nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2014‒07‒28
twelve papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão

  1. Small Business, Innovation, and Tax Policy: A Review By Gale, William; Brown, Samuel
  2. The impact of R&D subsidies on R&D employment composition By Sergio Afcha; Jose García-Quevedo
  3. Knowledge Base, Exporting Activities, Innovation Openness and Innovation Performance: A SEM Approach Towards a Unifying Framework By Spyros Arvanitis; Areti Gkypali; Kostas Tsekouras
  4. SME Internalisation Index (SMINI) Based on the Sample of the Visegrad Countries By Bartha, Zoltán; S. Gubik, Andrea
  5. Governing Board Interlocks and Probability of an IPO By MATSUDA Naoko; MATSUO Yutaka
  6. Entrepreneurship Capital and Regional Productivity Revisited By Massón-Guerra, José Luis; Ortín-Angel, Pedro
  7. The innovation process of a privately-owned enterprise and a state-owned enterprise in China By Kang, Byeongwoo
  8. FDI Spillovers and Multinational Firm Heterogeneity By K. LENAERTS; B. MERLEVEDE
  9. Innovation, work Organisation and Systems of Social Protection By Edward Lorenz
  10. Foregign Direct Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Russia: An Econometric Assessment By Iwasaki, Ichiro; Suganuma, Keiko
  11. A note on firm age and the margins of exports: First evidence from Germany By Joachim Wagner

  1. By: Gale, William; Brown, Samuel
    Abstract: Small businesses occupy an iconic place in American public policy debates. This paper discusses interactions between the federal tax code, small business, and the economy. We summarize the characteristics of small businesses, identify the tax provisions that most affect small businesses, and review evidence on the impact of tax and other policies on entrepreneurial activity. We also examine evidence suggesting that it is young firms, not small ones, where job growth and innovation tend to occur. Policies that aim to stimulate young and innovative firms are likely to prove different than policies that subsidize small businesses.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, tax policy, innovation, small business
    JEL: H2
    Date: 2013–04–08
  2. By: Sergio Afcha (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú); Jose García-Quevedo (University of Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of subsidies granted at national and regional levels on a set of R&D employment variables and, specifically, we seek to identify the existence of the behavioural additionality effects of these public subsidies on firms’ R&D human resources. We begin by assessing the effects of public funds on R&D private expenditures and on the number of R&D employees, and then focus on their impact on the composition of human resources engaged in R&D as classified by occupation and level of education. The data used correspond to the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel for the period 2006-2011. To control for selection bias and endogeneity, a combination of non-parametric matching techniques are implemented. After ruling out the existence of crowding out effects, our results show that R&D subsidies increase the number of R&D employees. However, no increase is found in the average level of qualification of R&D staff members in subsidized firms. All in all, the effects of public support are heterogeneous being dependent on the source of the subsidy and the firms’ characteristics.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, R&D employment, matching estimators, technology policy
    JEL: O38 J24 H25 C14
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Areti Gkypali (University of Patras, Patras, Greece); Kostas Tsekouras (University of Patras, Patras, Greece)
    Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the complexity that regulates the innovation-exports nexus. In particular we argue that innovation and exports should be treated as latent variables in order to account for as many facets possible thus, accounting for multifaceted heterogeneity. In this context, the role of innovation openness ought to be highlighted within a unified framework, as it is considered an additional activity of firms’ knowledge creation strategy. In this line, innovation and exporting orientation are ruled by the firms' strategic mix comprised of internal knowledge creation processes and the diversity of innovation openness. Theoretical and empirical links between these major components are identified and measured employing a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach on a sample of Greek R&D-active manufacturing firms. Empirical findings corroborate the complexity of relationships and indicate that the firms’ knowledge base and open innovation strategy regulate via complementary and substitution relationships firms’ innovation and export performance.
    Keywords: SEM, endogeneity, open innovation strategy, knowledge base, innovation performance, export performance
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014–07
  4. By: Bartha, Zoltán; S. Gubik, Andrea
    Abstract: The goal of the chapter is to develop an index (Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Internationalisation Index – SMINI) to measure the degree of internationalisation in the SME sector, and to uncover its most important influencing factors. The index was calculated from a data set obtained from a questionnaire conducted among 1,124 firms from the Visegrad (V4) countries, comprised of 270 Polish, 597 Czech, 113 Hungarian and 144 Slovak firms. The relationship between the index value and the influencing factors was also tested using the same dataset. The influencing factors were chosen based on a literature review. We found that the factors suggested by the literature (company size, company age, ownership structure, innovation activity, network participation and sectorial structure) have a significant effect on the SMINI, but the strength of relationship is either weak or weak to moderate. A multiway ANOVA analysis revealed that three of our variables – firm size, family ownership and innovation – have an 11.8% combined effect on the SMINI.
    Keywords: internationalisation, small and medium-sized enterprises, degree of internationalisation
    JEL: F23 L25 M16
    Date: 2014–06–27
  5. By: MATSUDA Naoko; MATSUO Yutaka
    Abstract: Using comprehensive data of Japanese firms, including small-sized and unlisted firms, this paper empirically analyzes the relationship of initial public offerings (IPOs) and the governing boards. The results show that board size, interlocks with other firms, and interlocks with other listed firms are all positively related to the probability of an IPO. These results imply that a firm's intention to conduct an IPO can be estimated by the size and interlocks of the firm's board, and that knowledge diffusion of an IPO occurs among firms.
    Date: 2014–07
  6. By: Massón-Guerra, José Luis; Ortín-Angel, Pedro
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship capital has been considered in the literature to be a public good, so it will positively affect a region’s total factor productivity. There is evidence confirming a positive relationship between entrepreneurship capital measures and regional production. This paper argues that the number of firms in a region will be positively related with the regional production in the presence of decreasing returns to scale in firms’ production technology. So if we do not control for the number of firms (and entrepreneurship capital is positively related with the stock of firms) we may be mixing both effects, returns to scale and public goods. This paper provides a methodological benchmark for distinguishing between both effects. The analysis conducted using a sample of 52 Spanish provinces for eleven years suggests major differences and conclusions between methodologies. In our data, previous methods overestimate the effect of regional entrepreneurship capital on the economy.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Capital, Regional Productivity, Scale Economies
    JEL: L26 O4 R11
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Kang, Byeongwoo
    Abstract: This study compares the innovation process of a privately-owned enterprise and a state-owned enterprise in China using their patent data. Huawei and ZTE were selected for this study because they experienced the same historical environment in the same industry from the same region in China leaving their owner types as their critical difference. This study investigates the difference in the innovation process in R&D between a privately-owned and a state-owned enterprise by analyzing (1) domestic and international patent application pattern, (2) co-application and co-applicants, (3) knowledge accumulation inside Huawei and ZTE, and (4) knowledge spillover to domestic and foreign firms.
    Keywords: China, Business enterprises, Government enterprises, Telecommunication, Research & development, Technological innovations, Patent data, Privately-owned enterprise, State-owned enterprise
    JEL: L25 L96 O31
    Date: 2014–07
    Abstract: Theoretical work implies that more investment promotion will attract less productive foreign firms. We analyze to what extent less productive foreign firms are capable of generating positive spillover effects. We find that only sufficiently productive foreign firms generate positive backward spillover effects. When we combine foreign and domestic firm heterogeneity, more productive multinationals, and especially those that are more than two standard deviations more productive than an individual domestic firm, are found to be the main source of positive backward spillover effects for the latter. More productive domestic firms benefit from larger positive effects. Supplying less productive multinationals results in negative spillover effects. Lower productivity levels of domestic and foreign firms generally lead to a more negative impact. If investment promotion aims at technology transfer to domestic firms, policy makers should be aware that attracting additional foreign investment might result in zero or negative spillover effects.
    Keywords: FDI spillovers, multinationals, firm heterogeneity, technology transfer
    JEL: F23
    Date: 2014–04
  9. By: Edward Lorenz (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS) - CNRS : UMR6227)
    Abstract: Much of the core research on the determinants of innovation traditionally has focused on the role of formal processes of R&D and on the importance of the skills and expertise of scientists and engineers with third-level education. In research on national innovation systems there has been a parallel tendency to focus on the institutions and organisations responsible for the production and diffusion of formal scientific and technical knowledge. At the level of measurement these emphases are reflected in the classic definition of innovation developed in the Oslo Manual as technical product and process innovation (TPP), and at the level of innovation policies they can be seen in the continuing importance attached to increasing national R&D intensity. More recently there have been notable efforts to widen the scope of innovation research so as to more fully take into account the role of work processes, systems of labour market protection and more generally the impact of welfare state institutions. This chapter focuses on these changes in scope and seeks to identify key challenges for researchers in innovation studies. The chapter begins by examining how work organisation has been analysed in the developing field of innovation studies including the factors that account for the growing interest in the 2000s in measuring and analysing processes of organisational innovation. It is argued that a key challenge still facing researchers in innovation studies is developing an adequate understanding of the interdependencies between work organisation and processes of technical change and innovation. The chapter then turns to the analysis of national systems, arguing that there is a need for developing more robust typologies of innovation systems that integrate the role of labour market and welfare state institutions. A related challenge is developing multi-level governance frameworks that serve to clarify the interconnections between these social institutions at the levels of nations and regions. The chapter concludes by discussing the obstacles to putting work organisation and organisational innovation more firmly on the EU policy agenda.
    Keywords: Innovation studies, Work Organisation, Social Protection
    Date: 2013–12–31
  10. By: Iwasaki, Ichiro; Suganuma, Keiko
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the growth-enhancing effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Russian regions, paying special attention to the country’s investment boom and the remarkable regional gaps in terms of cumulative direct investments in and after 2003. We also examine possible synergistic effects between FDI and local R&D potential to test the absorptive capacity hypothesis. Our estimation results strongly suggest the remarkable role of FDI in the regional economic growth in Russia. In addition, we found that the positive effect of FDI on growth is not limited to the regions that received a relatively large amount of foreign capital. Furthermore, we detected a surprisingly robust and positive synergistic effect between FDI and local R&D potential, indicating that the absorptive capability is essential for linking FDI and regional economic development in Russia.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), regional economic growth, R&D potential, absorptive capacity hypothesis, Russia
    JEL: F21 O11 P25 P33 R11
    Date: 2014–06
  11. By: Joachim Wagner (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: This note uses a new tailor-made data set to investigate the link between firm age and the extensive and intensive margins of exports empirically for the first time for Germany. Results turn out to be fully in line with the theoretical considerations. Older firms are more often exporters, export more and more different goods to more different destination countries, and export to more distant destination markets.
    Keywords: Exports, firm age, export margins, Germany
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2014–07
  12. By: Clara Cardone-Riportella (Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, Pablo de Olavide University); María José Casasola-Martinez (Business Administration Faculty, Carlos III University); Isabel Feito-Ruiz (Department of Business Administration, University of Leon)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impacts of gender and family business background on entrepreneurship intention (EI) and on start-up behavior (SUB) developed by the graduate students of a Spanish international online Master of Business Administration (OL-MBA) program. The main results show that coming from an entrepreneurial family increases entrepreneurial intention, and this result is reinforced when the OL-MBA student is female. Additionally, female students are more likely to engage in start-up behavior if she comes from an entrepreneurial family consistent with the argument that females develop more entrepreneurial skills and have less likely to become a family successor than males. However, this start-up behavior is reduced when female students receive entrepreneurial education or if they have children (dependency context). Also, other personal characteristics, such as non-risk-adverse personality, can motivate EI and SUB.
    Keywords: Postgraduate studies impact; Entrepreneurship education; Entrepreneurship intention; Start-up behavior; Gender; Family implications
    Date: 2014–07

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