nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Research, knowledge transfer and innovation: the effect of Italian universities’ efficiency on the local economic development 2006-2012 By Tommaso Agasisti; Cristian Barra; Roberto Zotti
  2. Necessity or opportunity? the effects of State fragility and economic development on entrepreneurial efforts rights: a stochastic frontier index By José Ernesto Amorós Espinosa; Luciano Ciravegna; Vesna Mandakovic; Pekka Stenmolm
  3. Spatial Analysis of Emissions in Sweden By George Marbuah; Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah
  4. CDS and credit: Testing the small bang theory of the financial universe with micro data By Gündüz, Yalin; Ongena, Steven; Tümer-Alkan, Günseli; Yu, Yuejuan
  5. The Relationship between Female Representation at Strategic Level and Firm's Competitiveness: Evidences from Cargo Logistic Firms of Pakistan and Canada By Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Cockrill, Antje
  6. Sistemas de inovação e mudanças na divisão centro-periferia: notas sobre uma metodologia para identificar trajetórias de países a partir de estatísticas de ciência e tecnologia By Catari Vilela Chaves; Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Ulisses Pereira Santos; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  7. Firms' knowledge acquisition during dual-track VET: Which sources are important for innovativeness? By Christian Rupietta; Harald Pfeifer; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  8. Development of SME Competitiveness Using IoT in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Japanese) By IWAMOTO Koichi; HATANO Aya
  9. The Engines of the Creative Response: Reactivity and Knowledge Governance. By Antonelli, Cristiano
  10. Feminization of entrepreneurship in developing countries? Evidence from GEM data By Jorge, Velilla
  11. Smart Specialization policy in the EU: Relatedness, Knowledge Complexity and Regional Diversification By Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; Joan Crespo; David L. Rigby
  12. International protection of intellectual property rights: a stochastic frontier index By José Fernández Donoso; Fernando Hernández
  13. Mobile Phone Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice Asongu; Nicholas Biekpe
  14. Twenty Challenges for Innovation Studies By Ben R. Martin

  1. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Management); Cristian Barra (Università di Salerno); Roberto Zotti (Università di Salerno)
    Abstract: In this paper, we test whether there is a link between the performance of universities and the local economic development of the territory where they operate. The performance of academic institutions is measured through an efficiency concept, estimated by means of an innovative Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), and considering indicators of teaching, research and ‘third mission’ as outputs. A system generalized method-of-moments (Sys- GMM) dynamic panel estimator, instrumented with time lags and differences is estimated over the period from 2006 to 2012 to solve the potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables. Our findings reveal that the presence of efficient universities fosters local economic development, and that knowledge spillovers occur between areas through the geographical proximity to the efficient universities.
    Keywords: Higher education; knowledge spillovers; local economic development; efficiency of universities
    JEL: I21 E01
  2. By: José Ernesto Amorós Espinosa; Luciano Ciravegna; Vesna Mandakovic; Pekka Stenmolm (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of state fragility and economic development on necessity and opportunity-based individual entrepreneurial efforts. We contribute to the literature on the contextual determinants of entrepreneurship by examining multilevel data on 956,925 individuals from 51 countries for the period of 2005–2013. We show that state fragility has a positive effect on necessity-based entrepreneurial efforts while hindering opportunity-based efforts. Our findings illustrate that the level of economic development moderates the relationship between state fragility and necessity-driven entrepreneurial efforts reducing the likelihood of the latter. We discuss the implications for theory and for pro-entrepreneurship policy
    Keywords: Entrepreneuship, State fragility, Economic development
    Date: 2017–06
  3. By: George Marbuah (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to an emerging literature on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between pollution and income at the local level by analyzing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP). We conduct several spatial statistical and econometric tests to account for spatial dependence between 290 Swedish municipalities on the selected emissions. Results highlight evidence that the pollution and income relationship is significantly characterized by spatial interaction effects. That is, municipality per capita emissions are strongly influenced by emissions trajectories in neighbouring municipalities. Implications of our findings on policy are discussed.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve, Spatial econometric analysis, Emissions, Sweden,
    JEL: Q53 Q55 R12
    Date: 2017–06
  4. By: Gündüz, Yalin; Ongena, Steven; Tümer-Alkan, Günseli; Yu, Yuejuan
    Abstract: Does hedging motivate CDS trading and does that affect the availability of credit? To answer these questions we couple comprehensive bank-firm level CDS trading data from the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation with the German credit register containing bilateral bank-firm credit exposures. We find that following the Small Bang in the European CDS market, extant credit relationships with riskier firms increase banks' CDS trading and hedging of these firms. Properly hedged banks holding more CDS contracts of riskier firms supply relatively more credit to these firms. Our results are overall stronger for firm CDSs experiencing larger improvements in liquidity.
    Keywords: credit default swaps,credit exposure,hedging,bank lending,Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation (DTCC)
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Haque, Adnan ul; Faizan, Riffat; Cockrill, Antje
    Abstract: The comparative study investigates the impact of various attributes such as feminine leadership style, gender diversity, and autonomy linked with the female representation at strategic level on the performance and competitiveness of the Cargo Logistic Firms in the contrasting economies; Pakistan and Canada. Previous studies offered limited insight due to unidimensional while this study takes multivariate approach, considering; variable of interest examined in terms of economies and gender. Cross-sectional research design following semi-structured questionnaire circulated among targeted audience by combining of stratified (probability) and convenience, purposive, and snowball (non-probability) sampling technique at layers of management. The combined sample size is 631 employees. The results showed that females prefer more flexible leadership style in comparison to males. Organisations having high gender diversity and female representation at strategic level are more progressive and innovative. Interestingly, in developing economies, rapid career growth chances are higher for females. Females are more people oriented while male are more task-oriented. Males have high desire for autonomy at workplace.
    Keywords: leadership style, gender diversity, autonomy, corporate hierarchy, female representation, comparative analysis
    JEL: C0 C12 D22 D23 M1 M14 M15 M19
    Date: 2017–02–17
  6. By: Catari Vilela Chaves (PUC Minas); Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Inmetro, Rio de Janeiro); Ulisses Pereira Santos (Cedeplar-UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the international position of national systems of innovation. Data for patents, papers, population and GDP are processed by the methodology of clustering. The outcome is the identification of thresholds between those clusters, the most important a divide center-periphery according to science and technology statistics. Those thresholds move pushed by technological revolutions at the center. This dynamic scenario puts forward a challenge to future catch up processes.
    Keywords: Science and technology, center-periphery, national systems of innovation
    JEL: O30 O33
    Date: 2017–06
  7. By: Christian Rupietta (University of Wuppertal); Harald Pfeifer (Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB)); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Researchers debate for more than 3 decades on the effect of vocational training on innovations. While some studies show a negative effect of vocational education that firms organize on its own, other studies show a positive effect for vocational education that is organized on a sectoral or national level such as in Germany or Switzerland. A characteristic of these vocational education and training (VET) systems is a high level of standardization and regulation. In fact many elements of VET are regulated in national law, training ordinances and curricula, but firms nevertheless less still have a high flexibility when it comes to the organization of workplace training. In this paper we analyze how firms organize their workplace training, which training methods they use and which training methods they apply jointly. As each training method e.g. training during work or external courses, transfers a specific set of skills and knowledge to apprentices, we analyze how firms use training methods to promote their innovation activity. Our results show that there is a large variety in the organization of workplace training. In sum firms make use of the flexibility to design workplace training that fits their needs best. We conclude with implications for the design of VET systems and firms.
    Keywords: Learning Modes, Innovation, Vocational Education, fsQCA, negative binomial regression
    Date: 2017–07
  8. By: IWAMOTO Koichi; HATANO Aya
    Abstract: This paper describes the results of a study group which I held to look at the development of small and medium enterprises (SME) competitiveness using the Internet of Things (IoT) in 2016 and of related research. In Japan, it is rare to find complete IoT systems introduced in the production process of SMEs. The simple reason is that SME managers do not understand IoT, which can have two interpretations. The first one is the managers do not understand the complex technology. The second one is they do not understand the merits of the technology for their own companies. The study group adopted four SMEs as model cases, and fully conducted a trial and error process from the beginning of discussions to the introduction of IoT, which aims to have all SME managers consider this issue as their own matter. The discussions of the study group focused on the SMEs'production process.
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The notion of endogenous innovation as the outcome of the creative response of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions is the cornerstone of the new evolutionary complexity. This essay explores the role of the reactivity of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions and of knowledge governance in assessing the chances that creative responses actually take place as an alternative to adaptive responses. It implements a systemic frame able to show that: i) the levels of reactivity of firms enhance the research efforts of rims that try and cope with out of equilibrium conditions; ii) the actual rates of introduction of innovations and increase of total factor productivity are contingent upon the quality of knowledge governance, and iii) out-of-equilibrium conditions, as well as the amount of knowledge externalities are the endogenous outcome of the creative response.
    Date: 2017–06
  10. By: Jorge, Velilla
    Abstract: Certain analyses have studied gender differences in entrepreneurial activity, but, in general, the lack of specific controls may have led to biased results. In this paper, we analyze whether male or female individuals have a higher probability of becoming entrepreneurs in developing regions (Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, South-East Asia, and Africa). Using GEM data from 2009 to 2014, we avoid the potential confounding problems arising from the definition of entrepreneurship. We find that the descriptive statistics show constant gender gaps in entrepreneurial activity in favor of males, for all the regions. However, when individual and environmental entrepreneurial characteristics are taken into account, these gaps diminish significantly in Eastern Europe, disappear in Asia and Africa, and are reversed in Latin America.
    Keywords: Gender; Feminist; Entrepreneurship; Developing countries; GEM Data
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2017–07–03
  11. By: Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Ron Boschma; Joan Crespo; David L. Rigby
    Abstract: Smart specialization has become a hallmark of the EUÕs Cohesion Policy. Envisaged as a bottom-up initiative identifying local knowledge cores and associated competitive advantages, the operationalization of smart specialization has been rather limited, as a coherent set of analytical tools to guide the policy directives remains elusive. To tackle the weak underpinning of smart specialization policy, we propose a policy framework around the concepts of relatedness and knowledge complexity. We use EPO patent data to provide evidence on how EU regions develop new technologies in the period 1990-2009. We find that diversifying into more complex technologies is highly attractive but difficult for EU regions to accomplish. Regions can overcome this diversification dilemma by developing new complex technologies that build on local related capabilities. We use these findings to construct a policy framework for smart specialization that highlights the potential risks and rewards for regions of adopting competing diversification strategies. We show how potential costs of alternative strategies in regions may be assessed by making use of the relatedness concept, and how potential benefits of various smart specialization strategies can be derived from estimates of the complexity of technologies. A series of case-studies of different types of regions illustrate the utility of this policy framework. Length:
    JEL: O25 O38 R11
    Date: 2017–07
  12. By: José Fernández Donoso; Fernando Hernández (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This paper combines two bodies of work: the literature regarding the measurement of the strength of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection systems and stochastic production frontier efficiency analysis. We propose measuring the efficiency of IPR protection systems by comparing optimal production frontier of innovation to real results, through a measure based on the existing Stochastic Frontier Analysis of technical efficiency. Our results indicate that, despite imperfect datasets, this approach provides interesting results comparable to measures in Park (2008) and other IPR strength indicators. Some issues to be further explored longer datasets and richer information, and innovation measurements. This paper also adds some evidence to the idea of an inverted U relationship between innovation output and IPR protection system strength.
    Keywords: Intellectual property, Innovation, Global Innovation Index, Patent applications, Economic development, Stochastic frontier analysis, Fixed effects
    Date: 2017–05
  13. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Nicholas Biekpe (Cape Town, South Africa.)
    Abstract: This study assesses how knowledge diffusion modulates the effect of the mobile phone on entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa with data for the period 2000-2012.The empirical evidence is based on interactive Generalised Method of Moments in which mobile phones are interacted with three knowledge diffusion variables, namely: education, internet penetration and scientific output. Ten variables of entrepreneurship are used. The following three main findings are established. First, the net effects from interacting mobile phones with the internet and scientific publications are negative whereas the corresponding net impact from the interaction between mobile phones and education is positive on the cost of doing business. Second, the mobile phone interacts with education (the internet) to have a positive (negative) net effect on the time needed to construct a warehouse whereas, the corresponding interaction with the internet yields a net negative effect on the time to enforce a contract. Third, there is a positive net effect from the interaction of mobile phones with education on the time to start a business. Given the construction of the education variable, the positive net effects from education are consistent with corresponding negative net effects from the other knowledge diffusion variables. The main policy implication is that mobile phone innovation (by means of internet penetration, scientific output and quality education) decreases constraints of entrepreneurship. Suggestions on how to boost these knowledge diffusion channels are discussed. Other practical and theoretical implications are also covered. To the best our knowledge, this is the first inquiry to assess the relevance of mobile phone innovation in entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; the Mobile Phone; Knowledge Diffusion; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: L59 L98 O10 O30 O55
    Date: 2017–05
  14. By: Ben R. Martin
    Abstract: With the field of innovation studies now half a century old, the occasion has been marked by several studies looking back to identify the main advances made over its lifetime. Starting from a list of 20 advances over the field's history, this discussion paper sets out 20 challenges for coming decades. The intention is to prompt a debate within the innovation studies community on what are, or should be, the key challenges for us to take up, and more generally on what sort of field we aspire to be. It is argued that the empirical focus of our studies has failed to keep pace with the fast changing world and economy, especially the shift from manufacturing to services and the increasingly urgent need for sustainability. Moreover, the very way we conceptualise, define, operationalise and analyse 'innovation' seems somewhat rooted in the past, leaving us less able to grapple with other less visible or 'dark' forms of innovation.
    Keywords: innovation studies; science policy; research challenges; dark innovation
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O38 Q55
    Date: 2015–12

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