22
  17. By: Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso (Dept of Economics and Center for Statistics, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen, Göttingen, Germany & Dept of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper uses firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys (WBES) to investigate productivity gaps between female and male-managed companies in developing countries. We depart from the previous literature by using the gender of the top manager as target variable, which is newly available in the 2016 version of the WBES. The main results indicate that it is crucial to distinguish between female management and female ownership and also the confluence between both. We find that when the firms are managed by females and there are not female owners, they show a higher average labour productivity and total factor productivity. However, if females are among the owners and a female is the top manager, then their productivity is lower than for other firms. These results are very heterogeneous among regions. In particular, results in South Saharan Africa, East Asia and South Asia seems to be driving the general results
    Keywords: firm performance, gender gap, developing countries, top manager, TFP
    JEL: J16 O15 O44
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Casey B. Mulligan
    Abstract: A new survey of 745 small businesses shows little change in the size distribution of businesses between 2012 and 2016, except among businesses with 40–74 employees, in a way that is closely related to whether they offer health insurance coverage. Using measures of both size and voluntary regulatory compliance, the paper links these changes to the Affordable Care Act’s employer mandate. Between 28,000 and 50,000 businesses nationwide appear to be reducing their number of full-time-equivalent employees to below 50 because of that mandate. This translates to roughly 250,000 positions eliminated from those businesses.
    JEL: D22 H25 H32
    Date: 2017–11
  19. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2018
  20. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The concept of innovation network (IN) is a well-established one that has been the object of an extensive literature. Our subject in this paper is a particular kind of innovation network, as yet relatively unknown but which is developing against the background of economies dominated by service industries; we term them public-private innovation networks in services (ServPPINs). Such networks involve collaborations between public and private service organisations in the field of innovation. They differ from traditional INs in several ways. Firstly, service providers are the main actors in the networks. Secondly the relationships between the public and the private actors lie at the heart of the analysis. Finally, non-technological innovation, which is often overlooked in the literature, is taken into account. This paper has a twofold purpose: first to examine the way in which the characteristics of ServPPINs can help to modify and enhance the traditional concept of IN, and second to draw any possible lessons there might be for public policy. It is based on both a literature survey and analysis of a database of ServPPINs case studies compiled in the course of the ServPPIN (Public Private Innovation Networks in Services) European project.
    Abstract: Le concept de réseau d'innovation est un concept bien établi qui a fait l'objet d'une abondante littérature. Nous nous intéressons dans ce travail à des réseaux d'innovations particuliers, encore peu connus, mais qui se développent dans une économie de service dominante : les réseaux d'innovation public-privé dans les services (RIPPS). Les RIPPS décrivent des collaborations entre organisations de services publiques et privées dans le domaine de l'innovation. Ils diffèrent des RI traditionnels de plusieurs manières. Tout d'abord, les prestataires de services y sont les acteurs principaux. Ensuite les relations entre les acteurs publics et privés sont placées au centre de l'analyse. Enfin, l'innovation non technologique, souvent négligée dans la littérature, y est prise en compte. L'objet de ce travail est, tout d'abord, d'examiner la manière dont les caractéristiques des RIPPS peuvent contribuer à modifier et enrichir le concept traditionnel de RI, et ensuite, d'en tirer d'éventuels enseignements en matière de politique publique. Ce travail s'appuie à la fois sur un bilan de la littérature et sur l'exploitation d'une base de données d'études de cas de RIPPS constituée dans le cadre du projet européen ServPPIN (Public Private Innovation Networks in Services).
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Martin Binder
    Abstract: Despite lower incomes the self-employed often report higher job satisfaction. But this increased job satisfaction only sometimes translates into higher life satisfaction, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of self-employment. By distinguishingdifferent types of self-employment, this paper sheds light onto why some self-employeds even report lower life satisfaction, focussing specifically on poor performance enterprises, a prevalent but disregarded type of entrepreneurship. Using German panel data (1984-2015), I find that self-employment (compared to employment) typically negatively impacts on life satisfaction, especially so if one enters self-employment from unemployment, earns low incomes from self-employment or has no employees. Worries about one's financial situation and job security appear to be the driving forces behind this negative effect. Only very few self-employeds report higher life satisfaction, a boost that seems to relate to the pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities. In sum, looking at the average self-employed obscures the heterogeneity of well-being impacts resulting from different types of self-employment one might find themselves in, and being on the lower end of the success distribution carries a well-being cost instead of bringing joy.
    Keywords: subjective well-being, self-employment, entrepreneurial success, SOEP, life satisfaction
    JEL: I31 L26 J28
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Romain Gandia (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc); Guy Parmentier (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Faced with the limits of cooperative approaches to business model in optimizing the value creation and value capture, we propose here a new multi-sided business model architecture adapted to digital industries which allows considering new opportunities to create and capture value, for the growth and survival of innovative SMEs.
    Keywords: value creation,value capture,digital business model,multi-sided platform
    Date: 2017–07
  23. By: Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre Lillois d’Études et de Recherches Sociologiques et Économiques - UMR 8019 - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies - ULCO - Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Luis Rubalcaba (UAH - Universidad de Alcalá = University of Alcalá); Marja Toivonen (VTT Information technology - Technical Research Centre of Finland); Paul Windrum (UON - University of Nottingham, UK)
    Abstract: This paper puts forward a framework for understanding the relationship between service industries and social innovation. These are two, previously disconnected research areas. The paper explores ways in which innovation in services is increasingly becoming one of social innovation (in terms of social goals, social means, social roles and multi-agent provision) and how social innovation can be understood from a service innovation perspective. A taxonomy is proposed based on the mix between innovation nature and the locus of co-production. The paper additionally puts forward a theoretical framework for understanding social innovation in services, where the co-creation of innovation is the result of an interaction of competences and preferences of multiple providers, users/citizens, and policy makers. This provides the basis for a discussion of key avenues for future research in theory, measurement, organisation, appropriation, performance measurement, and public policy. This provides a context for the papers presented in this special issue.
    Keywords: Services,innovation,social innovation,multi-agent framework
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Farinelli, Fulvia; Fernández-Stark, Karina; Meneses, Javier; Meneses, Soledad; Mulder, Nanno; Reuse, Karim
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, Chile has successfully developed its wine industry, being the world’s fourth largest exporter in 2015 with mostly medium-quality wines. In addition to well known key factors such as climate and soil conditions, (foreign direct) investment in firms, imports of specialized capital equipment and highly skilled human resources, this paper explores the role of 38 (knowledge intensive) services in five different segments of the wine value chain. On the basis of answers by 29 wine firms regarding services activities on a survey carried out for this study, firms indicate they outsource about the same share (34%) as they carry out in-house (32%), while another 15% is produced using a combination of both. The degree of subcontracting of services falls as one moves further along the segments of the value chain. Moreover, it seems that small and large firms fully or partially outsource about half of all services, while medium size firms outsource less.
    Date: 2017–12–31
  25. By: Antoine Thuillier (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Matthew Fuller (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Albert David (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Startup companies face many challenges in the early years of their existence. During these critical stages, they are often required to convince decision makers to allocate critical resources to themto obtain venture capital, support from a startup incubator, orgovernment subsidies
    Keywords: startups,design theory,conceptual architecture,pitch presentation,new product development,creativity
    Date: 2017–06

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