nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
twenty papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  2. Innovation in small and medium enterprises in the United Arab Emirates By Schilirò, Daniele
  3. The location of new firms - Influence of commuting behaviour By Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie
  4. The Importance of Mittelstand Firms for Regional Apprenticeship Activity - Lessons for Policy - By Jahn, Vera
  5. Potential drivers of innovation in the MSMEs in hospitality industry in Istria By Robert Ribarić
  7. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Ju-Ting Tang
  8. Measures of innovation activities in tourism according to CIS survey By Emira Becic; Kristina Crnjar; Mauro Licul
  9. Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in China: Recent Trends and Prospects beyond Shadow Banking By Kellee Tsai
  10. A Study on R&D Tax Incentives - Final report By The Consortium consisting of CPB, CAPP, CASE, CEPII, ETLA, IFO, IFS, IHS
  11. Value creation and capturing: the case of the Hungarian agri-food SMEs By Toth, Jozsef
  12. Innovate or Die: How Hong Kong-owned Manufacturing Firms in China Can Survive and Thrive By Naubahar Sharif
  13. A spatial analysis of health and pharmaceutical firm survival By Giuseppe Arbia; Giuseppe Espa; Diego Giuliani; Rocco Micciolo
  14. Human capabilities and spatial innovation: an empirical analysis at the European level By CHRISTINA KAKDERI; DIMITRA KONSTANTINIDOU
  15. R&D and productivity in OECD firms and industries: A hierarchical meta-regression analysis By Ugur, Mehmet; Solomon, Edna; Guidi, Francesco; Trushin, Eshref
  16. From professionals to entrepreneurs: HR practices as an enabler for fostering corporate entrepreneurship in professional service firms By Kühn, Christopher J.; Eymann, Torsten; Urbach, Nils
  17. The Role of Knowledge and Innovation Systems in Supporting Farm’s Strategies in GI Areas By De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; Chiappini, Silvia
  18. Instruments Supporting Innovativeness of Polish Enterprises By Piotr Kura; Ma Kura
  19. Assessing European competitiveness : The new CompNet micro-based database By Lopez-Garcia, P. ; di Mauro, F. ; the CompNet Task Force
  20. Making Sense of the Elusive Paradigm of Entrepreneurship By David, Audretsch; Donald, Kuratko; Albert, Link

  1. By: Maldonado, Mauricio (University of Chile); Noronha Vaz, Teresa (University of Algarve)
    Abstract: Studies of local knowledge spillovers have often focused on empirical evidence for core regions, and been related largely to manufacturing, neglecting behavior in less innovative economic sectors in peripheral regions. Tourism in the Algarve region is the main engine of its regional economy. Although frequently considered as a low-moderate innovative sector, competitive tourism firms are becoming increasingly Knowledge Intensive, which may create positive advantages for regional growth. This may improve conditions for the creation and diffusion of knowledge, with cooperative and collaborative interaction contributing to the consolidation of a regional innovation system (RIS). The goal of this study is to provide preliminary evidence of the main sources and vehicles of regional knowledge spillovers affecting tourism firms in the Algarve, generally considered to be a peripheral region. The main sources of knowledge used by micro and small tourism firms (MSTF) are human resources and formal and informal networks. This study detected specific features of a regional innovation platform which, eventually, may give way to a RIS.
    Keywords: Tourism; Innovation; Knowledge Spillover; Knowledge Intensive Services; Regional Innovation System; Algarve Region
    JEL: P25
    Date: 2015–05–08
  2. By: Schilirò, Daniele
    Abstract: This paper focuses on innovation as the main driver of the competitiveness and market success of small and medium enterprises in the United Arab Emirates. The study overviews the still limited literature dedicated to innovation in SMEs in the UAE. It also analyzes the innovation model of small and medium enterprises in the UAE, and focuses particularly on Dubai’s SMEs. The paper highlights the need to strengthen the entrepreneurial culture and promote the development of innovative SMEs with high value added in the UAE. The general purpose of this study is to contribute to the business and innovation literature on SMEs in the context of an emerging economy, namely the United Arab Emirates.
    Keywords: Innovation; SMEs; Firm Strategy; Business Model; UAE’s Economy
    JEL: L0 L53 M21 O31
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Backman, Mikaela (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Karlsson, Charlie (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Jönköping International Business School, Blekinge Institute of Technology, & University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse where people who become self-employed actually start their firms. In the entrepreneurship literature, it is generally assumed that individuals who start a firm start it where they live. We question this general assumption and show that this does not hold for commuters. Our results show that of those individuals that were short-distance commuters in 2007 and become self-employed in 2008, 90.1 percent started their firm in their work munici-pality. Only 9.4 percent started their firm in their residence municipality. For long-distance commuters, the figures were 93.6 and 6.4 percent, respectively. Our econometric estimations show that the probability to start a firm in the work municipality increases with the number of years as a commuter, with commuting to a larger municipality, and with the relative size of the work municipality compared to the municipality of residence. Our results indicate that the entrepreneurship literature must reconsider its general statement that individuals start firms where they live.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; self-employment; location; commuting; networks; micro-level data
    JEL: C21 J24 L26 R12
    Date: 2015–05–07
  4. By: Jahn, Vera (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg)
    Abstract: Politicians frequently emphasize the importance of Mittelstand firms for the economy, thereby parti- cularly referring to their enormous engagement in training apprentices. However, there is yet almost no empirical evidence on the question whether Mittelstand firms are in fact excessively active in trai- ning apprentices. This paper contributes to the literature by studying whether the relative importance of owner-managed SMEs has an effect on firms’ apprenticeship activity. Using a cross section of West German NUTS-3-regions, we find a significantly positive relation between the relative importance of Mittelstand firms and apprenticeship activity on the regional level. However, on the national level an increase in the share of Mittelstand firms turns out to be without effect on apprenticeship activity.
    Keywords: apprenticeship; Mittelstand firms; owner-management; SMEs; Germany; regional spillovers
    JEL: C21 D23 I21
    Date: 2015–05–05
  5. By: Robert Ribarić (Technological center, Buzet, Buzet, Croatia)
    Abstract: Purpose – The importance of innovation in the micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), despite today’s turbulent business environment, continues to be undervalued. Tourism and hospitality industry are among the most important economic drivers worldwide but still approaches to hospitality industry innovation are in an early phase of research development. Because of their ability of providing differentiated products and services, innovative hotels and rural vacation houses are more successful than their non-innovative competitors. Therefore, hospitality industry should develop new innovative offer. To date, potential drivers of innovation in the MSMEs in Istria destination have not been systematically investigated and have not considered the needs of MSMEs. This paper is aimed to span this gap. Design/methodology/approach – By integrating cognition from up to date conducted researches as well as adding some new potential drivers, the author proposed set of 16 potential drivers of innovation in the MSMEs in hospitality industry, which is believed to be more suitable. A quantitative survey was carried out in Istria MSMEs. Findings – The research results show five main groups of potential drivers of innovation in the MSMe in hospitality industry and the best rated in Istria hospitality industry such as owners/management and employee engagement; and information technology. Potential drivers within the group of innovation network should be improved by owners/managers. It is essential to emphasize more activity and connections between the academic community and entrepreneurs, as well as between stakeholders and entrepreneurs in tourist destination. Originality – This study is the first to provide potential drivers of innovation in MSMEs in hospitality industry in Istria. It gives information which should help owners/managers in developing new tourist product. In addition to practical implications, the study has academic contributions to the existing literature of innovation activities in hospitality industry which is presently an under-researched area. Keywords potential drivers of innovation, innovation activities, contribution of external factor, MSMEs, hospitality industry, Istria destination
    Keywords: camping tourism, trends, management, innovation, competitiveness
    JEL: L83
  6. By: Elona Garo (University of Tirna); Vasilika Kume (Tirana University); Suada Basho (Tirana University)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is affecting economic growth worldwide. In a time of economical crises the creation of new ventures would be an ideal solution. Understanding entrepreneurship's importance and positive contribution to the economy of a country, it is significant studies to be undertaken in order to boost the development of entrepreneurship. Thus, in focus must be factors that alter students' behavior and their career decision to become entrepreneurs. Many highlight that role model consist to be among the most important factors that alter entrepreneurial intention.This study aims to analyze the family role in the decision of students to follow entrepreneurial career path and the influence it has on the intent of the Albanian youth entrepreneurs. The purpose is to assess the role of the family in determining the preference of students to become entrepreneurs. To observe this relation we have studied the case of 434 Albanian students majored in business across the country. The findings suggest that students who have been exposed to entrepreneurial role of families show high intention to become entrepreneurs compared with those who lack this role model. A positive correlation between students exposed to entrepreneurial model within the family and their entrepreneurial intent exists. As a result many suggestions for the education system and policy makers in Albania are proposed.Suggestions drive the attention to education. They reinforce that education can expose students to entrepreneurial role models. It has a very important impact not only to provide students with the skills and knowledge needed for entrepreneurship but also to create confidence and implement new business models. The challenge of education system is that it can influence entrepreneurial intent to young students. As for in terms of role models where such a model is missing in the family, education can provide it successfully.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, young entrepreneurs, role model, family, Albanian students, education.
    JEL: M20 A00 I25
  7. By: Chia-Lin Chang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Complutense University of Madrid, Spain); Ju-Ting Tang (National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan)
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: International Technology Diffusion; Exports; Imports; Joint Patent; Cross-border Patent; R&D; Negative Binomial Panel Data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
  8. By: Emira Becic (Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, Directorate for Science and Technology, Zagreb, Croatia); Kristina Crnjar (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka); Mauro Licul
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper addresses a series of key questions regarding the role of innovation in tourism industry, and its relation to economic performance and the competitiveness of Croatia with regard to the tourism sector. For detecting and evaluating the impact of innovation activities on tourism sector performance, this paper takes a look at recent statistics on innovation activities in the tourism sector in Croatia and selected countries. The focus is on innovation activities made by enterprises in Sector I - Accommodation and Food Service Activities. Methodology – The majority of the statistical data will be taken from Eurostat and other data sources (UNWTO). Descriptive analysis and correlation analysis were preformed to analyze the data. Research findings and originality – Using the available data from CIS surveys, the paper analyzes the type of innovations by enterprises, estimates the impact on total turnover and tests the intensity of correlation between type of innovations, total Turnover and Receipts relative to GDP (for Croatia and selected countries). The paper analyzes trends in innovation evaluation and effects on employment in tourism. Therefore, it contributes to the existing literature on the effects of innovation in the tourism industry.
    Keywords: CIS survey, measures of innovation activities, Human capital, Innovation in Accommodation and Food Service Activities sector, Croatia
    JEL: L83
  9. By: Kellee Tsai (Division of Social Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Division of Political Science, Johns Hopkins University; Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) represent the backbone of China's economy, yet they lack access to bank credit. SMEs thus rely on a wide range of alternative sources, including informal finance, online peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms, registered non-banking financial institutions (NBFIs), and underground financiers. This paper distinguishes among different types of 'shadow banking' to clarify popular misconceptions about the nature of risks associated with informal financial intermediation in China. The evolution of SME finance in other contexts suggests that regulated and well-managed NBFCs provide an enduring foundation for commercialised financial intermediation even in advanced industrialised economies.
    Keywords: China, shadow banking, informal finance, financial development
    JEL: G23 G21 O17
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: The Consortium consisting of CPB, CAPP, CASE, CEPII, ETLA, IFO, IFS, IHS
    Abstract: Investment in research and innovation plays a critical role in kick-starting smart growth and upgrading the competitiveness of European companies. In the post-crisis world, Europe needs innovation more than ever before to keep up with the rapid technology advances and growing global competition. R&D tax incentives are an important innovation policy tool widely used in Europe. In some countries, during the crisis, tax instruments have become increasingly important for stimulating private R&D than direct funding. The recent study conducted jointly by DG TAXUD and DG GROW finds fiscal incentives for R&D expenses to be effective in stimulating investment in R&D. The size of the effect varies across countries which can be linked to country specific features, but, crucially, also to differences in the design and organisational practices of the fiscal schemes. The study identifies what are good designs for R&D tax incentives and which features are to be avoided. To answer this question, the study benchmarks the 80 existing R&D tax incentives in 33 countries (including all EU Member States) based on a number of identified good practices in design and administration.
    Keywords: European Union, taxation, R&D tax incentives
    JEL: H20 H29
    Date: 2015–01
  11. By: Toth, Jozsef
    Abstract: Value creation is the result of the continuous innovation activity of the entrepreneur, which is carried out mainly in form of open innovation among the agri-food SMEs. However value creation is not the ultimate goal of the enterprises. They are more interested in increased appropriation of the created value. Although the value creation (innovation) is very well explored and cultivated area of research, there are some voids in the field of agriculture and food industry: the behavioural aspect of open innovation is very rare. The value capturing is even much less studied, therefor our research approach is largely explorative one. Data are drawn from a survey carried out in Hungary among the agri-food SMEs in 2014. We use Structural Equation Modelling as well as ordered probit and semi-non parametric ordered probit models for analysing the data. Our results show that there is positive relationship between the knowledge sharing with chain partners and the innovativeness. We could explore that size of the firm, absorptive capacity and openness to foreign trade ambiguously affects value capturing. However trust in chain partners, reciprocity in knowledge sharing with chain partners and willingness to cooperate with buyers positively influence the appropriation of the created value.
    Keywords: value creation, value capturing, agri-food SMEs, structural modelling, behavioural economics, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development,
    Date: 2015–04
  12. By: Naubahar Sharif (Division of Social Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: IEMS Faculty Associate Prof. Naubahar Sharif looks into the challenges facing Hong Kong-owned manufacturing firms in Guangdong, assesses the role of innovation in firm survival, and recommends areas for improvement to policymakers in both Hong Kong and Guangdong.
    Keywords: innovation, manufacturing, policy, China, Hong Kong, Guangdong
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2014–07
  13. By: Giuseppe Arbia; Giuseppe Espa; Diego Giuliani; Rocco Micciolo
    Abstract: The presence of knowledge spillovers and shared human capital is at the heart of the Marhall-Arrow- Romer externalities hypothesis. Most of the earlier empirical contributions on knowledge externalities, however, considered data aggregated at a regional level so that conclusions are based on the arbitrary definition of jurisdictional spatial units: this is the essence of the so-called Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. A second limitation of these studies is constituted by the fact that, somewhat surprisingly, while concentrating on the effects of agglomeration on firm creation and growth, the literature has, conversely, largely ignored its effects on firm survival. The present paper aims at contributing to the existing literature by answering to some of the open methodological questions reconciling the literature of Cox proportional hazard with that on point pattern and thus capturing the true nature of spatial information. We also present some empirical results based on Italian firm demography data collected and managed by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT).
    Keywords: Agglomeration, Firm survival, Spatial econometrics
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: The role of human capital for innovation and economic development is widely acknowledged. Yet, though the connection of knowledge and capabilities to innovation has been recognized as early as the theory of Schumpeter (1934), it was the endogenous growth models which emphasized this link and underlined the importance of human capital, due to its effects both on the level of productivity and on the creation of externalities in the form of knowledge spillovers (Romer, 1990). At the same time, along with the growing importance that was given to space and regional economics, different aspects of human capital have come to prominence and were connected to the development, concentration and diffusion of knowledge in space. Knowledge, skills and capabilities, components embedded in human beings, as well as the social networking and the employment mobility, constitute basic components for regional competitiveness in theories of regional innovation that have emerged and expressed with concepts such as the ‘learning region’ (Morgan, 1997; Florida, 1995), ‘innovative milieu’ (Crevoisier, 2001), ‘industrial districts’ (Becatinni, 1992), ‘regional innovation systems’ (Cooke et al., 1997) and ‘intelligent cities/districts’ (Komninos, 2002, 2008, 2014). The paper reviews the literature and describes four basic dimensions of innovation for spatial development (in-house innovation, knowledge spillovers and innovation networks, open innovation, spatial and collective intelligence) which underline the importance of different aspects of human capabilities. Based on a simple methodology similar to the UNDP’s Human Development Index, this paper calculates a measure of regional development in the EU regions giving emphasis to the aspects of human capabilities that contribute to innovation. Conclusions are drawn by comparing the results of this composite indicator with GDP-based development indexes as well as the innovation scoreboard.
    Keywords: human capital, human capabilities, innovation, spatial development
  15. By: Ugur, Mehmet; Solomon, Edna; Guidi, Francesco; Trushin, Eshref
    Abstract: Effects of R&D investment on frim/industry productivity have been investigated widely thanks to pioneering contributions by Zvi Griliches and others in late 1970s and early 1980s. We aim to establish where the balance of the evidence lies and what factors may explain the variation in the research findings. Using 1,258 estimates from 65 primary studies and hierarchical meta-regression models, we report that the average elasticity and rate-of-return estimates are both positive, but smaller than those reported in prior narrative reviews and meta-analysis studies. We discuss the likely sources of upward bias in prior reviews, investigate the sources of heterogeneity in the evidence base, and discuss the implications for future research. Overall, this study contributes to existing knowledge by placing the elasticity and rate-of-return estimates under a critical spot light and providing empirically-verifiable explanations for the variation in the evidence base.
    Keywords: R&D,knowledge capital,productivity,meta-analysis
    JEL: D24 O30 O32 C49
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Kühn, Christopher J.; Eymann, Torsten; Urbach, Nils
    Abstract: Professional Service Firms (PSFs) such as accounting, consulting, law, engineering or advertising firms increasingly face changing attitudes and fluctuation among young high potentials that question traditional career and human resource (HR) concepts. In this context, it seems vital to foster a spirit of corporate entrepreneurship in PSFs to create an attractive environment that satisfies the autonomy-striving professionals. Our research is based on a multiple case study design that investigates how corporate entrepreneurship in the fields of elite accounting/consulting and law firms can be enabled by HR practices. Specifically, we analyse how contemporary PSFs manage to identify, select, build, reward, keep and let go of entrepreneurial professionals. Our findings imply that there are still open issues in the identification, selection and reward practices, while promising approaches for training and retention exist and the low risk perception by professionals provides fertile grounds for entrepreneurial behaviour to prosper. Based on these findings, we present HR-related recommendations for fostering corporate entrepreneurship in PSFs and highlight some promising avenues for future research.
    Keywords: Professional Service Firms,Corporate Entrepreneurship,Entrepreneurial Orientation,HRM
    Date: 2015
  17. By: De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; Chiappini, Silvia
    Abstract: The paper deals with the support system of geographical indications (GIs): more precisely, it aims at investigating the territorial dynamics of the rural knowledge, by analysing the role of agricultur al extension systems (AES) as tool to support farm’s management and innovation in GI areas. By putting forward a milieu innovateur approach, we intend to verify eventual differences between GI and not GI farms in knowledge transfer and innovation adoption. Interaction and learning logics at the basis of this approach confirm differences even though with some exception based on territorial characteristics and models of AES governance.
    Keywords: Agricultural Extension, Innovative Milieus, GI, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2015–04
  18. By: Piotr Kura (Czestochowa University of Technology); Ma Kura (Czestochowa University of Technology)
    Abstract: Competitive advantage of the enterprise may come from different sources. Undoubtedly, the important factors determining it must include the information potential of the enterprise. The company, providing an innovative, distinctive product, uses, so called, bonus for newness. This allows to achieve better competitive position and higher revenue, at least by the time of the achievement of skills and experience enabling the provision of a similar product by competitors. Polish government administration is interested in an increase of innovative potential of Polish enterprises. A higher innovative potential should amount to higher competitiveness of the whole Polish economy. The major part of the paper includes the characteristics of the instruments which Polish government administration have prepared to support innovativeness of Polish enterprises. They have been characterized in the three major groups. The first one includes direct instruments which must be understood as the support given directly to entrepreneurs, another one includes the institutions supporting entrepreneurs and the last one refers to the instruments supporting business environment institutions.
    Keywords: innovativeness, competitiveness, strategy, enterprise, SME
    JEL: O32
  19. By: Lopez-Garcia, P. ; di Mauro, F. ; the CompNet Task Force (Research Department, NBB)
    Abstract: Drawing from confidential firm-level balance sheets for 17 European countries (13 Euro-Area), the paper documents the newly expanded database of cross-country comparable competitivenessrelated indicators built by the Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet). The new database provides information on the distribution of labour productivity, TFP, ULC or size of firms in detailed 2-digit industries but also within broad macro-sectors or considering the full economy. Most importantly, the expanded database includes detailed information on critical determinants of competitiveness such as the financial position of the firm, its exporting intensity, employment creation or price-cost margins. Both the distribution of all those variables, within each industry, but also their joint analysis with the productivity of the firm provides critical insights to both policymakers and researchers regarding aggregate trends dynamics. The current database comprises 17 EU countries, with information for 56 industries, including both manufacturing and services, over the period 1995-2012. The paper aims at analysing the structure and characteristics of this novel database, pointing out a number of results that are relevant to study productivity developments and its drivers. For instance, by using covariances between productivity and employment the paper shows that the drop in employment which occurred during the recent crisis appears to have had “cleansing effects” on EU economies, as it seems to have accelerated resource reallocation towards the most productive firms, particularly in economies under stress. Lastly, this paper will be complemented by four forthcoming papers, each providing an in-depth description and methodological overview of each of the main groups of CompNet indicators (financial, trade-related, product and labour market).
    Keywords: cross country analysis, firm-level data, competitiveness, productivity and size distribution, total factor productivity, allocative efficiency.
    JEL: L11 L25 D24 O4 O57
    Date: 2015–04
  20. By: David, Audretsch (Indiana University); Donald, Kuratko (Indiana University); Albert, Link (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The term “entrepreneurship” apparently means different things to different people including scholars and thought leaders. Because entrepreneurship is multifaceted, it is studied from many different perspectives, yet, that has fostered a multitude of definitions. Even the scholarly literature (where normally the deepest understanding would be found) is rife with disparities and even contradictions about what is and is not entrepreneurship. Some have suggested a narrower and more defined focus on entrepreneurship where only bona fide entrepreneurship research theories would explain entrepreneurial phenomena. We believe that constricting the field may the wrong approach. Our purpose then is to try and make sense of the disparate meanings and views of entrepreneurship prevalent in both the scholarly literature as well as among thought leaders in business and policy. We reconcile the seemingly chaotic and contradictory literature by proposing a coherent approach to structure the disparate ways that entrepreneurship is used and referred to in the scholarly literature. We examine three coherent strands of the entrepreneurship literature and identify an emerging eclectic view of entrepreneurship, which combines several of the views prevalent in the main approaches discussed.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; conceptual; behavioral; performance; eclectic
    JEL: L25 L26 L29
    Date: 2015–04–06

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