nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
twelve papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior and Universidade de Lisboa

  1. La difficile promotion de pme innovantes en Algérie THE DIFFICULT PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE SMEs IN ALGERIA By Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA
  2. Who collaborates with whom: the role of technological distance in international innovation By Jérôme Danguy
  3. Reviving demand-pull perspectives: the effect of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on R&D strategy By José García-Quevedo; Gabriele Pellegrino; Maria Savona
  4. The Causal Effects of Competition on Innovation: Experimental Evidence By Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
  5. Corporate Science, Innovation and Firm Value By Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
  6. Energy efficiency determinants: an empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms By María Teresa Costa; José García-Quevedo; Agustí Segarra
  7. SMEs and Barriers to Eco-Innovation in EU: A Diverse Palette of Greens By Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
  8. R&D Financing Constraints of Young and Old Innovation Leaders in the EU and the US By Michele Cincera; Julien Ravet; Reinhilde Veugelers
  9. Internal and External Effects of R&D Subsidies and Fiscal Incentives: Empirical Evidence Using Spatial Dynamic Panel Models By Benjamin Montmartin; Marcos Herrera
  10. Why don't poor countries do R&D ? By Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
  11. Academic Patenting in Belgium:Methodology and Evidence. By Malwina Mejer
  12. Innovations environnementales et transition des territoires industriels et portuaires : le cas de Gdansk, Pologne Environmental Innovation and the Economic Transition of the Industrial and port areas: The case of Gdnsk, Poland By Maria Lorek

  1. By: Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA (Université Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi Ouzou, Algérie)
    Abstract: L’esprit d’entreprendre permet de redynamiser la vie économique et sociale d'un pays. Nous vivons actuellement dans une société de savoirs où l’innovation, facteur déterminant dans la compétitivité de l’entreprise, est considérée comme étant un élément clé de la survie, de la croissance et du développement des PME. Cependant, l’innovation provient avant tout de la recherche et développement menée par les entreprises, les universités et les organismes de recherche. Nous cherchons à démontrer comment la recherche et développement peuvent contribuer à promouvoir l’innovation et l’entrepreneuriat dans les PME Algériennes, ceci en présentant un état de lieux de la situation actuelle de la recherche et développement en Algérie ainsi que de l'innovation dans les PME algériennes. Puis nous proposons des recommandations. The entrepreneurial spirit mays contribute to revitalize the economic and social activity of a country. In the current knowledge society, innovation stands as a factor of competitiveness for enterprises and is considered as a key element for the survival, the growth and the development of SMEs. However, innovation mainly ensues from the research and development carried out by firms, universities and research organizations. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research and development activities may promote innovation and entrepreneurship in Algerian SMEs; In this aim, we present an inventory of the current results of research and development in Algeria and of innovation in Algerian SMEs. We then propose some recommendations for public policies.
    Keywords: Innovation, entrepreneuriat, PME algériennes, entrepreneurship, R&D, Algerian SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32 O55 L26
    Date: 2014–02
  2. By: Jérôme Danguy
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the role of technological distance in the globalized productionof innovation. It uses aggregate patent-based indicators for a unique panel datasetcovering international co-inventions between 29 countries across 21 industries between1988 and 2005. The empirical findings show a dual impact of technological distance onthe intensity of international collaborative innovation at the industry level. On the onehand, the more similar the industry-specific knowledge of two countries, the more easilythey collaborate by sharing common industrial knowledge. On the other hand, the moredifferent their non-industry-specific knowledge, the more they collaborate to gain accessto broad and interdisciplinary expertise. It suggests that the relative absorptive capacitybetween partner’s economies and the search for novel and complementary knowledge arekey drivers of the globalization of innovation. Moreover, the results confirm the additionaleffect of non-technological distance factors (spatial proximity, ease of communication, institutionalproximity, overall economic ties) in cross-border innovative relationships.
    Keywords: internationalization, R&D collaboration, technological distance, patent statistics
    Date: 2014–02–24
  3. By: José García-Quevedo (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Gabriele Pellegrino (University of Barcelona & IEB); Maria Savona (University of Sussex)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the effects of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on firms’ decisions to engage in R&D activities and the amount of financial effort devoted to it. The paper contributes to the innovation literature in three respects: first, it adds to the revived debate on demand-pull perspectives in innovation studies, by specifically looking at demand-related (lack of) incentives to invest in innovation. Also, importantly, it complements the emerging literature on barriers to innovation in a two-fold way: first, by focusing on demand-related obstacles rather than the more explored financial barriers; second, by analyzing in detail whether experiencing uncertainty or lack of demand is a sector-specific feature, namely whether firms active in high or low tech manufacturing or in knowledge intensive or low tech services are more or less dependent on demand conditions when deciding to perform R&D. We find that uncertain demand and lack of demand are perceived as two completely different barriers. While uncertainty on demand does not seem to constrain R&D efforts, the perception of lack of demand does strongly reduce not only the amount of investment in R&D but also the likelihood of firms to engage in R&D activities. We interpret this evidence in terms of the specific phase of the innovation cycle in which decisions to invest in R&D are taken. Sectoral affiliation does not seem to matter when it relates to demand conditions, supporting the conjecture that positive expectations on market demand is a structural and necessary condition to be fulfilled for all firms prior to invest in R&D.
    Keywords: R&D strategy, barriers to innovation, demand uncertainty, lack of demand, innovative inputs, panel data
    JEL: C23 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
    Abstract: In this paper, we design two laboratory experiments to analyze the causal effects of competition on step-by-step innovation. Innovations result from costly R&D investments and move technology up one step. Competition is inversely measured by the ex post rents for firms that operate at the same technological level, i.e. for neck-and-neck firms. First, we find that increased competition leads to a significant increase in R&D investments by neck-and-neck firms. Second, increased competition decreases R&D investments by firms that are lagging behind, in particular if the time horizon is short. Third, we find that increased competition affects industry composition by reducing the fraction of sectors where firms are neck-and-neck. All these results are consistent with the predictions of step-by-step innovation models.
    JEL: C91 L10 O31
    Date: 2014–03
  5. By: Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
    Abstract: It can be observed that many R&D performing firms produce scientific knowledge and discloseresearch outcomes in scientific journals. At the micro-level, prior work identified several potentialbenefits of such a strategy like superior access to informal information networks or the opportunity ofrecruiting the best PhD graduates. However, scientific research is costly and subject to considerableuncertainty with respect to the outcomes, and the disclosure may lead to spillover effects that decreasethe ability of firms to generate returns of their R&D investments. Overall, it remains unclear if andunder what conditions science-oriented strategies are beneficial for firms. We address this gap andexamine the impact of scientific activities on the firm’s market value using accounting data for USfirms from Compustat and matched patent and scientific publication data. We find evidence for apositive impact of scientific publication stocks on the firm value beyond the effects of R&D, patentstocks and patent quality.
    Keywords: R&D, Industrial science, Market value, Tobin's Q, Knowledge disclosure, Econometric evidence
  6. By: María Teresa Costa (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); José García-Quevedo (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Agustí Segarra (GRIT, CREIP, Rovira i Virgili University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which innovative Spanish firms pursue improvements in energy efficiency (EE) within their innovation objectives. The increase in energy consumption and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions justifies the greater attention being paid to energy efficiency and especially to industrial EE. The ability of manufacturing companies to innovate and improve their EE has a substantial influence on reaching the objectives regarding climate change mitigation. Despite the effort to design more efficient energy policies, the EE determinants in manufacturing firms have been little studied in the empirical literature. From an exhaustive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms and using a probit model, we examine the energy efficiency determinants to those firms that have innovated. To carry out the econometric analysis, we use a panel data coming from CIS (Community Innovation Survey) for the period 2008-2011 that includes 4,458 manufacturing firms. Among firm characteristics, the empirical results underline the importance of size in facilitating the adoption of technology that improves energy efficiency; while among the factors related to companies’ behavior, the favorable influence of organizational innovations and innovations related with the reduction of environmental impacts stand out as the main factors in carrying out innovations with the objective of increasing energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency, corporate targets, innovation, Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: Q40 Q55 O31
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
    Abstract: Eco-innovation is an explicit aim of major EU policy strategies. Many environmental policy de facto require firms to eco-innovate to comply with policy requirements, while the overlap between policy-driven and market-driven eco-innovation strategies is increasingly important for many firms. Barriers to eco-innovation can then emerge as a critical factor in either preventing or stimulating EU strategies, policy implementation, and 'green strategies' by firms. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of EU SMEs in terms of barriers to eco-innovation. The aim is to discriminate among SMEs on how they differ in terms of perception of barriers and engagement in environmental innovation, thus highlighting the need to look at eco-innovation barriers in relation to firms' attitudes, technological and organizational capabilities, and strategies. We identify six clusters of SMEs. These clusters include firms facing 'Revealed barriers', 'Deterring barriers', 'Cost deterred' firms, 'Market deterred' firms, 'Non eco-innovators' and 'Green champions'. The clusters show substantial differences in terms of eco-innovation adoption. We show that our proposed taxonomy has little overlap with sector classifications. This diversity should be taken into account for successful environmental innovation policies.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, Barriers to innovation, firm behaviour
    JEL: O33 Q55
    Date: 2014–03–24
  8. By: Michele Cincera; Julien Ravet; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Using firm level information on the world leading R&D investors, this paper investigates through a system GMM estimation of the investment error correction model, whether younger innovators face more severe or no financing constraints, as opposed to older innovators, and whether this would hold more for European young firms relative to the US. The analysis indeed confirms that over the last decade young leading innovators appear to be more affected by financing constraints compared to their older counterparts and that particularly EU young innovators exhibit higher sensitivities of R&D investment to cash-flow, particularly in medium and high tech sectors.
    Keywords: EU-US R&D gap, young innovators, financing constraints
  9. By: Benjamin Montmartin (GREDEG CNRS; University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France); Marcos Herrera (CONICET - IELDE; National University of Salta, Argentina)
    Abstract: Most studies evaluating the macroeconomic effects of financial support policies on business-funded R&D use econometric methods that do not consider the existence of spatial effects, and generate biased estimates. In this paper, we discus and address this problem using spatial dynamic panel data methods. This allow us to provide new insights on the internal (in-country) and external (out-of-country) effects of both Research and Development (R&D) subsidies and fiscal incentives. We use a database of 25 OECD countries for the period 1990-2009. In relation to internal effects, for both instruments, we find a non-linear relationship between their effect on private R&D and their level (suggesting the possibility of leveraging and crowding-out effects). We also find a substitution effect between the R&D subsidies and fiscal incentives implemented within a country. Concerning the spatial component, we find evidence of positive spatial spillovers among private R&D investments. However, our results suggest the existence of competition/substitution effects between national R&D policies.
    Keywords: Direct and Indirect support, Business-funded R&D, Complementarity, Dynamic spatial panel data
    JEL: H25 O31 O38
    Date: 2014–03
  10. By: Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
    Abstract: Using a global panel on research and development (R&D) expenditures, this paper documents that on average poor countries do far less R&D than rich as a share of GDP. This is arguably counter intuitive since the gains from doing the R&D required for technological catch up are thought to be very high and griffith2004 have documented that in the OECD returns increase dramatically with distance from the frontier. Exploiting recent advances in instrumental variables in a varying coefficient context we find that the rates of return follow an inverted U: they rise with distance to the frontier and then fall thereafter, potentially turning negative for the poorest countries. The findings are consistent with the importance of factors complementary to R&D, such as education, the quality of scientific infrastructure and the overall functioning of the national innovation system, and the quality of the private sector, which become increasingly weak with distance from the frontier and the absence of which can offset the catch up effect. China's and India's explosive growth in R&D investment trajectories in spite of expected low returns may be justified by their importing the complementary factors in the form of multinational corporations who do most of the patentable research.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Debt Markets,E-Business,Political Economy,Scientific Research&Science Parks
    Date: 2014–03–01
  11. By: Malwina Mejer
    Abstract: Universities are increasingly being called upon to contribute to economic development and competitiveness. This Study aims to assess contribution of academic scientists working at universities located in the French-speaking Community of Belgium to patented technology. Matching names of academic scientists to inventors listed on patent applications filed at the EPO between 1994-2007, we find that 9-12% of academics working in science are inventors, among them 23% are woman. Academic scientists are listed as inventors on 6.5% of the EPO patent applications filed by résidents of the French-speaking Community of Belgium. Universities are applicants on only 33.3% of patents invented by their scientists but this share has increased significantly in recent years. These results are then compared with similar trends in other European countries and in the United States.
    Keywords: academic patenting, universities, Europe, matching
  12. By: Maria Lorek (GREI/CLERSE)
    Abstract: Les innovations environnementales (techniques de capture et de stockage des polluants, énergies renouvelables, nouveaux matériaux, nouveaux carburants, etc.) disposent d’un potentiel économique considérable permettant d’impulser, de nourrir et enfin de préserver une croissance économique plus durable. Prenant l’exemple de la ville de Gdansk qui, depuis une longue période, est marquée par la présence de l’industrie lourde, nous allons nous concentrer sur la reconversion de son territoire après la crise de l’industrie lourde. L’émergence des activités de l’« économie verte » (ex. récupération, réutilisation des déchets) et le développement des innovations environnementales s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de cette reconversion. Environmental innovations (technical capture and storage of pollutants, renewable energy, new materials, new fuels, etc.) have considerable economic potential to enhance, to feed and to preserve more sustainable economic growth. Taking the example of the city of Gdansk, which has been influenced by the heavy industry since long years ago, we present the reconversion of its territory by focusing on the emergence of the activities inspired by “green economy” (eg, recovery, reusef waste), the development of environmental innovations and the creation of The Baltic Eco-Energy Cluster in 2007. All these transformations allow this high industrial concentration to transform into another dynamic state in order to make improvements by the amelioration of industrial processes and / or the performance of the products or services derived while contributing to reduce the environmental impact of industrial activities.
    Keywords: innovation environnementale, transition territoriale, territoire industriel et portuaire, Gdansk
    JEL: O31 L52 Q5
    Date: 2013–10

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