nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2016‒10‒30
thirteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Technological innovation systems for biorefineries – A review of the literature By Bauer, Fredric; Coenen, Lars; Hansen, Teis; McCormick, Kes; Palgan, Yuliya Voytenko
  3. Survey of Big Data Use and Innovation in Japanese Manufacturing Firms (Japanese) By MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  4. Disentangling the Role of Modularity and Bandwidth in Entry Mode Choice: The Case of Business Services Offshoring By Stefano Elia; Rajneesh Narula; Silvia Massini; Antonio Vezzani
  5. Survival of Entrepreneurial Firms: The Role of Agglomeration Externalities By Tavassoli, Sam; Jienwatcharamongkhol, Viroj
  6. Distance to the Pre-industrial Technological Frontier and Economic Development By Özak, Ömer
  7. Where Are the Artists? Analyzing Economies of Agglomeration in Spain By Ivan Boal-San Miguel; Luis Cesar Herrero-Prieto
  8. Grantbacks, Territorial Restraints, and the Type of Follow-On Innovation: The "But for..." Defense By Ambashi, Masahito; Régibeau, Pierre; Rockett, Katharine
  9. Innovation policies for regional structural change: Combining actor-based and system-based strategies By Arne Isaksen; Franz Tödtling; Michaela Trippl
  10. Management practices and productivity in Germany By Broszeit, Sandra; Fritsch, Ursula; Görg, Holger; Laible, Marie-Christine
  12. The autoentrepreneur regime and the entrepreneurial risk By Nadine Levratto; Evelyne Serverin
  13. Patents as Substitutes for Relationships By Saidi, Farzad; Zaldokas, Alminas

  1. By: Bauer, Fredric (Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University); Coenen, Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University); Hansen, Teis (Department of Human Geography, Lund University); McCormick, Kes (IIIEE, Lund University); Palgan, Yuliya Voytenko (IIIEE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The concept of a bioeconomy can be understood as an economy where the basic building blocks for materials, chemicals and energy are derived from renewable biological resources. Biorefineries are considered an integral part of the development towards a future sustainable bioeconomy. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize current knowledge about how biorefinery technologies are being developed, deployed, and diffused, and to identify actors, networks and institutions relevant for these processes. A number of key findings can be obtained from the literature. First, investing more resources in R&D will not help to enable biorefineries to cross the ‘valley of death’ towards greater commercial investments. Second, while the importance and need for entrepreneurship and the engagement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is generally acknowledged, there is no agreement how to facilitate conditions for entrepreneurs and SMEs to enter into the field of biorefineries. Third, visions for biorefinery technologies and products have focused very much on biofuels and bioenergy with legislation and regulation playing an instrumental role in creating a market for these products. But there is a clear need to incentivize non-energy products to encourage investments in biorefineries. Finally, policy support for biorefinery developments and products are heavily intertwined with wider discussions around legitimacy and social acceptance.
    Keywords: bioeconomy; biorefineries; biorefinery technology; technological innovation systems
    JEL: L73 O33 Q23 Q55
    Date: 2016–10–19
  2. By: Zouaghi, Ferdaous; Hirsch, Stefan; Garcia, Mercedes Sanchez
    Abstract: Strategic management research has demonstrated the importance of firm resources and industry structure as drivers of profitability. However, less is known about how factors related to firms´ geographical locations affect profitability. In this article, we estimate firm-, industry-, year-, and region-specific effects on agri-food firm profitability in Spain. We apply the multilevel approach of Hierarchical Linear Modeling to a sample of 3,273 agri-food firms operating in different geographical districts during the time span 2006-2013. The results reveal the dominance of firm-specific effects which contribute up to 48.8% to variance in profitability. Moreover, firm size, growth, financial risk as well as innovation activity turn out as significant profit drivers. Although firm-effects have a stronger impact than industry affiliation and location, the results indicate that structural industry factors such as concentration and size as well as territorial factors such as regional education and unemployment influence profitability. Moreover, location in rural districts is not necessarily a handicap for firm profitability.
    Keywords: agri-food profits, hierarchical linear model, location effects, Agribusiness, Industrial Organization, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2016
  3. By: MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This paper shows the results of a survey on big data use in manufacturing firms and innovation, conducted in November 2015. The survey investigated (1) firms' organization of big data use, (2) collection and business use of big data by type of data, and (3) use of datasets outside firms, with 539 respondents out of 4,000 firms. We divided the entire manufacturing process into three parts, i.e., development, mass production, and after services, and find that big data are widely used in all activities. In addition, firms with dedicated big data use function are more likely to conduct big data activity across various departments, as well as demonstrate a higher performance impact. However, we also find great disparity in terms of the usage style, particularly by firm size. For example, more than half of small and mid-sized enterprises (SMEs) responded that they have heard of Internet of Things (IoT), yet they are unaware of how to respond to such trend. Policy implications based on the results include (1) promoting diffusion of big data use, particularly for SMEs, (2) supporting human capital development for big data use, and (3) strategic standardization activities of IoT.
    Date: 2016–10
  4. By: Stefano Elia (Politecnico di Milano, Italy); Rajneesh Narula (Henley Business School, University of Reading, UK); Silvia Massini; Antonio Vezzani (Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, UK)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of modularity on entry mode choice of companies’ offshoring of business services. We distinguish between functional modularity, which reflects the possibility to subdivide a function into smaller modules, and architectural modularity, which reflects the interdependence between these modules. Lower architectural modularity requires greater interaction (greater ‘bandwidth’) between the organizational units to reintegrate the individual modules. Using modularity appropriately can decrease transaction costs and reduce the risks of knowledge leakages associated with offshoring, and improve the effectiveness of the sourcing process, thus increasing the probability that firms opt for less hierarchical entry modes. Firms that are less experienced with offshoring tend to underestimate the associated resources and costs of architectural modularity and select entry modes that do not provide sufficient bandwidth to efficiently reintegrate offshored modules, increasing the risk of failure of the offshoring initiatives. Our empirical analysis, which involves 490 offshoring initiatives, supports our arguments, especially in high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries.
    Keywords: Offshoring, entry mode, modularity, value chain fragmentation, outsourcing
    Date: 2015–06
  5. By: Tavassoli, Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University); Jienwatcharamongkhol, Viroj (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of various types of agglomeration externalities on the survival rate of entrepreneurial firms. In particular, we trace the population cohort of newly-established and self-employed Swedish firms in the Knowledge-Intensive Business Service (KIBS) sector in 1997 up to 2012 and investigate the role of Marshallian and Jacobian externalities on the survival of these firms. We find that only Jacobian externalities (diversity) is positively associated with the survival of entrepreneurial firms. Not all Jacobian externalities matter though. Only the higher the “related variety” of the region in which an entrepreneurial firm is founded, the higher will be the survival chance of the firm, while “unrelated variety” barely has any significant correlation. The result is robust after controlling for extensive firm characteristics and individual characteristics of the founders. The main message here is: for a newly-established entrepreneurial firm, not only it matters who you are, but also where you are.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial firms; region; agglomeration externalities; survival analysis; related variety; unrelated variety
    JEL: J24 L26 R12
    Date: 2016–10–19
  6. By: Özak, Ömer
    Abstract: This research explores the effects of the geographical distance to the pre-industrial technological frontier on economic development. It establishes theoretically and empirically that there exists a persistent non-monotonic effect of distance to the frontier on development. In particular, exploiting a novel measure of the travel time to the technological frontier and variations in its location during the pre-industrial era, it establishes a robust persistent U-shaped relation between the distance to the pre-industrial technological frontier and economic development. Moreover, it demonstrates that isolation from the frontier has had a positive cumulative effect on innovation and entrepreneurial activity levels, suggesting isolation may have fostered the emergence of a culture conducive to innovation, knowledge creation, and entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: E02, F15, F43, N10, N70, O11, O14, O31, O33, Z10
    JEL: E02 F15 F43 N10 O10 O11 O14 O25 O31 O33 Z10
    Date: 2016–10
  7. By: Ivan Boal-San Miguel (Department of Applied Economics, University of Valladolid); Luis Cesar Herrero-Prieto (Department of Applied Economics, University of Valladolid)
    Abstract: The creative economy has become the subject of increasing interest in recent years, both in the area of cultural economics as well as in economic development studies and the analysis of spatial disparities. In this regard, various studies have examined the spatial logics of cultural and creative industries, although analyses into the location and agglomeration of artists therein remain few and far between, in other words inquiry into the activities location linked to artistic creation in a purer sense. The present work thus seeks to delve into location and spatial structure of the cultural sector in a Spanish region, focusing specifically on activities more closely linked to artistic creativity, such as literary creation, performing arts, bullfighting, music, cinema, etc. The work examines the autonomous community of Castilla y León as an example, and posits an analysis of the spatial distribution of artists using micro-spatial disaggregation, in other words taking the network of towns as the territorial analysis unit. Spatial econometric techniques are used to identify location patterns, pinpoint territorial activity clusters and to measure agglomeration economies. A first look at the findings reveals that the cultural sector in Castilla y León evidences a strong trend towards concentration, with spatial distribution patterns which lead to the formation of statistically significant cultural clusters and strong spatial dependence between territories over the whole of the period analysed (2005-2013).
    Keywords: Artists, spatial economic analysis, economies of agglomeration, cultural clusters, micro-territorial analysis
    JEL: Z11 R12
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Ambashi, Masahito; Régibeau, Pierre; Rockett, Katharine
    Abstract: We analyse the effect of grantback clauses in licensing contracts. While competition authorities fear that grantback clauses might decrease the licensee's ex post incentives to innovate, a standard defence is that grantback clauses are required for the patent-owner to agree to license its technology in the first place. We examine the validity of this "but for" defense and the equilibrium effect of grantback clauses on the innovation incentives of the licensee for both non-severable and severable innovations. Under the 2004 EU Technology Transfer Guidelines, and the guidelines for some other jurisdictions, grantback clauses that apply to "non-severable" (read "infringing") innovations are considered to be less controversial than clauses that apply to "severable" innovations.. We show, to the contrary, that grantback clauses do not increase the patent-holder's incentives to license when non-severable innovations are at stake but they do when severable innovations are concerned - suggesting that the "but fo" defense might be valid for severable innovations but not for non-severable ones. Moreover we show that, for severable innovations, grantback clauses can increase the range of parameters for which follow-on innovation by the licensee occurs.
    Keywords: grantbacks; innovation; licensing
    JEL: K21 L24 O31
    Date: 2016–10
  9. By: Arne Isaksen; Franz Tödtling; Michaela Trippl
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Broszeit, Sandra; Fritsch, Ursula; Görg, Holger; Laible, Marie-Christine
    Abstract: Based on a novel dataset, the "German Management and Organizational Practices" (GMOP) Survey, we calculate establishment specific management scores following Bloom and van Reenen as indicators of management quality. We find substantial heterogeneity in management practices across establishments in Germany, with small firms having lower scores than large firms on average. We show a robust positive and economically important association between the management score and establishment level productivity in Germany. This association increases with firm size. Comparison to a similar survey in the US indicates that the average management score is lower in Germany than in the US. Overall, our results point towards lower management scores being at least in part to blame for the differences in aggregate productivity between Germany and the US.
    Keywords: management practices,firm performance,labor productivity,GMOP,MOPS
    JEL: D24 L2 M2
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Borge, Laura; Preschitschek, Nina; Bröring, Stefanie
    Abstract: In the bioeconomy, technology transfer from academia to industry may exploit its strong innovation potential. However, this process is challenged by a wide variety of factors. This paper uses the mixed-method approach of concept mapping to investigate the factors as perceived by multiple stakeholders that influence technology transfer in the bioeconomy. Our findings suggest that the interconnectedness and the perceived individual factors vary across the different stakeholders involved. Based on our findings, we discuss practical implications both for the involved stakeholders and particularly for policy makers on how to achieve effective technology transfer in the bioeconomy.
    Keywords: Bioeconomy, factors, multi-stakeholder, perspective, technology transfer, Agribusiness, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2016
  12. By: Nadine Levratto (EconomiX - UPOND - Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé); Evelyne Serverin (CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)
    Abstract: The creation and the popularity of the auto-entrepreneur regime rests on the supposed absence of risk associated with this judicial status. By conditioning the payment of the social security contributions to the realization of a turnover, the legislator thought of eliminating any risk from deficit. However, the core theory of entrepreneur insists on the risky dimension associated with the creation of a business whereas, more recently, the multiform aspect of the risk has been enlightened. From this framework, and on the basis of sociological approach of the law, we propose to analyse a corpus made of 104 judicial decisions concerning auto-entrepreneurs. Our results clarify three families of risks. The first one is generated by the activity itself, the second group rises from the articulation with wage-earning and the third class results from the complexity of the rules. As the auto-entrepreneurs neither benefit from the protection of the legal entity, nor of the limited responsibility, they are thus confronted at significant risks that the levelling off of their income finally does not compensate.
    Abstract: La création et la popularité du régime de l'auto-entrepreneur reposent sur l'absence de risque associée à ce régime. En conditionnant le paiement des cotisations sociales à la réalisation d'un chiffre d'affaires, le législateur a pensé éliminer tout risque de déficit. Or, dès ses tous premiers stades, la théorie de l'entrepreneur insiste sur la dimension risquée de la création d'une entreprise alors que, plus récemment, le caractère multiforme du risque d'entreprise a été mis en avant. A partir de cette grille, et sur la base d'une approche sociologique du droit, nous proposons d'analyser un corpus de 104 décisions de justice impliquant des auto-entrepreneurs. Nos résultats mettent en lumière trois familles de risques qui peuvent se combiner. La première est engendrée par l'activité elle-même, la deuxième découle de l'articulation avec le salariat et la troisième résulte de la complexité des règles. Ne bénéficiant de la protection ni de la personnalité morale, ni de la responsabilité limitée, les auto-entrepreneurs sont donc confrontés à des risques importants que le plafonnement de leur revenu ne parvient finalement pas à compenser. Mots clefs : auto-entrepreneur, risque, théorie de l'entrepreneur, sociologie du droit Codes JEL : L21, L26, L53 The autoentrepreneur regime and the entrepreneurial risk
    Keywords: auto-entrepreneur, risque, théorie de l’entrepreneur, sociologie du droit
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Saidi, Farzad; Zaldokas, Alminas
    Abstract: Firms face a trade-off between patenting, thereby disclosing innovation, and secrecy. In this paper, we show how such public-information provision through patents acts as a substitute for private information acquired in financial relationships. As a shock to innovation disclosure, we use the American Inventor's Protection Act that made the content of firms' patent applications public within 18 months after filing, rather than at the grant date. Firms in industries that experienced a greater change in the publicity of their patent applications were significantly more likely to switch lenders. We also consider the reverse link of the substitution relationship, and explore the impact of improved lender informedness following the creation of universal banks on firms' patenting behavior. We find that firms patent less, without negatively altering their investment in innovation and its outcomes, such as new-product announcements.
    Keywords: corporate disclosure; Information Acquisition; innovation; loan contracting; patenting
    JEL: G20 G21 O31
    Date: 2016–10

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