nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2015‒01‒19
25 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. How do new entrepreneurs innovate? By Gabriele Pellegrino; Mariacristina Piva; Marco Vivarelli
  2. DOES R&D PROTECT SMES FROM THE HARDNESS OF THE CYCLE? EVIDENCE FROM SPANISH SMES (1990-2009) By Dolores Añón Higón; Miguel Manjón; Juan A. Máñez; Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis
  3. Does the mobility of R&D labor increase innovation? By Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas
  4. Impact of research tax credit on R&D and innovation: evidence from the 2008 French reform. By A. Bozio; D. Irac; L. Py
  5. International R&D spillovers and business service innovation By Foster-McGregor N.; Pöschl J.; Stehrer R.
  6. Rethinking entrepreneurship education within universities: knowledge sharing as value proposition By Alessandra Micozzi
  7. Regional policies to foster firms' innovation activity By Francesca Lotti; Maria Lucia Stefani
  8. Exports, agglomeration and workforce diversity: An empirical assessment of German establishments By Stephan Brunow; Luise Grünwald
  9. Differences in the rates of return to R&D for European and US young leading R&D firms By Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers
  10. Enterprise productivity: a three-speed Europe By Dall'Olio, Andrea; Iootty, Mariana; Kanehira, Naoto; Saliola, Federica
  11. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Evaluation of Inclusive Entrepreneurship Programmes By Stuart Thompson
  12. Institutions and Regulations in Innovation Systems: Effects, Problems and Innovation Policy Design By Borrás , Susana; Edquist , Charles
  13. The impact of outward FDI on the performance of Chinese multinationals By Cozza , Claudio; Rabellotti , Roberta; Sanfilippo, Marco
  14. Do firm-bank relationships affect firms' internationalization? By Riccardo De Bonis; Giovanni Ferri; Zeno Rotondi
  15. Spin-offs: Why geography matters By Baltzopoulos, Apostolos; Braunerhjelm, Pontus; Tikoudis, Ioannis
  16. Analysis of SMES Evolution in France By Scarlat, Cezar; Bourbonnais, Régis; Ceausu, Ioana
  17. Firm-Level Productivity Spillovers in China's Chemical Industry: A Spatial Hausman-Taylor Approach By Badi H. Baltagi; Peter H. Egger
  18. New Path Development in the Periphery By Isaksen , Arne; Trippl , Michaela
  19. Should the host economy invest in a new industry? The roles of FDI spillovers, development level, and heterogeneity of firms. By Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen; Ngoc-Sang Pham
  20. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Small Business Administration Lending on Growth: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data By Andrew T. Young; Matthew J. Higgins; Donald J. Lacombe; Briana Sell
  21. Democratizing intellectual property systems : how corruption hinders equal opportunities for firms By Paunov C.
  22. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Social Entrepreneurship By Antonella Noya; Emma Clarence
  23. Network Structures in Regional Innovation Systems By Jérôme Stuck; Tom Broekel; Javier Revilla
  24. Social Capital and Firm’s Productivity in Italy: a Multilevel Approach By Sebastiano Nerozzi; Vito Pipitone; Giorgio Ricchiuti
  25. Household Entrepreneurship and Social Networks: Panel Data Evidence from Vietnam By Nguyen, Huu Chi; Nordman, Christophe Jalil

  1. By: Gabriele Pellegrino (SPRU, University of Sussex); Mariacristina Piva (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Marco Vivarelli (DISCE, Università Cattolica - SPRU, University of Sussex - IZA, Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the determinants of product innovation in Italian young innovative companies (YICs) by looking at in-house and external R&D and at the acquisition of external technology in its embodied and disembodied components. A Tobit approach is applied to study jointly the occurrence of product innovation and the intensity of such innovation. Results provide evidence that in-house R&D is linked to product innovation both in mature firms and YICs; however, YICs turn out to be less in-house R&D-based and more dependent on external sources of knowledge. Moreover, other entrepreneurial attitudes such as the ability to cooperate with other firms in producing innovation or the capacity to develop significant organizational changes appear to be less important or even absent in Italian YICs. These results are somehow worrying, since they show that Italian innovative entrepreneurs are mostly driven by routinized rather than creative strategies.
    Keywords: YICs; entrepreneurship, R&D, product innovation
    JEL: L26 O31
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: Dolores Añón Higón (Department of Applied Economics II and ERICES, Universitat de València); Miguel Manjón (QURE-CREIP Department of Economics, Universitat Rovira i Virgili); Juan A. Máñez (Department of Applied Economics II and ERICES, Universitat de València); Juan A. Sanchis-Llopis (Department of Applied Economics II and ERICES, Universitat de València)
    Abstract: This paper analyses whether undertaking R&D activities allows SMEs to attenuate the negative impact of recessions on productivity. In contrast to other studies we use a firm level indicator of the cycle based on firms’ own perceptions, while total factor productivity is obtained using a control function methodology in which we recognise the potential role that R&D experience might have in shaping future firms’ productivity. The analysis is performed using a representative sample of Spanish SMEs for the period 1990-2009. Results show both that R&D activities render positive productivity returns, and that performing R&D helps to alleviate the negative effects of downturns on productivity. Additionally, R&D seems to have a countercyclical effect upon SME’s productivity over the business cycle, as we find that SMEs R&D productivity premium in recessions doubles that of expansions.
    Keywords: TFP, business cycle, R&D
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of mobility of R&D workers on the total patenting activity of their employers. Our study documents how mobile workers affect the patenting activity of the firm they join and the firm they leave. The effect of labor mobility is strongest if workers join from patent-active firms. We also find evidence of a positive feedback effect on the former employer's patenting from workers who have left for another patent-active firm. Summing up the effects of joining and leaving workers, we show that labor mobility increases the total innovative activity of the new and the old employer. Our study which is based on the population of R&D active Danish firms observed between 1999 and 2004 thus provides firm-level support for the notion that labor mobility stimulates overall innovation of a country or region due to knowledge transfer.
    Keywords: labor mobility,innovation,research and development,patenting
    JEL: J62 C26
    Date: 2014
  4. By: A. Bozio; D. Irac; L. Py
    Abstract: This paper presents an ex post evaluation of the 2008 reform of the French research tax credit. The tax scheme was massively overhauled, with a switch to a pure volume-based design, leading to a large increase in the number of firms applying and an important increase in the cost of the scheme. Given the timing and the characteristics of the reform, measuring its causal impact is challenging. We have relied on four unique sources of data – R&D surveys, administrative tax data, firm characteristics and patent datasets – to assess how French firms have reacted to these changes in incentives. Our empirical strategies rest on combining difference in differences with matching methods and taking advantage of the particular way the 2008 reform has affected incentives to invest in R&D. Our results suggest a positive effect of the 2008 reform on R&D at both the intensive margin and extensive margin, but a possible lower impact on innovation than could have been expected.
    Keywords: tax credit, evaluation, R&D, innovation.
    JEL: C23 H25 O32
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Foster-McGregor N.; Pöschl J.; Stehrer R. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: A major international transmission channel of productivity increases is trade in intermediate products and services. This paper analyses international spillovers at the industry level and for the first time investigates effects from the services sector in this framework. The analysis makes use of newly available data on international input-output linkages between industries. Our results using this novel approach indicate significant positive productivity effects from innovation in knowledge intensive, high technology business services and confirm the productivity effects from international manufacturing spillovers found in the recent literature.
    Keywords: Empirical Studies of Trade; Economic Growth of Open Economies; Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Institutions and Growth;
    JEL: F14 F43 O31 O43
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Alessandra Micozzi (Università Politecnica delle Marche; Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: Academic entrepreneurship, i.e. new firms that involve former students and researchers are especially important as a source of high-tech ventures and technology transfer from university. This is one of the reasons for the steady increase of entrepreneurship courses within university curricula observed in Italy during the last decade. Besides the supply of entrepreneurship courses one of the most promising ways to promote entrepreneurship is the creation of an organized ‘space’ where students can meet, attend workshops and seminars and above all have the opportunity to meet entrepreneurs, business angels, etc. while working at their own entrepreneurial idea. The ‘space’ will host students following different curricula; from humanities to engineering. The contamination of expertise and skills should facilitate the generation of new ideas. Moreover, the formation of heterogeneous teams is expected to raise the success rates of the new ventures. The paper discusses in details how such a space could be organized, the activities that could be carried out to attain its goals and the rules for the admission of students. This discussion is based on the review of the relevant literature and on a specific project carried out at the Università Politecnica delle Marche (Ancona, Italy).
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial university
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Francesca Lotti (Bank of Italy); Maria Lucia Stefani (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: Following the constitutional reform of 2001, which gave increased autonomy Italian regions, and the new European guidelines from the Lisbon Agenda, there has been an upturn in regional legislative activity concerning innovation, leading to a critical review of the instruments adopted, mainly towards greater selectivity. Regional intervention tends to be highly fragmented, focusing on the funding of applied research and using grants as the preferred policy tool. In terms of sources of funds, structural funds have gained importance since the 2007-13 programming cycle, partly due to the economic crisis, and in the southern regions account for nearly all the resources devoted to fostering innovation. This paper presents a summary indicator, consisting of three "sub-indicators" approximating, respectively, the input of the innovation process, innovation output, and a quantitative measure of regional policies for innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, regional policies
    JEL: O38 R58
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: Stephan Brunow (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)); Luise Grünwald (Technische Universität Dresden)
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical contributions on export behavior highlight the importance of firms' productivity and their levels of economies of scale on firms' export success in `foreign’ markets. In the context of agglomeration economies, firms enjoy productivity gains when they are located close to competitors or upstreaming industries and they benefit from knowledge spillovers and other positive externalities. In such a stimulating environment, firms become more prone to be exporters. Beyond the role played by externalities, firms may benefit when they employ a diverse workforce and when the interaction of distinct knowledge and related problem-solving abilities increases productivity and secures export success. In this paper, we ask whether German firms (i.e., establishments) benefit from localization and urbanization externalities and face higher export proportions. We also control for a variety of establishment characteristics and workforce diversity. For this purpose, a comprehensive German data set that combines survey data and administrative data is used. While controlling for firm heterogeneity in a fractional response model, we provide evidence that manufacturing establishments and smaller establishments (up to 250 employees) benefit most from externalities and especially from knowledge spillover. There is weak evidence supporting the benefit of workforce diversity; however, that factor could explain between-establishment variation.
    Keywords: Export behavior, firms, agglomeration economies, cultural and workforce diversity
    JEL: D F J M R12
    Date: 2014–12
  9. By: Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: This paper examines the sources of Europe's lagging business R&D performance relative to the US, particularly the role played by missing young leading innovators in high technology intensive sectors in Europe. It investigates through econometric analysis differences in the rates of return to R&D of European and US large R&D firms. It finds that, while in the US, young firms succeed in realizing significantly higher rates of return to R&D as compared to their older counterparts, including in high-tech sectors, European firms fail to generate significant rates of return, even if they are Yollies and even if they are in high-tech sectors. These findings can at least partly explain why Europe has less R&D intensive young leading innovators in high technology intensive sectors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
    Keywords: EU-US R&D gap; Rate of return to R&D; Young firms
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Dall'Olio, Andrea; Iootty, Mariana; Kanehira, Naoto; Saliola, Federica
    Abstract: Between 2003 and 2008 productivity patterns diverged between the fast growing, newest members of the European Union and the slower paced, elder ones – as would be expected. However, there are also striking divergences within the latter group, with productivity in Southern Europe going into reverse. This paper analyzes which factors - whether countrylevel or firm-specific ones - contributed more to the emergence of a three-speed Europe. The analysis combines firm-level data with country-level inputs. Among the newest members of the European Union, country characteristics including the stock of inward foreign direct investment, the availability of credit, and the quality of the business environment and the skills of the workforce prove to be the most important drivers. Firm specific characteristics are shown to matter as well, notably that small firms and firms which are part of international groups realize more productivity gains than larger domestic competitors. Among the more advanced member countries, firm-level characteristics are most important, with larger firms and firms with international affiliation demonstrating faster productivity gains. Country specific factors, such as the quality of the business environment, the size of outward FDI and the skills of the workforce, do matter as well. These explanations of diverging productivity patterns suggest that European Union nations can realize significant benefits from low cost policy interventions such as improving business regulations and encouraging firms’ internationalization. JEL Classification: D22, H11, O47, O52
    Keywords: doing business, European Union, firm characteristics, firm performance, foreign direct investment, global value chains, productivity, regulation
    Date: 2014–12
  11. By: Stuart Thompson
    Abstract: Inclusive entrepreneurship policies are intended to give everybody the opportunity to start up in business or self-employment regardless of their social background and to improve labour market outcomes for people who are under-represented or disadvantaged in entrepreneurship and self-employment. This may occur directly, through increasing the number and quality of businesses and self-employment start-up activities, or indirectly, by providing an improved pathway to employment for people who do not eventually start-up or remain in business or self-employment. They work by targeting specific populations such as youth, seniors, women, the disabled, ex-offenders, ethnic minorities, and the unemployed with tailored interventions or improved accessibility to mainstream actions in areas such as access to start-up financing; training, mentoring and consultancy; entrepreneurship education and awareness raising; network building; or improvements to social security and business regulation systems.
    Date: 2013–12
  12. By: Borrás , Susana (Department of Business and Politics, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden); Edquist , Charles (CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden (Holder of the Ruben Rausing Chair in Innovation Research))
    Abstract: Institutions (including regulations) are constitutive elements of innovation systems, and therefore cornerstones of innovation policy. Focusing on (soft and hard) regulation, the paper identifies the most salient regulatory areas from the perspective of the innovation system. When asking about the effects of regulation on innovation, the paper argues that there are three key issues that need careful empirical analysis; namely, whether regulation is effective and efficient in terms of reducing uncertainty and generating incentives, whether it is able to generate ultimately wider social benefits for the innovativeness of the society at large; and the extent to which regulation is adapting to new (social, economic and technological) contexts and is socially legitimate and accepted. These are potentially the three problems that innovation policy needs to address in this area. This provides guidance for the design and re-design of innovation policy, so that policy makers may analyse empirically the social dynamics actually generated by regulation rather than simply assuming deductively their effects.
    Keywords: Innovation system; innovation policy; knowledge production; R&D; universities; innovation policy instruments; institutions; institutional change
    JEL: L38 M38 O25 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014–12–15
  13. By: Cozza , Claudio (BOFIT); Rabellotti , Roberta (BOFIT); Sanfilippo, Marco (BOFIT)
    Abstract: Using a new firm-level database, EMENDATA, this paper investigates the effects on Chinese multinational enterprises of Outward FDI (OFDI) into advanced European countries. Propensity score matching is combined with a difference-in-difference estimator to reduce the problems of self-selection of treated firms in foreign markets and to eliminate time-invariant and unobservable differences between those firms and the controls. The results provide robust evidence in support of the view that China’s OFDI had so far a positive impact on domestic activities in enhancing firms’ productivity and scales of operation, as measured by assets, sales and employment. Distinguishing among such investments on the basis of entry mode shows that acquisitions facilitate early access to intangible assets but are detrimental to financial performance, whereas greenfield investments have a positive impact on the scale and productivity of Chinese investors.
    Keywords: outward FDI; reverse spillovers; performance; Chinese multinationals
    JEL: F49
    Date: 2014–12–04
  14. By: Riccardo De Bonis (Bank of Italy); Giovanni Ferri (LUMSA); Zeno Rotondi (Unicredit Group)
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to investigate the link between the length of a firm-bank relationship and firm's internationalization. The analysis is carried out on matched firm-bank micro-data from a survey of Italian enterprises from 1998 to 2003. We obtain two main results. First, a longer relationship with the main bank fosters firms' foreign direct investment (FDI) while it does not affect the export status of the enterprises not engaging in FDI. Second, the probability of a firm undertaking FDI further increases if its main bank is itself internationalized by holding foreign subsidiaries.
    Keywords: internationalization, foreign direct investments, export, external finance, firm-bank relationships, bank internationalization mode
    JEL: D21 F10 F21 F23 G21
    Date: 2014–11
  15. By: Baltzopoulos, Apostolos (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and The Swedish Competition Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.); Braunerhjelm, Pontus (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.); Tikoudis, Ioannis (Department of Spatial Economics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081HV, and Tinbergen Institute, Gustav Mahlerplein 117, 1082MS Amsterdam.)
    Abstract: Based on unique data covering individuals, firms, industries, and regions for the 1999-2005 period, we contribute with new knowledge concerning the impact of regional variables on spin-offs. Implementing a large number of controls, as well as different estimation techniques and robustness tests, we show that Jacobian externalities have a positive effect on spin-offs. Moreover, using an entropy measure to disentangle unrelated and related variety, we conclude that the effect is confined to related variety. These findings are likely to be associated with strong welfare effects: a standard-deviation increase (decrease) in related (unrelated) variety increases spin-off propensity by approximately 25%. Other variables are shown to have economic effects of a similar magnitude but may have a different effect across sectors. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the impact of other determinants proposed in the literature (e.g., Marshallian externalities and scale effects) is too small to be detected.
    Keywords: Regions; spin-offs; industries
    JEL: D01 L26 R10
    Date: 2014–12–22
  16. By: Scarlat, Cezar; Bourbonnais, Régis; Ceausu, Ioana
    Abstract: This paper presents the preliminary results of the study of the evolution of the SMEs in the information technology industry in France. This study was started during a research visit at the University Dauphine Paris, France, as a test model for a study involving SMEs from the information technology at national level in Romania. The analysis of the evolution develops around three indicators: size (number of employees), performance (turnover) and the age of each enterprise. Within this article the theoretical context for this research will be presented, as well as the methodology, the preliminary analysis and the conclusions.
    Keywords: SMEs; evolution; information technology industry; growth;
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Badi H. Baltagi (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Peter H. Egger (ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092 Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the role of intra-sectoral spillovers in total factor productivity across Chinese producers in the chemical industry. We use a rich panel data-set of 12,552 firms observed over the period 2004-2006 and model output by the firm as a function of skilled and unskilled labor, capital, materials, and total factor productivity, which is broadly defined. The latter is a composite of observable factors such as export market participation, foreign as well as public ownership, the extent of accumulated intangible assets, and unobservable total factor productivity. Despite the richness of our data-set, it suffers from the lack of time variation in the number of skilled workers as well as in the variable indicating public ownership. We introduce spatial spillovers in total factor productivity through contextual effects of observable variables as well as spatial dependence of the disturbances. We extend the Hausman and Taylor (1981) estimator to account for spatial correlation in the error term. This approach permits estimating the effect of time-invariant variables which are wiped out by the fixed effects estimator. While the original Hausman and Taylor (1981) estimator assumes homoskedastic error components, we provide spatial variants that allow for both homoskedasticity and heteroskedasticity. Monte Carlo results show, that our estimation procedure performs well in small samples. We find evidence of positive spillovers across chemical manufacturers and a large and significant detrimental effect of public ownership on total factor productivity.
    Keywords: Technology Spillovers, Spatial econometrics, Panel data econometrics, Firm-level productivity, Chinese firms
    JEL: C23 C31 D24 L65
    Date: 2014–12
  18. By: Isaksen , Arne (Department of Working Life and Innovation, University of Agder, Norway); Trippl , Michaela (Center for Innovation and Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to enhance our understanding of critical preconditions and factors that facilitate the rise and development of new industrial paths in peripheral regional economies. Current conceptualizations of regional path creation are largely based on experiences from core regions and fail to provide satisfactory theoretical explanations of new path development in peripheral regions. Applying a knowledge base approach, we advance the argument that path creation in the periphery can follow either an analytic or a synthetic route. We highlight that new path development is linked to an increase of knowledge variety through the combination of knowledge from outside and inside the region. The paper contains an analysis of the emergence and evolution of new industries in two peripheral regions in Norway and Austria: the electronics and software industry in Arendal-Grimstad in the South-Eastern part of Norway, and the software industry in Mühlviertel in Upper Austria. The two industries have developed differently; through the 'synthetic route' based on the emergence and restructuring of manufacturing firms in Arendal-Grimstad, and through the 'analytical route' building on the establishment of research facilities in Mühlviertel. However, similar factors, such as exogenous development impulses through the inflow of new analytical and synthetic knowledge, the presence of key actors of change, and building of supportive institutional structures are found to be vital in sparking the formation of new industrial paths in both regions. The two cases, however, differed in their further evolution, as they showed varying capacities to successfully combine the newly emerging knowledge base with the existing one. The findings clearly challenge uniform, narrowly conceptualized models of endogenous industrial evolution and highlight the advantages of applying a theoretical framework that takes not only endogenous but also exogenous sources of path creation and its relation to combinations of knowledge bases into account.
    Keywords: Peripheral regions; new path creation; knowledge bases
    JEL: O18 O38 R11
    Date: 2014–12–15
  19. By: Huu Thanh Tam Nguyen (EPEE - Université d'Evry Val d'Essonne); Ngoc-Sang Pham (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: We consider a small open economy with two productive sectors (an old and a new). There are two types of firms in the new industry: a well planted multinational firm and a potential domestic firm. Our framework highlights a number of results. First, in a poor country with low return of training and weak FDI spillovers, the domestic firm does not exist in the new industry requiring a high fixed cost. Second, once the host economy has the capacity to create the new firm, the productivity of the domestic firm is the key factor allowing it to enter into the new industry, and even eliminate the multinational firm. Interestingly, in some cases where FDI spillovers are strong, the country should invest in the new industry, but not train specific workers. Last, credit constraints and labor/capital shares play important roles in the competition between the multinational firm and the domestic one.
    Keywords: FDI spillovers, investment in training, heterogeneous firms, entry cost.
    JEL: F23 F4 O3
    Date: 2014–10
  20. By: Andrew T. Young (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics); Matthew J. Higgins (Georgia Institute of Technology & NBER); Donald J. Lacombe (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics); Briana Sell (Georgia Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that small businesses are innovative engines of Schumpetarian growth. However, as small businesses, they are likely to face credit rationing in financial markets. If true then policies that promote lending to small businesses may yield substantial economy-wide returns. We examine the relationship between Small Business Administration (SBA) lending and local economic growth using a spatial econometric framework and a sample of 3,035 U.S. counties for the years 1980 to 2009. We find evidence that a county’s SBA lending per capita is associated with direct negative effects on its income growth. We also find evidence of indirect negative effects on the growth rates of neighboring counties. Overall, a 10% increase in SBA loans per capita is associated with a cumulative decrease in income growth rates of about 2%.
    Keywords: Small Business Administration, guaranteed loans, economic growth, income growth, entrepreneurship, US counties, spatial econometrics, spillovers
    JEL: O47 E65 R11 H25 C23
    Date: 2014–12
  21. By: Paunov C. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how corruption affects firms ownership of intellectual property titles that relate to firms technological, organizational and further innovation efforts quality certificates and patents. Using firm-level data covering 48 developing and emerging countries, we show corruption reduced the likelihood of firms seeking quality certificates. Smaller firms were more affected by corruption and benefited less from higher levels of trust in their business environment. Corruption did not have impacts on the quality certificate ownership of exporters, foreign- and publicly-owned firms. Firms machinery investments were also negatively affected. By contrast, we do not find effects on firms ownership of patents.
    Keywords: Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights; Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; Intellectual Property Rights;
    JEL: O34 O12 D23
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Antonella Noya; Emma Clarence
    Abstract: Social enterprises have gained importance in the policy debate in many European and non-European countries, as also demonstrated by the European Commission’s recent “Social Business Initiative”. This marks an important milestone for European policy makers and other stakeholders involved in promoting national and sub-national eco-systems for socially oriented business. Putting in place an enabling environment for social enterprises is critical if they are to fulfil their potential in contributing not only to the creation of jobs, but also to addressing wider social and economic needs, and to promoting more cohesive and inclusive societies.
    Date: 2013–05
  23. By: Jérôme Stuck (1 Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University, Hanover, Germany); Tom Broekel (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University, Hanover, Germany); Javier Revilla (Institute of Geography, University of Cologne, Cologne Germany)
    Abstract: While interactive learning and inter-organisational relations are fundamental building blocks in RIS theory, the framework is rarely related to investigations of regional knowledge network structures, because in RIS literature relational structures and interaction networks are discussed in a rather fuzzy and generic manner with the ‘network term’ often being used rather metaphorically. This paper contributes to the literature by discussing theoretical arguments about interactions and knowledge exchange relations in the RIS literature from the perspective of social network analysis. More precise, it links network theoretical concepts and insights to the well-known classification of RIS types by Cooke (2004). We thereby exemplarily show how the RIS literature and the literature on regional knowledge networks can benefit from considering insights of the respective other.
    Keywords: regional innovation system, network analysis, SNA, RIS
    JEL: O18 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2014–12–17
  24. By: Sebastiano Nerozzi; Vito Pipitone; Giorgio Ricchiuti (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: Matching and merging different databases, we study how firm’s productivity is affected by individual characteristics and provincial context conditions in Italy. Mainly, we focus on the relation between social capital, in its different forms and dimensions and calculated at provincial level and firms’ productivity, calculated using the non-parametric DEA approach. We find that exporting, self-financing firms, and firms belonging to groups, are more productive. In particular, Cooperative firms are more productive than limited company. Moreover, the variables capturing the social capital show strong positive correlation with firms’ productivity, indicating that a widespread civism intended as pro-social behavior independent of specific interpersonal bounds, seems to create an economic environment which is more favorable to entrepreneurship and collaboration among firms, since it increases interpersonal trust, lowers transaction costs, enhances the compliance of formal or informal rules of fairness and fosters a more transparent, impartial and efficient working of the public administration.
    Keywords: DEA, productivity, social capital, inequality, multilevel approach
    JEL: C19 D24 R10
    Date: 2014
  25. By: Nguyen, Huu Chi; Nordman, Christophe Jalil
    Abstract: Using a unique panel of household businesses for Vietnam, this paper sheds light on the links between households’ and entrepreneurs’ social networks and business performance. We address two related questions. One first question asks if we can find evidence of a differentiated effect of employment of members of the family versus hired workers on the business performance. A second question tackles the respective effects of various dimensions of social networks on the business technical efficiency. The assumption is that, beyond the channel of labour productivity, entrepreneurs that are confronted with an unfavourable social environment may produce less efficiently and realize a lower output than what could be possible with the same amount of resources. We find evidence of a productivity differential between family and hired labour and highlight results consistent with the presence of adverse social network effects faced by households running a business, in particular ethnic minorities. We stress the importance of professional networks for successful entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Family labour; Kinship and ethnic ties; Sharing norms; Social network capital; Informality; Household business; Travail familial; Liens ethniques et de parenté; Normes de partage; Capital du réseau social; Informalité; Microentreprises familiales; Panel; Vietnam;
    JEL: D13 D61 O12
    Date: 2013–11

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