nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
eleven papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. Small and Medium Sized Firms’ Competitiveness and Territorial Characteristics by using a MLR approach By Metaxas, Theodore; Duquenne, Marie Noelle
  3. Does EMAS foster innovation in European firms? An empirical investigation By Fabio Montobbio; Ilaria Solito
  4. Contract Size and Small Firm Competition in Public Procurement By Strömbäck, Elon
  5. Factors influencing SMEs access to finance: A case study of Westland Division,Kenya By KUNG'U, GABRIEL KAMAU
  6. Multinational firms and the internationalization of green R&D: A review of the evidence and policy implications By Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
  7. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D By Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaetan Nicodeme; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani
  8. Does Foreign Entry Spur Innovation? By Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
  9. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  10. Brand Valuation Practices of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Czech Republic By Monika Harantova; Petr Svoboda
  11. Les pôles de compétitivité wallons Quel impact sur les performances économiques des entreprises ? The Walloon competitiveness clusters and their impact on firms’ economic performances? By Claire Dujardin; Virginie Louis; Florian Mayneris

  1. By: BELDERBOS, René; GILSING, Victor; SUZUKI, Shinya
    Abstract: Extant literature on firm-university collaboration has emphasized two different strategies that firms in science based industries adopt in order to source scientific knowledge and expertise. On the one hand, firms engage in direct research collaborations with universities. On the other hand, firms establish indirect, mediated, ties to universities by engaging in research collaborations with dedicated biotech firms (DBFs) that are themselves strongly linked to universities - with the DBF taking the role of ‘broker’. We argue that the relative benefits of direct and mediated ties depend on the extent to which firms have organized their R&D to facilitate the absorption, assimilation, transformation and exploitation of scientific knowledge, which we coin ‘scientific absorptive capacity’. Drawing on patent and publication data in a panel of 33 vertically integrated pharmaceutical firms, we find that direct university collaboration is more beneficial for firms with relatively high scientific absorptive capacity, while only mediated ties are associated with greater innovative performance for firms with relatively low scientific absorptive capacity. The latter association is reduced if the mediated ties are with top universities. Our findings are suggestive of the importance of a ‘fit’ between the nature of a firm’s R&D organization and its strategy to access scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: R&D collaboration, alliance portfolios, industry-science linkages, scientific absorptive capacity
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Metaxas, Theodore; Duquenne, Marie Noelle
    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics on small and medium-sized firms’ (SMEs) competitiveness. The analysis is based on primary data collected through questionnaires from 374 firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), the contribution of a large set of territorial characteristics has been assessed allowing us to extract some important and comprehensive factors for firms’ competitiveness. Finally we implemented a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) in which the degree of firms’ competitiveness (Low, Medium, High) is specified as a function of the territorial components identified through EFA. Three categories of firms’ competitiveness are examined: competitiveness at national level, competitiveness against South-Eastern firms as well as North-Western firms. The MLR has been applied to all firms as well as to each one of the three sectors of activity. The results of the analysis confirm that the contribution of each major territorial component is largely conditioned by the type of competitiveness examined as well as the sector of activity.
    Keywords: Firms’ competitiveness, Territorial characteristics, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Multinomial Logistic Regression
    JEL: O18 R11 R58
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Fabio Montobbio (Università di Torino (Italy), CRIOS – Università L. Bocconi, Milano (Italy)); Ilaria Solito (Laboratoire RITM, Université Paris Sud, Faculté Jean Monnet (France))
    Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing whether environmental management systems can spur innovation at firm level, by providing new empirical evidence on the relationship between EMAS (Eco Management and Audit Scheme) and patented innovation. In applying a Negative Binomial model with Fixed Effect, we estimate the number of granted patents using EMAS as key explanatory variable. The relationship between EMAS and innovation is studied by using an original panel database composed by 30439 European firms belonging to all sectors and size. Moreover, we use an original instrumental variable to control for potential endogeneity. The analysis reveals that EMAS is positively correlated with innovation at firm level, although the results vary across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: Innovation; Environmental management systems; Patents; Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: The European Commission encourages public authorities to split procurement contracts into multiple contracts in order to increase the competiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In this paper, I use data from Swedish public procurement auctions for internal regular cleaning service contracts to study the effect of contract size and number of contracts on SME participation and the probability of submitting the winning bid. I found that SME participation is negatively related to both contract size and the number of contracts in the procurement. A possible interpretation is that reduced contract size in order to stimulate SME participation is counteracted by reduced incentives for them to enter into procurements with multiple contracts. Medium-sized firms are also more successful when bidding for smaller contracts relative to large firms. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the SMEs’ award rate is positively correlated with the number of contracts in the procurement.
    Keywords: Procurement design; Split-award; Endogenous entry; Small and medium sized enterprises
    JEL: D44 H11 H57 L23
    Date: 2015–09–15
    Abstract: SMEs have been recognized as being great contributors to the Kenyan economy offering both employment and platform for innovative ideas. They form a larger percentage of the businesses that operate in Kenya as compared to their counterpart, the large companies. They are however faced by many constraints that hinder their performance and consequently their growth. One of the main constraints that have been highlighted over the years is the financial constraint. The need for finance is of paramount importance for the success of any firm, be it big or small. The purpose of this research was to investigate the factors that influence SMEs’ access to funding. The literature explored in this research highlight three main factors, namely firm’s, financial and entrepreneurial characteristics. These form the independent variables in the theoretical framework that influence the dependent variable, that is, access to external funding. The analysis involves primary data obtained through questionnaire and interviews and secondary data from journals, books and internet. This report contributes as a wake up call to the financial system to be more and more SMEs’ sensitive and offer financial services that are all inclusive. The financing gap, in the credit market, that exists between large and small companies need to be abridged. This can be achieved by creating an enabling environment for SME, formulating regulatory framework that is SMEs’ friendly, segmenting NSE for SMEs’ listing. SMEs are also called up to keep good financial report and to form linkages or associations to ease the burden of accessing funds.
    Keywords: SMEs, Financial inclusion, credit rating, MFIs, enabling environment
    JEL: G20
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the internationalization of green R&D by multinational firms (MNCs), as measured by patents data. Using data on inventors’ addresses for the set of 1,200 MNCs firms patenting in green technologies over the 2004-2009 period, we find that about 17% of green patents result from MNCs R&D investments conducted outside their home countries. MNCs tend to locate their foreign green R&D activities in other OECD markets and in China, in particular in lightings and solar technologies. The empirical analysis reveals that the probability of conducting green R&D abroad increases with the host country’s stringency of environmental regulation, market size and (green) R&D intensity. Also, relatively lower wages for scientists and engineers, and stronger protection for intellectual property rights in the host country increase the likelihood for MNCs to offshore green R&D. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of this changing global innovation landscape.
    Keywords: Energy; R&D; Multinationals; Globalization.
    JEL: Q4 Q55 O33
    Date: 2014–02–19
  7. By: Annette Alstadsæter (University of Oslo); Salvador Barrios (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Gaetan Nicodeme (European Commission DG TAXUD); Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna (European Commission DG TAXUD); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition. This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing research in the country, and their scope. We find that patent boxes have a considerable effect on attracting patents, mostly because of their favourable tax treatment, especially for high-quality patents. Patent boxes with a large scope in terms of tax base definition also have stronger effects on the location of patents. The size of the tax advantage offered through patent box regimes is found to deter local innovative activities, whereas R&D development conditions tend to attenuate this adverse effect. Our simulations show that, on average, countries imposing such development conditions tend to grant a tax advantage that is slightly greater than optimal from a local R&D impact perspective.
    Keywords: Corporate taxation; patent boxes; location; patents; R&D; nexus approach
    JEL: F21 F23 H25 H73 O31 O34
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
    Abstract: Our estimates, based on large firm-level and industry-level data sets from eighteen countries, suggest that FDI and trade have strong positive spillover effects on product and technology innovation by domestic firms in emerging markets. The FDI effect is more pronounced for firms from advanced economies. Moreover, our results indicate that the spillover effects can be detected with micro data at the firm-level, but that using linkage variables computed from input-output tables at the industry level yields much weaker, and usually insignificant, estimated effects. These patterns are consistent with spillover effects being rather proximate and localized.
    JEL: F2 M16 O16 P23
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  10. By: Monika Harantova (Faculty of Management, University of Economics, Prague); Petr Svoboda (Faculty of Management, University of Economics, Prague)
    Abstract: A brand (respectively trademark) can become a valuable intangible asset of a company, if built and managed correctly. From a customer perspective, the brand grants a guarantee of quality and simultaneously, it represents a strong competitive advantage for a producer or a service provider due to the differentiation of their products and services. The primary objective of this paper is to clarify the valuation practices of small and medium enterprises (SME) in the Czech Republic, based on several case studies. The secondary objective of the article is to point out the valuation differences which arise when using different valuation methods.
    Keywords: Brand, Brand equity, Brand management, Brand value, Methods for brand valuation
    JEL: M31
  11. By: Claire Dujardin (IWEPS); Virginie Louis (iweps); Florian Mayneris (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: Cet article étudie l’impact de la politique wallonne des pôles de compétitivité sur les performances économiques des entreprises financées. Sont considérés en particulier les effets sur la productivité, l’emploi et les exportations. L’analyse se base sur des micro-données d’entreprises couvrant l’ensemble des entreprises wallonnes et bruxelloises, pour la période 2003-2011. Nous recourons à des doubles et triples différences et à des méthodes de matching afin de solutionner les biais de sélection et de simultanéité. Les résultats suggèrent que, si la politique a bien sélectionné des entreprises plus performantes, elle n’aurait eu d’impact significatif ni sur la productivité, ni sur la valeur des exportations des entreprises bénéficiaires. Par contre, l’entrée dans le dispositif des pôles coïnciderait avec une légère augmentation de l’emploi des entreprises financées, ainsi qu’avec une diversification de leur portefeuille de produits exportés. This paper analyzes the impact of the Walloon competitiveness clusters policy on the economic performances of firms. We study more particularly the impact on productivity, employment and exports. We use firm-level panel data for all firms in Wallonia and the Brussels-Capital Region, for the period 2003-2011. We use double and triple differences and matching techniques to address selection and simultaneity issues. Results suggest that the policy selected firms that were initially more productive and larger in terms of employment. It seems however that the policy had no effect on productivity, nor on the value of exports. However, their entry into clusters seems to coincide with a slight increase in the number of employees, as well as with an increase in the number of exported products.
    Keywords: Clusters, productivité, emploi, exportations, évaluation, Clusters, productivity, employment, exports, evaluation
    JEL: C23 R10 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–09–14

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