nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on All new papers
Issue of 2014‒09‒08
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Imitation versus Innovation: What Makes the Difference? By Spyros Arvanitis; Florian Seliger
  2. Are organizational innovation practices complements or substitutes for technological innovation performance? By Caroline Mothe; Uyen T. Nguyen-Thi; Phu Nguyen-Van
  3. The effect of external knowledge sources and their geography on innovation in Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS) SMEs; some Implications for de-industrialised regions in the UK By Maja Savic; Helen Lawton Smith; Ioannis Bournakis
  4. Regional Financial Development and Firm Growth in Peru By Eduardo Moron; Edgar Salgado; Cristhian Seminario
  5. An Empirical Investigation of Factors Affecting Small Business Success By Anis Omri; Maha Ayadi-Frikha; Anissa Chaibi
  6. Tenir le haut de l’affiche : les fusions, nouveau défi pour les Business Schools françaises By Frederic Teulon
  7. The impact of credit information sharing reforms on firm financing? By Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez; Singh, Sandeep
  8. Do Resources Flow to Patenting Firms?: Cross-Country Evidence from Firm Level Data By Dan Andrews; Chiara Criscuolo; Carlo Menon
  9. Why Small Businesses Fail in Tunisia? By Anis Omri; Mohamed Frikha
  10. Benchmark Value Added Chains and Regional Clusters in German R&D Intensive Industries By Reinhold Kosfeld; Mirko Titze
  11. Does Regional Economic Growth Depend on Proximity to Urban Centres? By Rudiger Ahrend; Abel Schumann
  12. What is the Performance of Incubators? The Point of View of Coached Entrepreneurs By Jacques Arlotto; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
  13. Trade Specialisation and Policies to Foster Competition and Innovation in Denmark By Muge Adalet McGowan
  14. Enhancing Competition and the Business Environment in Hungary By Alvaro Pina

  1. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Florian Seliger (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The main objective of this empirical paper is to identify characteristics of imitation and innovation and shed light on possible differences between these two kinds of innovative activity. Thus, it tries to answer the following questions: (a) what are the determinants of imitative performance compared to determinants of innovative performance and (b) what are the determinants of switching from imitative to innovative behavior compared to imitators and innovators showing persistence over time. The study is based on Swiss firm data. In sum, our findings indicate that imitating firms are significantly more ‘extroverted’ than innovating firms because their activities are much more related to external R&D activities and cooperation and medium-educated personnel. Innovating firms do not rely to the same extent on the exploration of external knowledge. Their rather ‘introverted’ behavior seems be more related with intense exploitation of internal resources. Further, the profiles of different types of innovating firms show that an innovation performance hierarchy exists ranking from occasional innovators through switchers to persistently innovating firms.
    Keywords: innovation, imitation
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Caroline Mothe; Uyen T. Nguyen-Thi; Phu Nguyen-Van
    Abstract: We empirically investigate the pattern of complementarity between four organizational practices. Firm-level data were drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) carried out in 2008 in Luxembourg. Supermodularity tests confirm the crucial role of organizational innovation in raising firms’ technological innovation. The pattern of complementarity between organizational practices differs according to the type of innovation, i.e. product or process innovation, but also according to whether the firm is in the first stage of the innovation process (i.e. being innovative or not) or in a later stage (i.e. innovation performance in terms of sales of new products).
    Keywords: Complementarity; Organizational innovation; Substitution; Supermodularity; Technological innovation
    JEL: D22 O32
    Date: 2014–08–29
  3. By: Maja Savic (Department of Economics and International Development); Helen Lawton Smith (Department of Management, Birkbeck University of London); Ioannis Bournakis (Department of Management, Birkbeck University of London)
    Date: 2014–08
  4. By: Eduardo Moron; Edgar Salgado; Cristhian Seminario
    Abstract: This paper documents the relationship between regional financial development and firm growth in the Peruvian manufacturing sector. In order to control for mutual causality between credit availability and firm growth, industry differences in financial dependence on external funds are exploited. The 1994 and 2008 rounds of the National Economic Census are used, permitting analysis at the firm level as well as the activity level. Results suggest a significant and positive effect of financial deepening on surviving firms` growth. However, this effect is smaller for micro enterprises, suggesting that the cost of external funding decreases with financial development mainly for large firms. The conclusions remain unchanged when entering and exiting firms are included. The paper further finds that credit expansion have encouraged not only firm growth but also firm entry. The results are robust using an alternative measure of financial dependence.
    JEL: D22 D53 G21 L11 L60 O14
    Date: 2013–06
  5. By: Anis Omri; Maha Ayadi-Frikha; Anissa Chaibi
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to build a mediational model of small businesses success. We investigate how the human, social and financial capital of entrepreneurs influences the capacity of small business to succeed. Our objective is then to demonstrate that these capitals are converted into success through the process of innovation. Based on an analysis of data from 228 Tunisian micro-enterprises, we concluded that the effects of these capitals on businesses success were partially mediated by the process of innovation. Our paper extends the theoritical and empirical researches on entrepreneurship by building a mediational model of small business success. This model presents the indirect effect of the human, social and financial capital on small business success via their impact on innovation.
    Keywords: Mediational model, Innovation, Success; Small businesses, Tunisia.
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2014–08–29
  6. By: Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: This article investigates why the French Business schools have in recent years adopted
    Keywords: Business schools, Entrepreneurship and growth, Firm growth, Grounded theory,
    Date: 2014–08–29
  7. By: Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez; Singh, Sandeep
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of introducing credit information-sharing systems on firms'access to finance. The analysis uses multi-year, firm-level surveys for 63 countries covering more than 75,000 firms over the period 2002-13. The results reveal that credit bureau reforms, but not credit registry reforms, have a significant and robust effect on firm financing. After the introduction of a credit bureau, the likelihood that a firm has access to finance increases, interest rates drop, maturity lengthens, and the share of working capital financed by banks increases. The effects of credit bureau reforms are more pronounced the greater the coverage of the credit bureau and the scope and accessibility of the credit information-sharing scheme. Credit bureau reforms also have a greater impact on firms'access to finance in countries where contract enforcement is weaker. Finally, there is some evidence that the effects of credit bureau reform are more pronounced for smaller, less experienced, and more opaque firms.
    Keywords: Access to Finance,Debt Markets,Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress,Banks&Banking Reform,Financial Intermediation
    Date: 2014–08–01
  8. By: Dan Andrews; Chiara Criscuolo; Carlo Menon
    Abstract: This paper exploits longitudinal data on firm performance and patenting activity for 23 OECD countries over the period 2003-2010 to explore the extent to which changes in the patent stock are associated with flows of capital and labour to patenting firms. While the finding that patenting is associated with real changes in economic activity at the firm level is in line with recent literature, new empirical evidence presented suggests that the impact of patenting on firm size is likely to be causal. Moreover, these data reveal important differences across OECD countries in the extent to which innovative firms can attract the complementary tangible resources that are required to implement and commercialise new ideas. In turn, the contribution of framework policies to explaining the observed cross-country differences in the magnitude of these flows is explored. While further research is required to establish causality, the results are consistent with the idea that well-functioning product, labour and capital markets; efficient judicial systems and bankruptcy laws that do not overly penalise failure can raise the returns to innovative activity. The paper also investigates the heterogeneous impacts of policies and finds that young firms – which are more likely to experiment with disruptive technologies and rely on external financing to implement and commercialise their ideas – disproportionately benefit from reforms to labour markets and more developed markets for credit and seed and early stage finance. Les ressources convergent-elles vers les entreprises brevetantes ? : Éléments de comparaison entre pays à partir de données au niveau des entreprises Cette étude tire parti de données longitudinales sur les performances et l’activité de brevetage d’entreprises de 23 pays membres de l’OCDE sur la période 2003-2010 pour examiner dans quelle mesure des évolutions du stock de brevets sont associées à des flux de capitaux et de main-d’oeuvre en direction des entreprises brevetantes. Si l’observation que le brevetage est associé à des évolutions réelles de l’activité économique au niveau de l’entreprise concorde avec les publications récentes, les nouvelles observations empiriques présentées ici donnent à penser qu’il existe vraisemblablement un lien de causalité entre le dépôt de brevets et la taille de l’entreprise. De plus, ces données font apparaître d’importantes différences entre pays de l’OCDE quant à la mesure dans laquelle les entreprises innovantes peuvent attirer les ressources corporelles complémentaires requises pour mettre en oeuvre et commercialiser des idées nouvelles. L’étude explore ensuite la contribution de politiques cadres qui pourrait expliquer les différences observées entre pays dans l’ampleur de ces flux. Bien que des recherches complémentaires soient nécessaires pour établir une causalité, les résultats concordent avec l’idée que des marchés de produits, de main-d’oeuvre et de capitaux efficaces, des systèmes judiciaires efficients et des législations sur les faillites qui ne pénalisent pas indûment l’échec peuvent accroître les retours sur l’activité d’innovation. L’étude examine aussi les impacts hétérogènes des politiques et constate que les jeunes entreprises – qui sont davantage susceptibles d’expérimenter des technologies de rupture et de dépendre de financements externes pour la mise en oeuvre et la commercialisation de leurs idées – bénéficient beaucoup plus que les autres des réformes des marchés du travail et de marchés plus développés du crédit et du financement des phases d’amorçage et de démarrage.
    Keywords: firm growth, patents, innovation, reallocation, innovation, croissance des entreprises, brevets, réaffectation
    Date: 2014–06–17
  9. By: Anis Omri; Mohamed Frikha
    Abstract: This paper aims at drawing up an average cognitive map in order to explain the failure factors of Tunisian small businesses. The method adopted in our study is the cognitive approach. Our study extends entrepreneurship literature and previous literature by proposing a new approach in order to build an average cognitive map for the explanation of small businesses failures.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Failure, Small businesses, Tunisia.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  10. By: Reinhold Kosfeld (University of Kassel); Mirko Titze (IWH)
    Abstract: Although the phase of euphoria seems to be over, policymakers and regional agencies have maintained their interest in cluster policy. Modern cluster theory provides reasons for positive external effects that may accrue from interaction in a group of proximate enterprises operating in common and related fields. While there is some progress in locating clusters, in most cases only limited knowledge on the geographical extent of regional clusters is established. The present paper presents a hybrid approach to cluster identification. While dominant buyer-supplier relations are derived by qualitative input-output analysis (QIOA) from national I-O tables, potential regional clusters are identified by spatial scanning. This procedure is employed to identify clusters of German R&D intensive industries. In a sensitivity analysis, good robustness properties of the hybrid approach are revealed with respect to variations in the quantitative cluster composition.
    Keywords: National cluster templates, regional clusters, qualitative input-output analysis (QIOA), spatial scanning
    JEL: R12 R15
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Rudiger Ahrend; Abel Schumann
    Abstract: This paper analyses the spatial patterns of regional economic growth in Europe over the 1995 to 2010 period. It finds that regions, which contain large urban agglomerations, have been growing significantly faster than those that do not. Furthermore, proximity to large urban agglomerations has been positively correlated to economic growth. Halving travel time to a large urban agglomeration is associated with a 0.2 to 0.4 percentage points increase in annual per capita growth. More generally, the study also shows that measures of population density are positively correlated to growth. Among the different measures, by far the best predictor of growth between 1995 and 2010 is the maximum population density of a region.
    Keywords: regional growth, spatial distribution of economic activity, population distribution and economic growth
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2014–07–30
  12. By: Jacques Arlotto; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: This article examines the performance of incubators because their economic model implies constantly finding external sources of financing. In order to evaluate the performance of incubators in France, we questioned 404 entrepreneurs in 80 incubators. The results show the social utility of incubators in France. Indeed, they encourage entrepreneurs to pass to the act of creation, but also contribute to the success of incubated firms. Moreover, these companies create more jobs than other start-ups. However, the services provided by incubators could be more developed and focus more on the assistance in order to find potential investors. Lastly, the work quality of an incubator as perceived by entrepreneurs is largely dependant on its director. This fact can explain important variations of performance between incubators.
    Keywords: Incubator; Entrepreneur; Performance; Coaching; Stakeholder; Investor; Entrepreneurship; Diploma; Education
    JEL: L26 M13
    Date: 2014–08–29
  13. By: Muge Adalet McGowan
    Abstract: Danish productivity has grown only weakly over the past two decades, both historically and in relation to other countries, despite sound policies and institutions. At the same time, the country has lost export market shares. Denmark needs to continue its efforts to reap the benefits of globalisation, which would contribute to invigorating productivity growth. Fostering competition by removing regulatory barriers and improving public procurement would help. In addition, innovation policy needs to become more efficient and more in line with the growing importance of the service sector and knowledge-based capital. Small and medium-sized enterprises could be better integrated into global markets by improving their access to finance and developing the entrepreneurship culture. This Working Paper relates to the 2013 OECD Economic Survey of Denmark ( htm). Spécialisation commerciale et politiques de promotion de la concurrence et de l'innovation au Danemark La productivité danoise n’a progressé que modérément au cours des deux dernières décennies, en comparaison aux périodes passées et aux autres pays, malgré des politiques et des institutions de bonne qualité. En outre, le Danemark a perdu des parts de marché à l’exportation. Le pays doit poursuivre ses efforts pour tirer parti des retombées positives de la mondialisation, ce qui contribuerait à stimuler la croissance de la productivité. Il faudrait également promouvoir la concurrence en supprimant les obstacles réglementaires et en améliorant les procédures de marchés publics. En outre, les politiques d’innovation doivent gagner en efficacité et prendre davantage en compte l’importance croissante du secteur des services et du capital intellectuel. L’intégration des petites et moyennes entreprises dans les marchés mondiaux pourrait être renforcée en améliorant leur accès aux financements et en développant la culture entrepreneuriale. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE du Danemark, 2013 ( ique-danemark.htm).
    Keywords: Denmark, innovation, productivity, small and medium-sized enterprises, competition, regulation, trade specialisation, global value chains, export market shares, chaînes de valeur mondiales, parts de marché à l’exportation, réglementation, spécialisation commerciale, petites et moyennes entreprises, productivité, innovation, Danemark, concurrence
    JEL: D24 F1 O3 O4
    Date: 2014–06–03
  14. By: Alvaro Pina
    Abstract: Over the past decade, the growth potential of the Hungarian economy has declined substantially. Trend productivity has ceased to increase, and investment has fallen to historically low levels. To an important extent, the explanation lies in a business environment characterised by high administrative burdens, regulatory volatility, barriers to growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship, and limited competition in major non-tradable sectors, problems which have sometimes become worse in recent years. Under these conditions, many SMEs find it hard to leave semi-informality and grow. Large multinational firms operating in manufacturing often have supplier networks weakly anchored in Hungary, while those in the non-tradable sectors sometimes face little competitive pressure; in both cases, positive spillovers to the domestic economy remain limited. Steps should be taken both at the economy-wide level and in specific sectors to increase investment and restore productivity growth. Such measures must include fostering greater regulatory stability, inter alia by reducing the flow of new regulation and improving its quality, not least in taxation. Investor confidence would benefit from promoting trust and transparency in public institutions. Apart from vigorous competition enforcement across the economy, it is essential to remove sector-specific obstacles to competition, such as barriers to entry of different types, lock-in effects and distortive regulated prices, in retail, professional services, energy, and telecommunications. This Working Paper relates to the 2014 OECD Economic Survey of Hungary ( Renforcer la concurrence et améliorer le climat des affaires en Hongrie Le potentiel de croissance de l’économie hongroise a considérablement diminué au cours de la dernière décennie. La productivité tendancielle ne s’améliore plus et l’investissement est tombé à des niveaux historiquement bas. La raison de cette situation tient dans une large mesure à un environnement économique général caractérisé par des charges administratives élevées, une réglementation instable, des obstacles à la croissance des petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) et à l’entrepreneuriat, et une concurrence limitée dans les principaux secteurs non exportateurs, problèmes qui se sont en partie aggravés ces dernières années. Dans ces conditions, il est difficile pour beaucoup de PME de sortir de la situation semi-informelle dans laquelle elles se trouvent et de se développer. Quant aux grandes entreprises multinationales, celles qui sont présentes dans le secteur manufacturier ont souvent des réseaux de fournisseurs faiblement implantés en Hongrie, tandis que les autres, dans les secteurs non exportateurs, sont largement à l’abri des pressions de la concurrence ; dans un cas comme dans l’autre, par conséquent, les retombées positives de leurs activités sur l’économie nationale demeurent limitées. Des mesures générales et sectorielles s’imposent pour accroître l’investissement et rétablir la croissance de la productivité. Il est indispensable en particulier de promouvoir une plus grande stabilité réglementaire, notamment en réduisant le nombre de réglementations nouvelles et en améliorant leur qualité, surtout dans le domaine de la fiscalité. Une transparence accrue et une plus grande confiance dans les institutions publiques seraient en outre propices à l’investissement. Il est essentiel non seulement de veiller à ce que le droit de la concurrence soit vigoureusement appliqué de façon générale, mais aussi d’éliminer tout ce qui fait obstacle à la concurrence au niveau sectoriel, notamment les différentes formes de barrières à l’entrée, les effets de verrouillage et les distorsions induites par les prix réglementés dans le commerce de détail, les services professionnels, l’énergie et les télécommunications. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Hongrie, 2014 ( ique-hongrie.htm).
    Keywords: SMEs, competition enforcement, regulated prices, special taxes, business environment, productivity, Hungary, administrative burdens, institutional quality, barriers to entry, PME, productivité, concurrence, qualité institutionnelle, prix réglementés, Hongrie, barrières à l'entrée, charges administratives
    JEL: H2 K2 L4 L8 L9
    Date: 2014–06–04

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