nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2016‒01‒29
eleven papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovator Mobility in Finland and Denmark By Bagger, Jesper; Maliranta, Mika; Määttänen, Niku; Pajarinen, Mika
  2. Innovation & the professional service firm: Insights into the Locus, Patterns, and Tensions of Innovation in a Fast-Growing Information Technology Consultancy in New Zealand By Lee, Darren
  3. Are clusters more resilient in crises? Evidence from French exporters in 2008-2009 By Philippe Martin; Thierry Mayer; Florian Mayneris
  4. Multiple banking relationships: do SMEs mistrust their banks? By Catherine Refait-Alexandre; Stéphanie Serve
  5. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome By Huttlin, E. L.; Ting, L.; Bruckner, R. J.; Gebreab, F.; Gygi, M. P.; Szpyt, J.; Tam, S.; Zarraga, G.; Colby, G.; Baltier, K.; Dong, R.; Guarani, V.; Vaites, L. P.; Ordureau, A.; Rad, R.; Erickson, B. K.; Wühr, M.; Chick, J.; Zhai, B.; Kolippakkam, D.; Mintseris, J.; Obar, R. A.; Harris, T.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S.; Sowa, M. E.; De Camilli, P.; Paulo, J. A.; Harper, J. W.; Gygi, S. P.
  6. Leading R&D Investors for the Dynamics of Innovation Ecosystems By Mafini Dosso; Fernando Hervas; Antonio Vezzani
  7. Technological drivers of R&D location By Mafini Dosso; Antonio Vezzani
  8. Evaluation of Research and Innovation Policies: The Case of Russian Universities By Mikhail A. Gershman; Galina A. Kitova
  9. Digital Entrepreneurship Barriers and Drivers - The need for a specific measurement framework By Marc Bogdanowicz
  10. Entry and exit in recent US business cycles By Mikel Casares
  11. Gender Equality Results Case Study - Bangladesh: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Development Project By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  1. By: Bagger, Jesper; Maliranta, Mika; Määttänen, Niku; Pajarinen, Mika
    Abstract: Abstract Workers have different abilities in research, development and innovation (R&D&I) activities. Firms have different “prospects for innovation”. Innovation is facilitated by matching innovators, i.e. workers that are specialized in R&D&I to firms with good prospects for innovation. Aggregate productivity growth requires that firms with the best prospects for innovation are quickly matched to innovators. The mobility of innovators is also important for positive knowledge spillovers to materialize. We use Finnish and Danish linked employer-employee data to study labour mobility, focusing on innovators. For Finland, Denmark is an interesting benchmark country because its labour market is generally considered very flexible. We find that overall labour mobility is significantly lower in Finland than in Denmark. However, relative to other occupation groups, innovators are actually more mobile in Finland than in Denmark. In Finland, innovators tend to cluster in firms that are among the most productive in their industry.
    Keywords: Research and development, innovation, occupational choice, labour mobility, innovator mobility, resource allocation
    JEL: J24 J62
    Date: 2016–01–13
  2. By: Lee, Darren
    Abstract: This research investigated the locus of innovation through a time-frame of ten years for a fast growing, privately-owned New Zealand information technology professional service consultancy firm. Emergent patterns related to the firm’s innovations were analysed along with the classic consultancy conundrum - the management of tension between future-focused innovations or present-day profits. An in-depth single case study approach was employed where the units of analysis were each innovation of the firm. Semi-structured interviews of 23 current employees involved in innovation activities across all levels of the organisation were conducted. This led to the discovery that less innovation occurred at the inception of the firm where the priority was to sustain the business in the short term. As the firm matured, the rate of innovations increased. The locus of innovation shifted from Top-down to Bottom-up as the firm grew. Further analysis showed that Top-down innovations had a higher likelihood of resource allocation and scaling at the firm. The consultancy conundrum is a constant tension that will continue to exist for the firm. The firm employs a number of “semi-structures” both formal and informal in nature to manage that tension. The findings of this research present a case for an inverse pattern of innovation for privately-owned professional service firms – where innovation occurs at the later stages of the firm’s growth life-cycle.
    Keywords: Innovation, Consultancy, New Zealand,
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Philippe Martin (Département d'économie); Thierry Mayer (Département d'économie); Florian Mayneris (Institut de recherches économiques et sociales)
    Abstract: Clusters have already been extensively shown to favor firm-level economic performance (productivity, exports, innovation etc.). However, little is known about the capacity of firms in clusters to resist economic shocks. In this paper, we analyze whether firms that agglomerate in clusters and firms that have been selected to benefit from the « competitiveness cluster » industrial policy, implemented in France in 2005, have performed better on export markets during the recent economic turmoil. We show that, on average, both agglomeration and the cluster policy are associated with a higher survival probability of firms on export markets, and conditioning on survival, a higher growth rate of their exports. However, these effects are not stronger during the 2008-2009 crisis; if anything, the opposite is true. We then show that this weaker resilience of competitiveness cluster firms is probably due to the fact that firms in clusters are more dependent on the fate of the « leader », i.e. the largest exporter in the cluster.
    Keywords: Clusters; Competitiveness clusters; Exports; Crisis; Resilience
    JEL: F1 R10 R11 R12 R15
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Catherine Refait-Alexandre (Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, CRESE); Stéphanie Serve (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: This article focuses on the use of multiple banking relationships by SMEs, a key issue given their strong dependence on bank financing in a context of increasing financial constraints and higher risk of credit rationing since the crisis. We investigate whether the use of multiple banking relationships is explained by firms’ characteristics or by the quality of the banking relationship. We exploit the results of an original survey conducted on a sample of French SMEs in December 2012. According to the traditional theoretical framework of multiple banking, we find that older, bigger, and betterperforming firms are more likely to access multiple banking relationships. We further find that innovative firms are more likely to engage in multiple banking relationships. We also highlight the explanatory power of an alternative model based on the quality of banking relationship: when the manager trusts its main bank, or when he is closer to his loan officer, the firm will be less likely to engage in multiple banking relationships.
    Keywords: multiple banking relationships, trust, credit rationing, financial crisis
    JEL: G21 G32
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Huttlin, E. L.; Ting, L.; Bruckner, R. J.; Gebreab, F.; Gygi, M. P.; Szpyt, J.; Tam, S.; Zarraga, G.; Colby, G.; Baltier, K.; Dong, R.; Guarani, V.; Vaites, L. P.; Ordureau, A.; Rad, R.; Erickson, B. K.; Wühr, M.; Chick, J.; Zhai, B.; Kolippakkam, D.; Mintseris, J.; Obar, R. A.; Harris, T.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S.; Sowa, M. E.; De Camilli, P.; Paulo, J. A.; Harper, J. W.; Gygi, S. P.
    Abstract: Protein interactions form a network whose structure drives cellular function and whose organization informs biological inquiry. Using high-throughput affinity-purification mass spectrometry, we identify interacting partners for 2,594 human proteins in HEK293T cells. The resulting network (BioPlex) contains 23,744 interactions among 7,668 proteins with 86% previously undocumented. BioPlex accurately depicts known complexes, attaining 80%-100% coverage for most CORUM complexes. The network readily subdivides into communities that correspond to complexes or clusters of functionally related proteins. More generally, network architecture reflects cellular localization, biological process, and molecular function, enabling functional characterization of thousands of proteins. Network structure also reveals associations among thousands of protein domains, suggesting a basis for examining structurally related proteins. Finally, BioPlex, in combination with other approaches, can be used to reveal interactions of biological or clinical significance. For example, mutations in the membrane protein VAPB implicated in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis perturb a defined community of interactors.
  6. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fernando Hervas (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Policy brief discusses the key role of large R&D investors in the dynamics of innovation ecosystems. In a context of accelerated technological change and increasing global competition, firms should develop complex innovative solutions requiring the interaction of multiple-players. Therefore, knowledge integration becomes a key strategic dimension to keep the edge in the global competition and ecosystems of innovation are privileged ‘places’ where it can be organised in a way that ensures the creation of a higher collective value. Evidence shows that leading R&D investors can play a pivotal role in the establishment and development of such ecosystems, by bringing the necessary assets (resources, knowledge, capabilities and leadership) to activate their dynamics (along the three dimensions of interdependence, integration and initiative). This brief identifies a number of policy interventions to support the functioning of such innovation ecosystems and calls to tailor the interventions in accordance to the stage of development of the given ecosystem.
    Keywords: ecosystem of innovation, corporate R&D, knowledge integration
    Date: 2015–08
  7. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: We discuss the link between corporate R&D internationalization strategies and the countries' technological specialisation. Technological proximity and a country specialisation in emerging technologies are key technological determinants for the location of foreign R&D investments of MNCs. These results imply that countries' technological profiles shape the type of R&D activities they are able to attract. Important policy implications reside in the fact that emerging technologies often derive from the use of existing technologies for new purposes and that radical innovations steam from the (re)combination of mature and emerging technologies from different domains are presented. Accordingly, countries willing to attract R&D-based investments should facilitate the cross-fertilization of existing and new fields and industries.
    Keywords: International Knowledge seeking, Multinational Corporations (MNCs), Patents, Emerging Technologies, Technological Proximity
    Date: 2015–11
  8. By: Mikhail A. Gershman (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years, evaluation and impact assessments (IA) of research and innovation (R&I) policies have become of interest both to researchers and policy makers. The latter use the results of such assessments when developing new regulations and monitoring the implementation and effectiveness of policies already in place. The practice and methodology of policy evaluation and IA are characterised by the diversity of approaches used and the existence of a number of unresolved methodological problems. At the same time, efforts are being made to define conceptual frameworks for policy evaluation and IA, categorise relevant studies and cases, and draft recommendations. This paper looks at public policies and programmes aimed at stimulating R&I in Russian universities. For this purpose, 299 universities were surveyed in 2013-2014 to reveal their demand for the relevant policies in 2006-2012 and the effects they had. Based on survey results we assess the impact of the policies on universities and suggest recommendations regarding the improvement of state regulations and further conduction of similar assessments.
    Keywords: university; research and innovation; policy; evaluation; impact assessment; Russia.
    JEL: O38
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Marc Bogdanowicz (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report explores the concept of Digital entrepreneurship and 18 current measurement frameworks that support the empirical analysis of entrepreneurship, its determinants, performance and impacts. The report points at the current strengths and weaknesses of the existing measurement frameworks to address the issues of Digital entrepreneurship, and indicates possible ways forward.
    Keywords: ICT, Innovation, ICT Innovation, Entrepreneurship, ICT Entrepreneurship, Digital entrepreneurship, Measurement framework
    JEL: D01 L26 M13 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Mikel Casares (Departamento de Economía-UPNA)
    Abstract: I show evidence indicating that the variability of the total number of business units (establishments) has significantly increased in recent US business cycles, accounting for nearly 2/3 of real GDP fluctuations during the 2003-2012 decade. Next, I examine the role of business creation and destruction in an estimated DSGE-style model extended with endogenous entry and exit. Shocks on both entry and, especially, exit have played a crucial role on explaining the latest boom-bust cycle in the US economy. I also find that the estimated innovations of total factor productivity are positive and high in 2010-2012, which might be the consequence of the dramatic increase in the exit rates observed during the recession of 2008-2009.
    Keywords: Entry and exit, DSGE models, US business cycles
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Keywords: bangladesh, adb gender case studies, small and medium-sized enterprise development, SMEDP, bangladesh SMEs, women-owned SMEs, SME policy and development framework, SME development, adb loan 2549, gender equity, women entrepreneurs, womens access to credit, SMEs financing, bangladeshi women, 36200-013
    Date: 2015–06

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