nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2022‒09‒12
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. The effect of environmental policies on environmental behaviors and intrinsic motivation: evidence from the European Union By Bonev, Petyo; Knaus, Michael
  2. The Economic Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Swedish Shrimp Fishers By Dutto, Davide; Mars, Krister; Eggert, Håkan
  3. Social norms and individual climate protection activities: A framed field experiment for Germany By Daniel Engler; Gunnar Gutsche; Amantia Simixhiu; Andreas Ziegler
  4. Climate Policy in the Shadow of National Security By Peter K. Kruse-Andersen
  5. The Landscape of CO2 Emissions Across Africa: A Comparative Perspective By Jaime de Melo; Jean-Marc Solleder
  6. A consumer surplus, welfare and profit enhancing strategy for improving urban transport networks By Jolian McHardy; Michael Reynolds; Stephen Trotter

  1. By: Bonev, Petyo; Knaus, Michael
    Abstract: This is the first paper to study simultaneously the effect of environmental policies on individual pro-environmental behaviors and on pro-environmental preferences. Using a novel dataset that matches data on waste policies with data on behaviors and preferences, we find that environmental policies (1) decrease the amount of waste produced and (2) impact positively the pro-environmental attitudes of individuals.
    Keywords: Environmental policy, waste policy, crowding intrinsic motivation
    JEL: D02 D04 H41 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2022–08
  2. By: Dutto, Davide (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Mars, Krister (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Eggert, Håkan (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of the perceived risk of the Swedish people of Covid-19 on daily auctioned shrimp prices from the start of the pandemic to the end of the year 2021. This topic is of interest to see whether the government intervention in the shrimp market to aid fishers with possible losses was justified. We find that auction prices were negatively affected by covid-19 cases by 19.83 SEK/kg (-9.37 %), and that fishers have suffered a loss of 21.5 million SEK.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Fisheries; Food prices; Shrimp
    JEL: Q00 Q21 Q22
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Daniel Engler (University of Kassel); Gunnar Gutsche (University of Kassel); Amantia Simixhiu (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Based on the well-known observation that social norms can guide individual behavior, this paper empirically examines the causal effect of related information interventions on revealed climate protection activities, measured through incentivized donations. In our field-experimental setting, we differentiate between descriptive social norms by providing information about individual climate protection activities in Germany, injunctive social norms by providing information about what people in Germany think about the need for climate protection activities, and a combination of both social norms. Based on representative survey data for more than 1,600 individuals in Germany, our econometric analysis shows some weak evidence that information about both descriptive and injunctive social norms increases donations for climate protection. The decomposition of this estimated average treatment effects reveals that the corresponding treatment particularly has a significantly positive effect at the extensive margin, i.e. on the probability to donate for climate protection. These results suggest that a combined information intervention referring to both descriptive and injunctive social norms is at least able to stimulate the general willingness for climate protection. In addition, our analysis of heterogeneous treatment effects reveals that strong social preferences (in terms of altruism and trust) and high environmental attitudes (in terms of environmental awareness and ecological policy identification) induce significantly positive information treatment effects on donations for climate protection. This result suggests that individuals in Germany with a strong environmental and social orientation do not only behave directly more climate-friendly, but can also be better stimulated by information about descriptive and/or injunctive social norms.
    Keywords: Climate protection activities, descriptive and injunctive social norms, information interventions, heterogeneous treatment effects, framed field experiment
    JEL: Q54 D64 D83 D91 C93
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Peter K. Kruse-Andersen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Recent events have clarified the interdependence of national security and energy supply. Specifically, it has become increasingly evident that heavy reliance on foreign fossil fuel supply may come at a national security cost. The present study derives the optimal policy of a net fossil fuel importing economy with a binding climate target, when fossil fuel imports are associated with national security costs. The study shows that optimal carbon taxes are differentiated across fossil fuels and that domestic fossil fuel production should be subsidized. Further, carbon capture and storage should be taxed, while no subsidies should be granted to green energy production. These results contrast the typical climate policy recommendation of uniform carbon taxation.
    Keywords: Climate policy, National security, Energy security, Environmental taxes and subsidies
    JEL: F52 H23 H56 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2022–06–30
  5. By: Jaime de Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, UNIGE - Université de Genève); Jean-Marc Solleder (UNIGE - Université de Genève)
    Abstract: Expansion of Global Value Chains (GVCs) is a mixed blessing for the environment. Effects of growth and emissions from transport associated with international trade have negative effects; but greater flows of knowledge and associated spillovers, and adoption of environmentally innovative products have positive effects. This paper provides evidence on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for 51 African and 132 other countries for 163 products over the period 1995-2015. The resulting landscape is summarized in four patterns. Patterns identified for the Africa region differ from those identified for other regions but are closely related to a synthetic aggregate comparator constructed on the basis of three characteristics (per capita income, share of manufacturing in GDP, and distance to trading partners).
    Keywords: Africa,decarbonization,emission intensity
    Date: 2022–07–26
  6. By: Jolian McHardy (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield, UK); Michael Reynolds (Department of Economics, University of Leeds, UK); Stephen Trotter (Economic Policy, University of Hull, Hull, UK)
    Abstract: We show that a novel pricing system can help resolve a series of perennial problems evident in the deregulated British urban public transport market that have compromised economic growth, access equality and environmental ambitions. A two-stage pricing system, with operators setting their multi-operator service ticket prices collusively in one stage and their single-operator ticket prices independently, in the other, offers potential consumer surplus, profit and welfare gains over, what we characterise as, the ‘Status Quo’. The proposed win-win pricing regime can also support a larger number of operators and services with potential additional welfare gains. The Block Exemption in the UK allowing collusive pricing on a limited basis is due to expire and is under statutory review, making this is a timely contribution. We also compare the proposed regime against a multi-operator ticketing card (MTC) scheme, permitted under the Block Exemption, and show, whilst the MTC offers higher welfare when all regimes provide the same number of services, the proposed regime supports a larger number of operators in the presence of fixed costs, which can reverse the welfare ranking in its favour. A calibration exercise indicates the market may be in the region where the proposed regime can dominate the ‘Status Quo’ in profit, consumer surplus and welfare terms and supports a larger network than the ‘Status Quo’ or MTC with further welfare gains. The resulting higher public transport patronage may also offer further indirect benefits via reduced pollution, congestion and accidents. Furthermore, by improving transport efficiency it may help improve city density, especially in Britain’s second-tier cities which do not tend to benefit from extensive public transit rail and underground networks, with associated agglomeration effects contributing to the current leveling-up priority. Given the salience amongst developed countries of the private aspect of urban public transport in Britain, along with an unresolved private vs public debate, this issue is of potential interest to urban planners and policymakers beyond the UK.
    Keywords: Urban Transport; Networks; Pricing; Welfare
    JEL: D43 L13 L92 R11
    Date: 2022–08

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