nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
eighteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Measuring and Examining Innovation in Philippine Business and Industry By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.
  2. European R&D networks: A snapshot from the 7th EU Framework Programme By Sara Amoroso; Alex Coad; Nicola Grassano
  3. The impact of Digitalization on Business Models: How IT Artefacts, Social Media, and Big Data Force Firms to Innovate Their Business Model By Bouwman, Harry; de Reuver, Mark; Nikou, Shahrokh
  4. Financial Education for MSMEs and Potential Entrepreneurs By Adele Atkinson
  5. Innovation and growth potential: managing investment in middle market companies By Laure-Anne Parpaleix
  6. Creativity and the City: Testing the Attenuation of Agglomeration Economies fo r the Creative Industries in Barcelona By Coll Martínez, Eva
  7. Eco-innovation strategies: Spanish service and manufacturing firms By Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  8. Organizational context and innovation ambidexterity: Is creativity the missing link? By Sébastien Brion; Caroline Mothe
  9. Strategic orientations during economic crisis: Stay focused or adopt a broader strategic direction? By Shirokova, G.; Beliaeva, T.; Gafforova, E.
  10. Innovation and growth potential: managing investment in middle market companies By Laure-Anne Parpaleix
  11. Measuring the Spillovers of Venture Capital By Schnitzer, Monika; Watzinger, Martin
  12. Credit rationing or overlending? An exploration into financing imperfection By Jean Bonnet; Sylvie Cieply; Marcus Dejardin
  13. Le cluster social T.E.T.R.I.S. Co-construction locale et institutionnelle By Myriam Matray
  14. De l’intention entrepreneuriale à la création effective d’une entreprise : Une explication par les réseaux sociaux. By Ahsina, Khalifa; Slaoui, Oumaima
  15. RIO Country Report 2016: Croatia By Racic Domagoj; Jadranka Svarc; Hristo Hristov
  16. Performance of Russian SMEs during the economic crisis: The role of strategic entrepreneurship By Shirokova, G.; Ivvonen, L.
  17. Motivations to start businesses: Institutional context By Aleksandrova, E.; Verkhovskaya, O.
  18. Small and Large Firms over the Business Cycle By Mehrotra, Neil; Crouzet, Nicolas

  1. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.
    Abstract: Innovation involves implementing new or significantly improved goods and services, production processes, marketing, or organizational methods for adding value. The measurement of innovation provides a mechanism for benchmarking national performance, and for examining innovation and its relation to economic growth. Further, examining determinants and bottlenecks to innovation among firms provides inputs to mainstreaming of policies on innovation. This paper describes and discusses the results of the 2015 Survey of Innovation Activities, conducted by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Survey results suggest that less than half of the firms in the country are innovators, with larger-sized firms innovating more than micro, small, and medium establishments. Government needs to have a champion for developing stronger policies and interventions to support and encourage innovation. It is also important to improve information dissemination on public programs available to assist firms in innovating. Networking, linkages, and collaboration among the government, industry associations, and universities and research institutions also require further enhancement.
    Keywords: Philippines, micro, small, and medium enterprises, innovation, process innovation, product innovation, organizational innovation, marketing innovation, MSMEs
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Sara Amoroso (European Commission - JRC); Alex Coad (CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú); Nicola Grassano (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Recent empirical studies have investigated the territorial impact of Europe’s research policies, in particular the contribution of the European Framework Programmes to the integration of a European Research Area. This paper deepens the analysis on the integration and participation of peripheral regions, by focusing on the differences in intensity and determinants of inter-regional collaborations across three groups of collaborations. We consider collaborations among more developed regions, between more and less developed regions, and among less developed regions. Building on the recent spatial interaction literature, this paper investigates the effects of physical, institutional, social and technological proximity on the intensity of inter-regional research collaboration across heterogeneous European regions. We find that the impact of disparities in human capital and technological proximity on regional R&D cooperation is relevant and differs across subgroups of collaborations. Moreover, despite the efforts of integrating marginal actors, peripheral regions have lower rates of collaborations.
    Keywords: European Research Area, spatial interaction modelling, R&D collaboration, regional integration
    JEL: O38 L14 F15 R15
    Date: 2017–07
  3. By: Bouwman, Harry; de Reuver, Mark; Nikou, Shahrokh
    Abstract: Digital technology has forced entrepreneurs to reconsider their business models (BMs). Although research on entrepreneurial intention and business models is gaining attention, there is still a large knowledge gap on both fields. In this paper, we specifically address the impact of digitalization on business model innovation (BMI). Based on data collected from 338 European small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) actively using IT artefacts, social media, or big data to innovate their business model, we study antecedents of BM experimentation and BM innovation practices, as well as overall business performance. We carried out four in-depth case studies of companies in which BM innovation is related to IT artefacts and more specifically to social media and big data. The findings from the quantitative study show that BMI is related to IT artefacts, social media, and big data. Use of IT artefacts, social media, and big data is mainly driven by strategic and innovation-related internal motives, although external technology turbulence plays a role too. BM innovation driven by IT artefacts, social media, and big data has an impact on performance. Although the case studies show that this is more evident for IT artefacts and big data than for social media.
    Keywords: big data,business model innovation,digitalization,IT artefacts,social media
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Adele Atkinson
    Abstract: Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) make up the majority of enterprises in the world, providing employment and contributing significantly to national incomes. Many MSMEs face a number of challenges, including regulatory hurdles and tax burdens, difficulties accessing finance and a lack of general guidance or support. Financial education can be an important tool for helping MSMEs and potential entrepreneurs to obtain access to finance and strengthen money management skills. This working paper presents the results of a stocktake of 21 economies. It shows that, while some MSMEs have access to education, training or mentoring, in most economies approaches are fragmented and risk missing important groups. Identifying MSMEs as a target group within national strategies for financial education would contribute to addressing some of the challenges they face. This would also underline the importance of measuring levels of financial literacy among MSMEs and help policy makers and stakeholders to evaluate programmes that target this group.
    Keywords: entrepreneur, financial consumer protection, financial education, micro-enterprise, SME
    Date: 2017–09–25
  5. By: Laure-Anne Parpaleix (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The search for levers to sustain economic growth, which is a key and topical challenge for public policy and private actors, has turned into an intensive research topic in both economy and management. Sustaining growth through investments remains at the heart of public policies insofar as growth is assumed to be correlated to economic drive notably through increased firms’ profit and employment rate. Therefore, search for a better understanding of growth determinants has been extensively discussed in numerous theoretical and empirical studies (Coad 2007). Throughout the continuous refinement in the economic models investigating the dynamics of investment for sustained growth, technological progress and, further, innovation have taken an increasing role. Overall, innovation stands out as one of the main growth driver (Ahlstrom 2010), a result that is thought to help steering the investment choices. Yet, the underlining processes linking investment to innovation on the one side, and innovation to growth on the other remain ill-understood. On the one hand, despite voluminous and diverse literature (Cameron 1998) produced by the study of innovation impact on economic growth, a precise relationship has yet to be unequivocally established (Demirel and Mazzucato 2009). Characterizing the relationship between firm innovativeness and growth raises the stake of identifying accurate and appropriate measurements for both growth and innovative activities. On the other hand, the classical thought that R&D spending is statistically linked to innovation, thus far roughly correlating the issue with the right amount of resources invested, has been repeatedly proven false over large sets of data. The absence of a mechanical impact of investment on innovative output, known as “the R&D paradox” (Le Masson, Weil et al. 2010), shows that beyond the initial financial inputs, appropriate design management and governance models seem necessary to support sustainable innovative activities. A wide range of researches in the field of innovation management has built on this perspective to offer refined patterns of innovative activities process. However, their impact on firms’ growth dynamics has not been pinpointed. Because of this failure in understanding growth drivers, investors lack of managing strategies allowing them to guide their investing policies. Thus, my researches aim at describing new growth dynamics in order to shape investment guiding tools.
    Keywords: innovation management,private equity,economic growth
    Date: 2016–06–11
  6. By: Coll Martínez, Eva
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to infer the spatial extent of agglomeration economies for the creative service industries (SCI) in Barcelona and its relationship with firms’ performance. Using data from Mercantile Register (SABI) that provides micro-geographic data of firms between 2006 and 2015 I estimate the effect of intra-industry and inter-industry agglomeration in rings around location on productivity in Barcelona. Main results are that, (1) for CSI, at a micro-spatial level, localisation economies are not so relevant, although much work still remains to be done on this issue ; (2) while for Non-SCI having creative workers in the near proximity (250 metres) seems to enhance their productivity; and (3) for the symbolic - based CSI localisation economies – mainly understood as networking and knowledge externalities – have positive effects on TFP at shorter distances (less than 250 metres), while for the two other knowledge based CSI (i.e., synthetic and analytical) localisation economies seem not to be so relevant. These results strongly suggest the importance of networking or information spillovers in CIs, which are strongly concentrated in the largest cities. Keywords: creative industries, agglomeration economies, distance - based methods, micro-geographic data, Barcelona
    Keywords: Creativitat en els negocis -- Barcelona, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Jové Llopis, Elisenda; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: The drivers for the adoption of an eco-innovation strategy have been widely explored in the recent literature but, to date, most of these studies have been carried out on manufacturing industries. Hence, this paper investigates the similarities and differences between service and manufacturing firms, distinguishing between the high-tech and lowtech sectors. Using panel data of 4,535 Spanish firms for the period 2008—2014, we specify a dynamic probit model with sample selection. In line with other contributions in the literature, our results confirm the importance of regulatory stimulus to eco-innovation, mainly in form of demand-pull and, especially, in terms of demand push (subsidies) for sectors with low technology intensities. Institutional sources of information seem to be a more important driver for services firms with high technology intensity, whereas manufacturing firms rely more on internal or other sources of information. Furthermore, we find that eco-innovation is highly persistent at the firm level in both sectors and at both technology intensities. Hence, past eco-innovation behaviour is clearly more decisive in explaining the current state of eco-innovation orientation. Keywords: eco-innovation strategy, environmental innovation, service sector, manufacturing sector, green strategy, Spain. JEL Classification Numbers: O31. Q55
    Keywords: Planificació estratègica -- Aspectes ambientals, Innovacions tecnològiques -- Aspectes ambientals, Sector terciari, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Sébastien Brion (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: Creativity might be a prerequisite of technological innovation or an element of it. This article seeks to extend both prior studies that analyse which organizational contexts foster innovation ambidexterity without considering creativity and research that demonstrates a mediating effect of creativity on organizational performance without accounting for innovation ambidexterity. An empirical study of 307 French firms reveals that creativity is a missing link between the organizational context and ambidexterity, a result with interesting implications relative to the prerequisites for creativity and innovation ambidexterity. Managers thus should implement an organizational context that encourages creativity, rather than directly emphasising innovation ambidexterity.
    Keywords: Creativity, Organisational context, Ambidexterity, Innovation
    Date: 2016–05–30
  9. By: Shirokova, G.; Beliaeva, T.; Gafforova, E.
    Abstract: While there is a growing interest in management literature towards exploring multiple strategic orientations, their interactions and influence on firm performance, most research has been conducted in stable economic environments and developed countries. Taking into consideration the contemporary economic instability and its effect on business operations, it is timely to develop an understanding of strategic directions which may help firms create proper behaviors for managing their way through economic crises. In this study, we examine the role of entrepreneurial, market, and learning orientation in mitigating the nega-tive effects of economic crisis and sanctions on firm’s operations. Based on the dataset of 612 Russian small and medium-sized enterprises collected during the crisis period in 2015-2016, the results indicate that firms with a broader strategic direction are more affected by the unfavorable economic conditions compared to firms which are focused on a particular strategic orientation.
    Keywords: strategic orientations, entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, learning orientation, economic crisis, small and medium-sized enterprises, Russia,
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Laure-Anne Parpaleix (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In recent years, economic growth has turned into a key challenge for both public politics and private actors thus leading to extensive discussions about growth determinants. Innovation early stood out as one of the main growth driver. Nevertheless, despite of prolific empirical economic studies, correlation tests between innovation and growth remains inconclusive. Based on recent management researches findings, my research aims at investigating new factors to explain these empirical discrepancies as well as the link between investment and innovation policies. It will be conducted in partnership with Bpifrance, a state-owned organism backing national public policies by assisting companies through different types of investments. Bpifrance provide an appropriate field of research as its main mission is to ensure firms forthcoming competitiveness through investment, growth and innovation. Beyond a better understanding of the growth trajectories, I expect to develop new management devices for investors such as Bpifrance, whose aim is to identify how to better contribute to the firms' and the national economic growth. My research focuses on middle market companies, a single category hiding a large diversity of innovation and growth patterns. As the focus on middle market companies is fairly new, little is known about their specific innovative capabilities and growth potential, thus making it hard for public actors to tailor appropriate policies. Both theoretical and managerial findings are expected among which a better understanding of the determinants of growth and the role of innovation capabilities in firms' growth trajectories; original growth and investments models with parameters linked to the description of innovation capabilities; and devices to steer the adjusted investment strategies.
    Keywords: innovation management,economic growth,capital investment
    Date: 2016–05–30
  11. By: Schnitzer, Monika (LMU München); Watzinger, Martin (LMU München)
    Abstract: We provide the first measurement of knowledge spillovers from venture capital-financed companies onto the patenting activities of other companies. On average, these spillovers are nine times larger than those generated by the R&D investment of established companies. Spillover effects are larger in complex product industries than in discrete product industries. Start-ups with experienced inventors holding a patent at the time of receiving the first round of investment produce the largest spillovers, indicating that venture capital fosters the commercialization of technologies. Methodologically, we contribute by developing a novel definition of the spillover pool, combining citation-based and technological proximity-based approaches.
    Keywords: venture capital, spillovers, innovation;
    JEL: G24 O30 O31 O32
    Date: 2017–09–13
  12. By: Jean Bonnet (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - UNICAEN - Université Caen Normandie - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sylvie Cieply (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - UNICAEN - Université Caen Normandie - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marcus Dejardin (CERPE - Centre de Recherches en Economie Régionale et Politique Economique - Facultés Universitaires Notre Dame de la Paix (FUNDP) - Namur)
    Abstract: Small and new firms are deemed to be unable to obtain sufficient banking loans. This idea finds a strong theoretical support in credit rationing theory, as initiated by Stiglitz and Weiss (1981). However, this is vigorously challenged by De Meza and Webb (1987, 2000) suggesting that firms can benefit from an excess of credit, i.e. overlending. Credit rationing or overlending? The contribution of this empirical article is twofold: to our knowledge, it is the first to make an attempt in measuring the relative importance of these two types of financing imperfection and to explore factors leading to one or the other. We exploit a rich panel dataset on the access to banking credit for new French businesses during the mid-1990s. Our results show that credit rationing was not highly spread among French new firms. The story described by De Meza and Webb (1987) appears to be a much more realistic model. In addition, we identify factors, linked to the starter, the project or the industry, that are closely associated with credit rationing and/or overlending. Most factors enter into a consistent relation: when they are positively (negatively) associated with credit rationing, they are negatively (positively) associated with overlending.
    Keywords: Asymmetric information,Overlending,Imperfect information,Credit rationing,New business
    Date: 2016–05
  13. By: Myriam Matray (Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne, EVS - Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2)
    Abstract: Since late 2013, a group of organizations, connected by Local Contracts for the Develop - ment of Social Economy in the Grasse area (South of France), has been trying to build cooperation and enhance their business model and to develop new goods and services for the needs in the area (social innovation approach). In this context, the cooperative T.E.T.R.I.S. (Territorial Ecological Transition by Research and Social Innovation), in Grasse, was one of the candidates of the second call for projects for the Support to Dyna - mics of Regional Networks of Economic Cooperation “PTCE”, which was launched on 21st of April 2015. This communication highlights the “regional demands” that is the basis of T.E.T.R.I.S. “PTCE” structuring. Thus, it can be hypothesized that there is a reciprocal relationship between PTCE and regional demands in order to co-construct a regional PTCE network, not to mention the importance of the role of active and specific resources in the Grasse district compared to other areas.
    Abstract: Depuis fin 2013, un collectif de structures, mises en lien par le biais des contrats locaux de développement de l’économie sociale et solidaire du pays de Grasse et de Valbonne, cherche à construire des coopérations et des mutualisations afin de renforcer leur modèle économique et de développer de nouveaux biens et services répondant à des besoins sur le territoire dans une démarche d’innovation sociale. Dans ce contexte, la SCIC T.E.T.R.I.S. (Transition écologique territoriale par la recherche et l’innovation sociale) à Grasse a candidaté au 2e appel à projets gouvernemental d’avril 2015 des pôles territoriaux de coopération économique (PTCE). Cette communication met en évidence la « demande » territoriale à l’origine de la structuration du PTCE T.E.T.R.I.S. Ainsi, on peut émettre l’hypothèse qu’il existe des relations réciproques entre le PTCE et la demande territorialisée pour la co-construction d’un pôle, et ce sans omettre le rôle majeur des ressources territoriales actives et spécifiques à Grasse comparativement à d’autres territoires.
    Keywords: Regional Networks of Economic Cooperation (PTCE),Regional demands,Public policy,Territorial resources,Social innovation,pôle territorial de coopération économique ,demande sociale ,politique publique ,ressource territoriale ,innovation sociale
    Date: 2016–03–17
  14. By: Ahsina, Khalifa; Slaoui, Oumaima
    Abstract: According to an international study carried out in 2015. in Morocco, it has been found that the transition from intention to start-up is very mixed. Indeed, out of 35.8% of the Moroccan active population intending to undertake, only 1.31% of people actually created their businesses.Indeed, the process of business creation is a complex process and it is usually generated in the environment where strong and weak bonds are present in the creation of businesses.This is why several authors, Colemen (2004) and Granovetter (2004) mobilized the theory of social networks to explain this passage. Indeed, the social networks of the entrepreneur play an important role in the acquisition of the social and financial capital needed to start up the company.From this we ask the following research question: "What is the impact of the social networks of the entrepreneur on the actual creation of a business project? According to the methodology used by Grossetti and Barthe, (2008), life stories were used in a mixed way.This original method in the field of entrepreneurship allows to identify the characteristics of the joint evolution of the activity and the social network and then to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the processes underlying these dynamics.We opt for reasoned sampling (Thietard et al, 2007). So we will interview entrepreneurs who have created a business in the twelve regions of Morocco.The results expected from analysis of the field data will allow us to corroborate our theoretical model and thus prescribe the best ways to create effective networks for entrepreneurs and creative organizations.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Intent, Life Stories, Social Networks,
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2017–03–24
  15. By: Racic Domagoj (Mreza Znanja d.o.o); Jadranka Svarc (Ivo Pilar Institute of Social Sciences); Hristo Hristov (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The 2016 series of the RIO Country Report analyses and assesses the development and performance of the national research and innovation system of the EU-28 Member States and related policies with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the EU policy implementation as well as facilitating policy learning in the Member States.
    Keywords: R&I system, R&I policy, ERA, innovation union, Semester analysis, Croatia
    JEL: I20 O30 Z18
    Date: 2017–09
  16. By: Shirokova, G.; Ivvonen, L.
    Abstract: This study examines how components of strategic entrepreneurship (exploration and exploitation) relate to Russian SMEs performance during the economic crisis and to what extent combinations of firm resources determine these relationships. In order to address these issues we surveyed 651 Russian private SMEs. Our results show that during the economic crisis exploitation is positively associated with SME’s performance. However, we found positive association of exploration with SME’s performance during the economic crisis instead of negative association. Our results also indicate that relationship between exploration as well as exploitation and firm performance is dependent on different combinations of firm resources.
    Keywords: strategic entrepreneurship, exploration, exploitation, SME, sfirm performance, economic crisis, human capital, financial capital, Russia,
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Aleksandrova, E.; Verkhovskaya, O.
    Abstract: This preprint is the second part of the Necessity-driven Entrepreneurship: a cross-country Analysis project. This paper takes institutional environment’s perspective on entrepreneurship in general, on necessity-driven entrepreneurship in particular, therefore incorporating its multidimensional nature and enabling more detailed understanding of interaction between entrepreneurial motivation and institutional arrangements. The main content of this research determines the significant factors in the regulatory, normative, and cognitive pillars of the institutional environment. Using the databases of World Bank, the International Labour Organization, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey, the Doing Business, and the World Economic Forum the set of the variables of the institutional environment was defined. These data are from 2009 to 2014, and range across 70 countries. Our research shows that different institutional factors influence the total level of entrepreneurial activity and motivation structure differently.
    Keywords: necessity-driven entrepreneurship, institutional environment, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey (GEM),
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Mehrotra, Neil (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis); Crouzet, Nicolas (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: Drawing from confidential firm-level data of US manufacturing firms, we provide new evidence on the cyclicality of small and large firms. We show that the cyclicality of sales and investment declines with firm size. The effect is primarily driven by differences between the top 0.5% of firms and the rest. Moreover, we show that, due to the skewness of sales and investment, the higher cyclicality of small firms has a negligible influence on the behavior of aggregates. We argue that the size asymmetry is unlikely to be driven by financial frictions given 1) the absence of statistically significant differences in the behavior of production inputs or debt in recessions, 2) the survival of the size effect after directly controlling for proxies of financial strength, and 3) the predictions of a simple financial frictions model, in which unconstrained (large) firms contract more in recessions than constrained (small) firms.
    Keywords: Firm size; Business cycles; Financial accelerator
    JEL: E23 E32 G30
    Date: 2017–09–05

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