nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2014‒10‒03
six papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Innovation and Regional Growth in Mexico: 2000-2010 By Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Edna MaríaVillarreal Peralta
  2. The structure and dynamics of R and D collaborations in Europe and the USA (A longitudinal and comparative perspective) By Sidonia von Proff; Rafael Lata; Thomas Brenner
  3. The Contribution of Academic Knowledge to the Value of Industry Inventions: Micro level evidence from patent inventors. By Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica
  4. Top Management Turnover and Corporate Governance in China: effects on innovation performance By Martha Prevezer; Lutao Ning; Yuandi Wang
  5. Outward FDI and Domestic Job Creation in the Service Sector By Kenichi Sakura; Takashi Kondo
  6. Une stratégie publique en travaux ? Coordinations et performances dans les écosystèmes territoriaux d'innovation By Daniel Fixari; Frédérique Pallez

  1. By: Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Edna MaríaVillarreal Peralta
    Abstract: This paper looks at the factors driving regional growth in Mexico, paying special attention to the potentially growth-enhancing role of innovation and innovation policy. The analysis combines innovation variables with indicators linked to the formation of adequate social conditions for innovation (the social filter), and spillovers for 31 Mexican states and the Mexico City capital district (the Distrito Federal) during the period 2000-2010. The results indicate that regional economic growth across Mexican states stems from direct investment in R&D in areas with favorable social filters and which can benefit not only from knowledge spillovers, but also from being surrounded by rich neighbors with good social conditions. The results stress that, although Mexican innovation policy has been relatively well targeted in order to generate greater economic growth, its relatively modest size may have undermined the attainment of its main objectives.
    Keywords: economic growth, innovation, social economic conditions, regional convergence, Mexico
    JEL: R11 R12 O32 O33
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Sidonia von Proff (Economic Geography and Location Research, Philipps-University, Marburg); Rafael Lata (Foresight and Policy Development Department, Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Vienna); Thomas Brenner (Economic Geography and Location Research, Philipps-University, Marburg)
    Abstract: Today it is generally accepted that innovation, knowledge creation, and the diffusion of new knowledge are crucial factors for economic growth at the regional, national, as well as supra-national level, and that successful innovation is increasingly based on interactions and collaborative research activities between research actors. This study focuses on diverse dimensions of distance shaping R and D collaborations in Europe and the US during the time period 1999 to 2009. We take a comparative perspective by analyzing two different R and D collaboration networks (patents and publications) and two different economic areas, namely Europe and the US, in order to examine differences in collaboration activities. In particular, we investigate how the collaboration intensity between regions has been influenced by spatial, technological, and cultural distance and whether these distances have lost importance over time in the distinct networks. The study adopts a panel spatial interaction modeling perspective. In doing so, we explicitly take account of spatial autocorrelation issues of flows by means of Eigenvector spatial filtering techniques. European coverage is achieved by using 1260 NUTS-3 regions of the 25 pre-2007 EU member-states, as well as Norway and Switzerland. The US coverage is attained by using 955 core based statistical areas (CBSAs). The results reveal how collaborative knowledge creation and the spatial range of knowledge diffusion differs between Europe and the US, and provide direct evidence on the differences in cooperation patterns between different types of collaborative R and D from a longitudinal and comparative perspective
    Keywords: R and D Networks, Patents, Publications, Spatial Interaction Modeling, Eigenvector Spatial Filtering, distance
    JEL: C23 O38 L14 R15
    Date: 2014–09–14
  3. By: Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica (University of Turin)
    Abstract: There is little evidence on the specific characteristics of the process of university-industry knowledge transfer leading to the generation of valuable inventions. Using the results of an original survey of industry inventors of European patents, resident in the Italian region of Piedmont, we analyze what determines the value of inventions that have benefited from academic knowledge. We find that inventors with greater cognitive proximity to the university and higher patenting output are more likely to interact with universities and to benefit from u niversity knowledge. After controlling for the characteristics of firms and technologies, we find that it is the transfer of theoretical academic knowledge rather than solutions to more technical and specified problems that leads to more valuable inventions. We found some evidence that knowledge transfer processes involving direct personal collaboration between the company inventor and the university researcher (which are characterized by higher trust as a result of social network embeddedness) are conducive to relatively higher value inventions.
    Date: 2014–07
  4. By: Martha Prevezer; Lutao Ning; Yuandi Wang
    Abstract: Research Question: How does Chinese corporate governance in publicly-listed firms affect the relationship between innovation productivity and top management turnover? Is state shareholding in China a positive force for innovation productivity? Research Insights: A balance is maintained between the negative effect of (relatively high) top management turnover on investment horizons and innovation productivity, mitigated by positive effects of high state ownership, up to a certain level of ownership concentration. Beyond this level, potential for abuse by the dominant shareholder curtails positive effects on innovation. This contrasts with foreign dominant shareholders where no alignment between dominant shareholder and top management occurs and shorter investment horizons are preferred with lower innovation productivity. Theoretical Implications: In China, with state-held and controlled publicly listed firms, there is an alliance between the dominant shareholder and top management with relatively low employee protection and weak protection for lesser shareholders . This may have positive outcomes for long term innovation but may also lead to principal-principal abuses. Any such alliance needs to be tempered by stronger internal governance structures to protect minority shareholders. But stronger protection may in turn reduce investment horizons and lower innovation. Policy Implications: As well as strengthening external corporate governance mechanisms, insider corporate governance mechanisms need to be strengthened to discipline managers. However stronger countervailing powers to secondary shareholders, stronger Supervisory Board rights and greater independence of Directors may tend to decrease time horizons of investment for the firm and impede innovation.
    Keywords: Corporate governance, Top management turnover, innovation performance, China
    JEL: P3 L2 P5
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Kenichi Sakura (Bank of Japan); Takashi Kondo (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: Japan's outward foreign direct investment (FDI) stock-to-GDP ratio, which has been relatively low by international comparison, has been rising steadily since the mid-2000s. A notable feature in this context is the rapid increase in FDI in the service sector. The impact of service sector firms' foreign activities on domestic employment is an important issue when considering the growth of the Japanese economy; yet, there are relatively few studies on the domestic employment impact of service sector FDI. In this paper, using a firm-level dataset of Japanese listed companies covering the period 2000-2011, we show that FDI by service sector firms has had positive effects on their domestic employment growth. These results are obtained controlling for spurious correlation arising from reverse causality such as the fact that firms that are successful in the domestic market are more likely to invest abroad. The positive effects are clearest in the retail, construction, and personal and business services industries. This is probably because FDI by firms in these industries does not substitute for their domestic business activities but requires that they strengthen administrative and other support functions in their domestic headquarters. A positive employment effect of outward FDI is also observed in the wholesale and transportation industries. This result may reflect the effect that firms' strengthening of their international networks helps to attract stronger demand. In contrast, in the information and communications technology industry, FDI appears to be associated with a reduction in domestic employment, possibly because IT workers at overseas affiliates substitute for domestic ones. Overall, our results suggest that for the service sector as a whole, outward FDI has been beneficial for Japan's economy from the viewpoint of domestic job creation.
    Keywords: FDI; Employment; Service sector
    JEL: F14 F21 F23
    Date: 2014–02–19
  6. By: Daniel Fixari (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Frédérique Pallez (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Depuis plusieurs années, se mettent en place en France des politiques publiques territorialisées d'innovation et de développement économique (politiques de clusters notamment), menées par des acteurs variés, qu'il s'agisse de l'Etat ou des diverses collectivités territoriales. Il en est résulté sur les territoires des systèmes complexes d'acteurs appelés " écosystèmes d'innovation ", dont on peut interroger la coordination et les performances. Comment en outre, dans ces conditions, la convergence de stratégies publiques est-elle assurée ? Ce questionnement, qui renvoie notamment aux problématiques de la gouvernance multi-niveaux, s'appuie sur une étude empirique menée dans trois régions françaises, qui visait à caractériser le fonctionnement de ces écosystèmes et à en proposer des modalités d'amélioration. Sur la base de ce cas, nous caractérisons les sources de la complexité apparente du système, et montrons que, contrairement aux discours qui appellent à la réduction du nombre de " structures ", la mise en place de nouveaux dispositifs de coordination, au-delà de l'harmonisation des fonctionnements, a pour effet complémentaire de constituer des espaces et des procédures permettant la formulation progressive d'une stratégie collective des acteurs publics sur le territoire.
    Keywords: complexité, écosystèmes d'innovation, action publique, coordination, stratégie collective
    Date: 2014–01–01

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