nep-sbm New Economics Papers
on Small Business Management
Issue of 2010‒03‒20
nine papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. The effect of R&D intensity on corporate social responsibility By Padgett, Robert C.; Galán Zazo, José Ignacio
  2. Firm Size and Business Startup Reasons of Japanese Workers By TSUCHIYA Ryuichiro
  3. A Sectoral Approach to the Diffusion of ICT:Empirical Evidence on Italian Firms By Davide Arduini; Leopoldo Nascia; Antonello Zanfei
  4. Innovation, Adoption, Ownership, and Productivity: Evidence from Ukraine By J. David Brown; John S. Earle; Hanna Vakhitova; Vitaliy Zheka
  5. Subsidy and networking: The effects of direct and indirect support programs in the cluster policy By Nishimura, Junichi; Okamuro, Hiroyuki
  6. The impact of technological regimes on patterns of sustained and sporadic innovation activities in UK industries By Marion Frenz; Martha Prevezer
  7. Financial Constraints and Innovation: Why Poor Countries Don't Catch Up By Gorodnichenko, Yuriy; Schnitzer, Monika
  8. Geographic clustering and network evolution of innovative activities: Evidence from China’s patents By Martha Prevezer; Pietro Panzarasa; Tore Opsahl
  9. Public incentives for firms: micro-level evidence By Diego Caprara; Amanda Carmignani; Alessio D'Ignazio

  1. By: Padgett, Robert C. (Departamento de Administración y Economía de la Empresa, Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad de Salamanca); Galán Zazo, José Ignacio (Departamento de Administración y Economía de la Empresa, Facultad de Economía y Empresa, Universidad de Salamanca)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact that Research and Development (R&D) intensity has on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). We base our research on the Resource Based View (RBV) theory, which contributes to our analysis of R&D intensity and CSR because this perspective explicitly recognizes the importance of intangible resources. Both R&D and CSR activities can create assets that provide firms with competitive advantage. Furthermore, the employment of such activities can improve the welfare of the community and satisfy stakeholder expectations, which might vary according to their prevailing environment. As expressions of CSR and R&D vary throughout industries, we extend our research by analyzing the impact that R&D intensity has on CSR across both manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries. Our results show that R&D intensity positively affects CSR and that this relationship is significant in manufacturing industries, while a non-significant result was obtained in non-manufacturing industries.
    Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Corporate Social Responsibility, Industry, Resource Based View Theory, Research and Development.
    Date: 2009–12
  2. By: TSUCHIYA Ryuichiro
    Abstract: Small firms are more likely to produce entrepreneurs than large firms. This study empirically examines a potential mechanism that might explain this phenomenon, observed in previous research, using Japanese survey data of employees planning to start businesses. The data contain information on employer, job, and personal characteristics and also indicates the reasons for starting the businesses. The results from a principal component analysis of various startup reasons identify four separate component factors that account for 70 percent of variance: a need for self-fulfillment, a need for flexibility in work schedule, a need to solve a career problem, and a need to secure a livelihood. I empirically examine the relationship between rating scores for these factors and the size of employers. The results from multivariate regression models indicate that the score for a need to solve a career problem was significantly higher for those working for small firms, while none of the other three factors are significantly different between employees of large and small firms. In addition, the results also suggest that the relationship between the need to solve a career problem and employment of small firms is associated with the tendency for middle managers. The implications of these findings for researchers and policy-makers are discussed.
    Date: 2010–03
  3. By: Davide Arduini (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università di Urbino (Italy)); Leopoldo Nascia (National Bureau of Statistics, Italy); Antonello Zanfei (Dipartimento di Economia e Metodi Quantitativi, Università di Urbino (Italy))
    Abstract: It is suggested that our understanding of ICT adoption in the Italian economy can benefit from complementary insights derived from some of the most important theoretical approaches to sectorial diffusion of innovation (epidemic, probit and systemic). As regards the epidemic models the key variables are firms’ market performance indicators. Probit models call our attention to the size of user firms, their ability to utilize technology and the degree of industrial concentration. Systemic models emphasise the role played by the public sector, which is viewed as catalyst and stimulator of innovative activities in the industrial system, and by the evolution of the technological and infrastructural context in which users are active. We utilize a composite indicator, which describes the use of ICT in a sample of 1947 Italian firms in 2004 and 2005, as the dependent variable for an econometric exercise which allows to assess the importance of factors identified in the different approaches emerging from the existing literature.
    Keywords: Truncated and Censored Models, Market structure and Size distribution of firms, Diffusion processes and Technology adoption.
    JEL: C34 L11 O33
    Date: 2010
  4. By: J. David Brown; John S. Earle; Hanna Vakhitova; Vitaliy Zheka
    Abstract: How do new and foreign firms achieve superior productivity? Do they conduct more and better R&D? Or do they distinguish themselves through computerization and organizational capital? We investigate the determinants of and returns to several types of investment, using a panel of over 40,000 Ukrainian industrial firms in 2000-2007. Foreign firms engage in more non-technological investment and IT and less in R&D than domestic private firms. Similarly, new firms invest more in non-technological capital and IT and less in R&D than initially state-owned firms. Productivity gains from R&D and non-technology investment are insignificantly different across ownership types, whereas foreign firms achieve much higher returns to IT investment than other firms. These results suggest that foreign firms outperform others via organizational capital that is better able to exploit IT investment. New firm productivity growth is a result of higher investment volume rather than investment efficiency.
    Keywords: R&D, information technology, foreign ownership, transition, Eastern Europe,<br /> Ukraine
    JEL: D21 D24 F23 G34 L33 O32 P31
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Nishimura, Junichi; Okamuro, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: Subsidy and networking: The effects of direct and indirect support programs in the cluster policy Industrial clusters have attracted considerable attention worldwide for regional innovation. Thus, policymakers in various countries have recently developed their specific cluster policies. However, there are few empirical studies yet on cluster policies. This paper empirically evaluates the “Industrial Cluster Project” (ICP) initiated by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in 2001, using original questionnaire data. We address two research questions on the effect of the ICP: if the participants of this project that exploit various support programs are more successful in alliance/network formation within the cluster than the others, and which kind of support program of the ICP contributes to firm performance. Different from similar preceding projects, the ICP aims at the autonomous development of regional industries and comprises both direct R&D support and indirect networking/coordination support. The main idea of public support of local firms clearly shifted toward networking and coordination for those who can help themselves. Thus, our special attention is paid to the differences between the direct R&D support and indirect networking/coordination support, which bring out the conditions necessary for the effective organization of cluster policies for improving firm performance. Our empirical evaluation is based on a sample of 511 firms from a recent original survey. We first employ the propensity score and the difference-in-differences (DID) estimation to analyze the degree of alliance/network formation before and after participating in the ICP. Then we use Heckman’s two-step procedure and the negative binomial model to examine the effects of support programs on firm performance. The estimation results suggest that cluster participants that exploit support programs (especially indirect support measures) expand industry-university-government network after participating in the ICP. Moreover, we find that not every support program contributes to firm performance, thus firms should select the most effective program according to their aims. Indirect support programs have an extensive and strong impact on outputs, especially innovation outcomes, while direct R&D support has a weak effect except for R&D subsidy.
    Keywords: Cluster policy, industrial cluster, R&D support, subsidy, networking
    JEL: O25 O38 R11
    Date: 2009–12
  6. By: Marion Frenz; Martha Prevezer
    Abstract: This paper brings together ideas about technological regimes and looks at their influence on patterns of sustained or persistent innovation across UK manufacturing and services industries using two waves of the UK Community Innovation Surveys. It builds a link between technological regimes and Schumpeterian patterns of innovation, and tests these on the CIS databases. It creates a model using the variables within the technological regime to see whether these can explain sustained patterns of innovation. These variables include appropriability, cumulativeness, technological opportunity and closeness to the science base as well as enterprise size. The paper finds that strong appropriability, a high degree of cumulativeness, and closeness to the applied science base are strong predictors of sustained innovation activities. The results on technological opportunity are ambiguous. High tech manufacturing industries, i.e. chemicals and scientific instruments as well as some high tech services i.e. telecoms are more likely to register persistent innovation.
    Date: 2010–03
  7. By: Gorodnichenko, Yuriy (University of California, Berkeley); Schnitzer, Monika (University of Munich)
    Abstract: This paper examines micro-level channels of how financial development can affect macroeconomic outcomes like the level of income and export intensity. We investigate theoretically and empirically how financial constraints affect a firm's innovation and export activities, using unique firm survey data which provides direct measures for innovations and firm-specific financial constraints. We find that financial constraints restrain the ability of domestically owned firms to innovate and export and hence to catch up to the technological frontiers. This negative effect is amplified as financial constraints force export and innovation activities to become substitutes although they are generally natural complements.
    Keywords: innovation, productivity, financial constraint, export, technology frontier, BEEPS
    JEL: O3 O16 F1 G3
    Date: 2010–02
  8. By: Martha Prevezer; Pietro Panzarasa; Tore Opsahl
    Abstract: This study examines the spatial distribution and social structure of processes of learning and knowledge creation within the context of the inventor network connecting Chinese patent teams. Results uncover mixed tendencies toward both geographic co-location and dispersion arising from combined processes of intra-cluster learning and extra-cluster networking. These processes unfold within a social network that becomes less fragmented over time: as a giant component emerges and increases in size, social distances among inventors become longer. The interplay between geographic and network proximity is assessed against China’s institutional environment. Implications of the findings are discussed for regional development and policy-making.
    Keywords: clusters; knowledge transfer; social networks; patenting
    JEL: L11 M13 O53 R12
    Date: 2010–03
  9. By: Diego Caprara (Banca d'Italia); Amanda Carmignani (Banca d'Italia); Alessio D'Ignazio (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: This paper provides a statistical overview of the extent and composition of publicly-funded loans granted by banks to Italian firms. The analysis is based on the universe of reports to the Central Credit Register (CR). Between 1998 and 2007 the subsidized loans recorded by the CR amounted to about 0.3 per cent of GDP and involved approximately 27,000 firms, mainly limited companies. Our results confirm that publicly-subsidized loans are the most common type of subsidy in the Centre and North, while in the South non-returnable grants have traditionally been more predominant. Among the regions of the Centre and North, subsidies of this kind figure most prominently in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Veneto, and Trentino Alto Adige. The share of subsidized lending is greater among larger enterprises, especially agricultural firms and in industry excluding construction.
    Keywords: firms, financial subsidies
    JEL: G2 H2 R0
    Date: 2010–01

This nep-sbm issue is ©2010 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.